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Since 1918, Albert H. Fay's Glossary of the Mining and Mineral Industry has 
been the authoritative dictionary of technical and local terms relating to metal 
mining, coal mining, quarrying, metallurgy, and other mineral industries. Through- 
out the English-speaking world, it has helped to standardize the expressions and 
terms in common use by those associated with these industries. 

Because the demand for this glossary has been mounting steadily to the point 
where urgency is indicated, the Bureau of Mines has decided to republist the 
volume, which has been out of print for many years because the plates wore out 
from frequent use. In reprinting Fay's original work, it is recognized that new 
terms and expressions have come into the language; new usages have been applied 
to some of the old terms; and some of the old terms have become obsolete. The 
Bureau, therefore, will welcome and appreciate suggestions and comments from 
users of the glossary with respect to changes in definitions and explanations, as 
well as the inclusion of new words and phrases. It is hoped that, with their help, 
a new, revised, and improved glossary can be published at an early date. 

MAY 19, 1947. 





This glossary is published by the Bureau of Mines as a contribu- 
tion' to the mining literature in the belief that it will fill a long-felt 
oeed. It contains about 20,000 terms; these include both technical 
and purely local terms related to metal mining, coal mining, quarry- 
ing, petroleum, and natural gas, and metallurgical works; names 
of useful, important, and common minerals and rocks; and geological 
terms. It presents in one comprehensive volume the available 
standard, technical terms relating to the mining and mineral in- 
dustry, as well as provincialisms that have been or are now in use in 
English-speaking countries. 

The glossary also includes many terms relating to ceramics and 
the clay industry, glass making, foundry practice, railway and build- 
ing construction, electrical installation and power-plant equipment, 
and chemical terms relating to metallurgical practice. Complete 
lists of terms for each of these allied industries are beyond the scope 
of this glossary. Paleontological terms, although closely associated 
with geology, are far removed from mining and metallurgical opera- 
tions, and for this reason have been omitted. 

In a compilation of this magnitude, it is difficult, within a reasonable 
time to verify all definitions as to the latest usage. Much verifying 
was done and it is hoped that the best and latest definitions have 
been used. Reference to the publications cited will enable the reader 
to determine approximately the period when the definition was used. 

Definitions in use by engineers of high national or international 
reputation are given first preference. When definitions from different 
sources are the same, credit is given to the earlier author as being 
the original or nearest to the original source. Immediately following 
each term the name of the locality wherein the word is presumed to 
have originated or is widely used is given, where such information is 
available. The name of the author or source from ,which the defini- 
tion was obtained follows the definition, and serves as a key to the 
publications listed. The terms selected from the -various glossaries 
and publications examined have been compared with the Webster, 




the Standard, and the Century dictionaries. A large number of the 
terms are of purely local usage and do not appear in the dictionaries ; 
these words include many that have been originated and are used by 
miners and mine inspectors, as well as many others that have been 
defined by courts, based on testimony given before a jury or judge. 

It is difficult to determine when a word is obsolete. It may have 
been very much in vogue in a certain district, but with the exodus 
of a particular class or nationality, the use of the term may die out, 
hence become obsolete so far as that local usage is concerned, although 
it may continue to be used elsewhere. No attempt,' therefore, has 
been made to eliminate obsolete words, for the engineer doing re- 
search work will find such terms, and if he can not determine their 
meaning from the context he should be able to find them in a glossary 
or dictionary. 

The Spanish and Spanish-American terms were selected as being 
the most common terms that the engineer will encounter in Latin- 
American usage. 


In the compilation of this glossary the Bureau of Mines gives credit 
for each definition as indicated in the list of authors quoted. 

The author is indebted to J. W. Thompson, law examiner,. Bureau 
of Mines, for the definitions cited from court cases, compiled by him 
in connection with his work on the annotation and compilation of 
Federal and State mining statutes; also to former employees of the 
Bureau of Mines as follows: Messrs. E* S. Boalich and B. F. Tibbey 
for selecting words from the text of technical publications, and to 
Messrs. J. W. Kingsbury and R. H. Seip for comparing the terms 
with and selecting additional terms from the Standard Dictionary. 
The Spanish terms were verified by Emilio M. Amores, chief translator 
for the Pan American Union. The entire list of words defined was 
compared with the Webster and Century dictionaries by the author. 

The galley proof was read by James W. Paul and E. A. Holbrook, 
mining engineers, Bureau of Mines, for mining terms; by O. P. Hood, 
chief mechanical engineer, Bureau of Mines, for mechanical terms; 
by Frank L. Hess and L. La Forge, geologists, U. S. Geological 
Survey, for terms relating respectively to mineralogy and geology, 
and much assistance was rendered by M. R. Campbell and E. S. Larsen, 
U. S. Geological Survey, in scrutinizing terms relating respectively 
to physiography and petrology; and by David White, F. L. Ransome,- 
and W; C. Alden, U. S. Geological Survey, in checking up certain 
definitions relating to geology. E. Baliol Scott, editor, and William 
Head, subeditor, The Mining Journal, London, reviewed the galleys for 
mining and metallurgical terms current in Great Britain. Many ad- 
ditional definitions were thus received and incorporated, certain re- 
visions made, and a large number of suggestions adopted. 



The following is a list of authors quoted as authority for the forms 
and uses of words given in this glossary: 

Quoted in glossary as Name of author and publication. 

Anderson Anderson, J. W. The prospector's handbook. 1898. (Includes a glossary.) 

Bacon Bacon, R. F., and Hamor, W. A. American petroleum industry. Vcl. 2. 

1916. (Includes a glossary.) 
Bainbridge Bainbridge, Wjlliam. The law of mines and minerals. 5th ed. 1900 

(Includes a glossary.) 

Barrowman Barrowman, James. Glossary of Scotch mining terms. 1886. 

Bensusan Bensusan, Arthur J. The Passagem mine and works. Trans., Inst. Min. 

and Met. London. 1910. Vol. 20, p. 3, et seq. 
Bowles Bowles, Oliver. The technology of marble quarrying. Bull. 106, U. 8. 

Bur. Mines, 1916. Sandstone quarrying in the United States. Bull. 124, 

U. S. Bur. Mines, 1917. Rock quarrying for cement manufacture. Bull. 

160, U. S. Bur. Mines, 1918. 

Brunswig Brunswig, H. Explosives. 1912. 

Buckley Buckley, E. R., and Buehler, H. A. The .quarrying industry of Missouri. 

Missouri Bur. Geol. and Mines. Vol. 2, 2nd ser., 1904. (Includes a glos- 
Butler Butler, G. Montague. A pocket handbook of minerals. 1912. (Includes a 


Century Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia. 1911. 

Chance Chance, H. M. Report on the mining methods and appliances used in the 

anthracite coal fields. Second Geol. Survey of Pennsylvania. 1883. 

(Includes a glossary.) 
Chamberlin Chamberlin, T. C., and Salisbury, R. D. Geology. In three volumes. 

Chester C hester, A. H. A dictionary of the names of minerals. (Includes history 

and etymology.) Isted. 1896. 
Clark.... Clark, H. H., and Means, C. M. Suggested safety rules for installing and 

using electrical equipment in bituminous coal mines. Tech. Paper 138, 

U. S. Bur. Mines. 1916. 

Clennell Clennell, J. E. The cyanide handbook. 1915. 

C. and M. M. P Coal and metal miners' pocket book. 9th ed. 1904. (Includes a glossary. ) 

C. M. P ;.., Coal miners' pocket book, llth ed. 1916. (Includes a glossary of rope 

terms, p. 262, and a glossary of mining terms, p. 565 et seq.) 

Comstock Comstock, J. L. Elements of geology. 1864. (Includes a glossary.) 

Cox Cox, Herbert. Prospecting for minerals. 1898. (Includes a glossary.) 

Crane... Crane, W. R. Ore mining methods. 1910. 

Crofutt Crofujt, George A. Glossary' of terms and phrases connected with (he 

mining industry. 1902. 

Daddow Daddow, 8. H., and Bannon, Benjamin. Coal, iron, and ofl, or The prac- 
tical American miner. 1866. (Includes a glossary.) 
Dak Dale, T. Nelson. The granites of Vermont. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 404, 

1909. (Includes a glossary.) 

Daly Daly, R. A. Igneous rocks and their origin. 1914. 

Dana Dana, E. 8. A text book of mineralogy. New ed. 1899; A system of 

mineralogy. 1014. 
Davies Da vies, D. C. A treatise on metalliferous minerals and mining. 1S0. 

(Includes a glossary.) 
du Pont E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. High explosives, their manufacture 

storage, handling and use. 1915. (Includes a glossary of terms used in 

the explosives industry.) 

Duryee Duryee, S. Nevada prospector's 'guide. 1906. (Includes a glossary. ) 

Dwight Dwight, Arthur 8. Glossary of Spanish- American mining and metallur- 
gical terms. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. 33, 1903. 
Egleston Egleston, Thomas. The metallurgy of silver, gold, and mercury in the 

United States. 1887. (Includes a glossary.) 

Emmons Emmons, Ebenezer. Manual of geology. I860. (Includes a glossary.) 

Farrell Farrell, J. H., and Moses, A. J. Practical field geology. 1912 (Includes a 

.Fulton Fulton, Charles H. The Cyanide process in the Black Hills of Sooth 

Dakota. Bull. 5 South Dakota School of Mines. 1903. 


Quoted in glossary as Name of author and publication. 

George George, R. D. Common minerals and crocks, their occurrence and UM, 

Bull. 6, Colorado Geol. Survey, 1913. (Includes a glossary.) 

Gfllette Gillette, H. P. Handbook of rock excavation. 1907. 

Goesel Goesel, J. G. . Minerals and metals. 1906. 

Oreene Greene, Homer. Coal and the coal mines. 1889. (Includes a glossary.) 

Greenwell. Green well, Allan, and Flsden, J. V. Practical stone quarrying. 1913. 

Greenwell, G. C Greenwell, G. C. A glossary of terms used in the coal trade of Northun> 

berland and Durham. 3d ed. 1888. 

Gresley Gresley, William S. A glossary of terms used in coal mining. 1883. 

Halse liaise , E dward. A dictionary of Spanish, Spanish- American, Portuguese, 

and Portuguese-American mining, metallurgical and allied terms. 2d 
ed. -1914. 

Hanks Hanks, Henry G. Second report of the State mineralogist of California 

from December 1, 1880, to October 1, 1882. (Includes a glossary.) 

Hargis Hargis, A. D. Seventh annual report of the Bureau of Labor, Statistics and 

Mines of the State of Tennessee, 1897. (Includes a glossary.) Eighth 
annual report of the Bureau of Labor, Statistics and Mines of the State 
of Tennessee. 1898. (Includes a glossary.) 

Harr Harr, D. M., and Spruce, M. F. Annual reports of the State inspectors of 

mines f OK. the first and second districts of the State of West Virginia for 
the year ended June 30, 1891. (Includes a glossary.) 

Hibbard. Hibbard, Henry D. Manufacture and uses of alloy steels, Bull. 100, 

U. 8. Bur. Mines, 1915. 

Hitchcock Hitchcock, Edward. Report on the geology of Vermont. Vol. 2. 186L 

(Includes a glossary.) 

Hofman Hofman, H. O. The metallurgy of lead. 6thed. 1901. 

Hooson Hooson, William. The miners' dictionary. 1747. 

Hoover, H. C Hoover, Herbert C. Principles of mining. 1909. 

Hoover, T. J Hoover, T. J. Concentrating ores by flotation. 3ded. 1916. 

Humble Humble, William. Dictionary of geology and mineralogy. 1840. 

Hunt. Hunt, Robert. British mining, a treatise on the metalliferous mines of the 

. United Kingdom. 1884. (Includes a glossary.) 

Iddings Iddings, J. P. Igneous Rocks. Vol. 1, 1909-13; Rock Minerals, 1911. 

Ihlseng Ihlseng,M.C. A manual of mining. Sd.ed. 1904. (Includes a glossary.) 

Ingalls Ingalls, Walter Renton. The Metallurgy of zinc and cadmium. 1st ed. 


Jackson Jackson, Charles T. Final report of the geology and mineralogy of the 

State of New Hampshire. 1844. (Includes a glossary.) 

Kemp Kemp, James Furman. Handbook of rocks. 1904. (Includes a glossary.) 

La Forge Definitions furnished by L. La Forge, geologist, U, S. Geol. Surv. 

Lahee ...... Lahee, F. H. Field geology. 1916. 

Lawver Lawver, W. P. Report of the Director of the Mint. 1883. (Includes a 

glossary of mining terms.) 

Leith Leith, Charles K. Structural geology. 1913. 

Liddell. Liddell, Donald M. The metallurgists' and chemists' handbook. 1916. 

Lindgren Lindgren, Waldemar. Mineral deposits. 1915. 

Lock Lock, Alfred G. Gold, its occurrence and extraction. 1882. (Includes a 


Lock, C. G . W Lock, C. G . Warnford. Practical gold mining. 1889. 

Lowe Lowe, E. N. Mississippi, its geology, geography, soils and mineral re- 
sources. Bull. 12, Miss. State Geol. Survey, 1915. (Includes a glossary.) 

Lucas Lucas, Frederick. Spanish-E nglish dictionary of mining terms. 1905. 

Luquer Luquer, L. M. Minerals in rock sections. 1908. 

McNeil McNeil, John, State Inspector of Mines. First annual report to the Gov- 
ernor of the State of Colorado for the year ending July 31, 1884. (Includes 
a glossary.) 

Mander Mander, James. The Derbyshire miners' glossary. 1824. 

Megraw Megraw, Herbert A. The flotation process. 1916. 

Meinzer Meinzer, Oscar E . Glossary of terms pertaining to ground water and re- 
lated subjects. 1918. 

Merrill Merrill, George P. Stones for building and decoration. 1910. (Includes a 

Mllford Milford, Philip. Pocket dictionary of mining terms. 1888. (Includes a 


Miller..... Miller, G. W. Field book of practical mineralogy. 1901. 

Min. and Sci. Press Glossary of flotation. Mining and Scientific Press. February 12, 1919. 


Quoted In glossary as Name of author and publication. 

Min.Jour English and foreign mining glossary. 3d ed. Published by the Jftntaf 

Journal, London. 1871. 

Mitzakis...-. Mitzakis, Marcel. The oil encyclopedia; supplement to the Petroleum 

World. 1912-1913. 

Morine Morine, A. B. Mining law of Canada. 1909. (Includes a glossary.) 

Morrison Morrison, Robert 8. Mining rights. 14th ed. 1910. (Includes a glossary.) 

Moses Moses, A. J., and Parsons, C. L. Mineralogy, crystallography and blow- 

pipe analysis. Revised ed. 1904. 

Nat. Tube Co National Tube Co. Book of standards. Containing tables and useful 

information pertaining to tubular goods as manufactured by the National 
Tube Co. 1915-1916. (Includes a glossary.) 

Nicolls Nicolls, William J. Coal catechism. 1900. 

Oldham Oldham, Thomas. Geological glossary. 1879. 

Ore Dep Kemp, James Furman. The ore deposits of the United States and Canada. 

3rd ed. 1900. 

Osborn Osborn, H. 8. Prospector's field-book and guide. 1910. (Includes a 


Page Page, David. Handbook of geological terms, geology, and physical geog- 
raphy. 1865. 

Perkins Perkins, George H. Report of the State Geologist on the mineral Indus* 

tries and geology of certain areas of Vermont, 1909-1910 (Includes a glossary 
of scientific and quarry terms); Report of the State Geologist on the min- 
eral industries and geology of Vermont, 1913-1914. (Includes a glossary 
of technical terms.) 

Peters Peters, Jr., E. D. Modern copper smelting, llth ed. 1901. 

Pfordte Pfordte, Otto F. The Cerro de Pasco mining industry. Trans. Amer- 

Inst. Min. Eng. Vol. 24. 1895. 

Pike Pike Manufacturing Co. Sharpening stones, history and development. 

1915. (Includes a glossary.) 

Posepny Posepny, Franz. The genesis of ore deposits. 1901. 

Power Power, F. Danvers. A glossary of terms used in mining geology. Austral- 
asian Inst. Min. Eng., 1895; Coal fields and collieries of Australia, 1912 
(Includes a glossary.) 

Pryce Pryce, William. Mineralogia cornubiensis, 1778. (Includes a glossary.) 

Ralston Ralston, O. C. Flotation processes for concentrating ores. Press Bull. 

U. 8. Bur. Mines. 1916. 

Ransome Ransome, F. L. The copper deposits of Ray and Miami, Arizona. U.S. 

Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 115. (In course of publication.) 

Raymond Raymond, Rossiter W. Glossary. Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng. Vol. 9, 


Redmayne Redmayne, R. A. 8. Colliery working and management. 3rd ed. 1912. 

(Includes a glossary.) 

Redwood Redwood, B., and EastUke, A. W. Petroleum technologists' pocket 

book. 1915. 

Richards Richards, Robert H. Ore dressing. Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4. 1909. 

Richardson Richardson, D. A. Manual of Mexican law. 1910. (Includes a glossary.) 

Rickard Rickard,T.A. A guide to technical writing. 1910. Stamp-milling of gold 

ores. 2nd ed. 1897. (Includes a glossary of stamp-milling terms.) 
Rickard, T. A., and Ralstbn, O. C. Flotation. 1917. (Includes a glos- 

Ricketts Ricketts, P. de P., and Miller, E. H. Notes on assaying. 1897. 

Ries Ries, Heinrich. Building stones and clay products. 1912. (Includes a 


Roberts Ro ber ts, George. An etymological and explanatory dictionary of terms 

and language of geology. 1839. 

Rockwell.., Rockwell, John A. Spanish and Mexican law. 1851. (Includes a glos- 

Rogers, A. F Rogers, A. F. Introduction to the study of minerals. 1912. 

Rogers Rogers, W. B. Geology of the Virginias. Virginia Geol. Survey Report, 

1840. (Includes a glossary of geological and other scientific terms.) 

Roscoe Roscoe, H. E., and Schorlemmer, C. Treatise on chemistry. 1911. Vol.1. 

The nonmetallic elements. 

Roy Roy, Andrew. Ninth annual report of the State inspector of mines for 

Ohio. 1883. (Includes a glossary.) 

Boy. Com Report of the Royal commission on mineral resources of Ontario, and 

measures for their development. 1890. (Includes a glossary of geological 
and injniTig terms.) 


Quoted in glossary as Name of author and publication. 

St. John St. John, Samuel. Elements of geology. 12th ed. 1872. (Includes a 

Sanders Sanders, Wilbur E., Parlee, N. W., and MacDonald,. Bernard. Mine 

timbering. 1907. 

Shamel Shamel, Charles H. Mining, mineral and geological law. 1907. 

Simms Simms, Frederick W. Practical tunnelling. 4th ed. 1896. (Includes a 

Skinner Skinner, Walter R. The mining manual, 1912 (includes a glossary); The 

mining manual and mining year book, 1916 (includes a glossary). 

kinner ( with page reference). Skinner, Ernest B. The mathematical theory of investment. 1913. 
Sloan Sloan, Earl. Catalogue of the mineral localities of South Carolina. South 

Carolina Geol. Survey. Ser. 4, Bull. 2. 1908. (Includes a glossary.) 

Standard Standard dictionary, twentieth century edition. 1910. 

Steel..... Steel, A. A. Coal mining in Arkansas. Geol. Survey of Arkansas. Pt. I, 

1910. (Includes a glossary of coal-mining terms.) 
Stewart Stewart, John T. Fourth report of the State inspector of coal mines or 

Kansas for the year ending Dec. 31, 1890. (Includes a glossary of mining^ 

terms.) .This glossary was reprinted in the sixth and tenth reports,. 

1893 and 1897, respectively. 
Thompson Thompson, Maurice. Indiana department of geology and natural history, 

15th annual report. 1886. (Includes a glossary.) 

Tieman Tieman, Hugh P. Iron and steel . Isted. 1910. 

Tucker Tucker, H. J. Annual report of the State inspector of mines to the Gov- 
ernor of the State of West Virginia for the year ending June 30, 1888. 

(Includes a glossary.) 
U. S. Geol. Surv United States Geological Survey. Useful minerals of the United States 

Bull. 585. 1914. 
U. S. Min. Stat Thompson, Joseph W. United States mining statutes annotated. Bull, 

94, U. S. Bur Mines. 1915. 

Ure Ure, Andrew. A dictionary of arts, manufactures, and mines. 1871. 

Vel Veldzquez de la Cadena, Mariano. A new pronouncing dict^onaiy ' thfr 

Spanish and English languages. 1903. 
Vogt Vogt, J. H. L., Beyschlag, F. H. A., and Krusch, J. P. Ore deposits^ 


Watson Watson, Thomas L., and Ries, Heinrich. Engineering geology. 1915, 

Weatherbe Weather be, D'Arcy. Dredging for gold in California. 1st ed. 1907. 

Webster Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language. 1916. 

Weed Weed, Walter Harvey. The mines handbook and copper handbook. 

Vol. 12, 1916, and Vol. 13, 1918. (Includes a glossary.) 
White White , Charles A . Report of the geological survey of the State of Iowa, 

1870. (Includes a glossary.) 
Whitney Whitney, J. D., and Foster, J. W. Report on the geology and topography 

of a portion of the Lake Superior land district in the State of Michigan. 

1850. (Includes a glossary.) 

Willcox Willcox, F. H. Occupational hazzards at blast-furnace plants and acci- 
dent prevention. Bull. 140, U. S. Bur. Mines. 1917. (Includes a glos- 
sary.) Blast-furnace breakouts, explosions, and slips, and methods of 

prevention. Bull. 130, U. 8. Bur. Mines. 1917. (Includes a glossary.) 
Winchell Winchell, N. H. The iron ores of Minnesota. Geological and natural 

history survey of Minnesota. Bull. 6. 1891. (Includes a glossary of 

mining and geological terms.) 
Woodson Woodson, C. C. Fifth annual report of the State mine inspector of the- 

State of Missouri, June 30, 1891. (Includes a glossary bf mining term* 

used in Missouri.) 
Worthen Worthen, A. H. Geology. Vol.1. Geological survey of Illinois. 1866. 

(Includes a glossary.) 
Young Young, George J. Nomenclature of mining methods. Engineering and 

Mining Journal. July 22, 1910. 


The accompanying list of abbreviations shows the localities ITS 
which certain words are in common use or whence they may have 
been derived. These abbreviations are used throughout the text. 



Aust . 







Cent. Am 









Forest of Dean 



Gt. Brit. 
Glouc . . 





Leic . 


Arkansas, U. S. A. 


British Columbia,Canada. 




Bristol coal field, Eng- 

Dominion of Canada. 

Central America. 

Cheshire, England. 

Cleveland iron district, 

United States of Co- 

Cornwall, England. 

Cumberland coal field, 

Derbyshire coal field, 

Devonshire, England. 

East Indies. 


Forest of Dean coal field, 



Great Britain. 

Gloucestershire coal field, 

Hidalgo, Mexico. 


Illinois, U. S.A. 




Lancashire coal field, 

Leicestershire, England. 


Midland coal field, Eng- 

Newc Newcastle coal field, Eng- 

N. S. W New South Wales, Aus- 

N. Z New Zealand. 

No. of Eng North of England. 

No. Staff North Staffordshire coal 

field, England. 

No. Wales .... North Wales, England. 

Northumb Northumberland coal 

field, England. 

Pac Pacific Coast, U. S. A. 

Pat Patagonia, South America^ 

Penn Pennsylvania, U. S.A. 

Port Portuguese (mostly i n 


Prov Provincial, United 

States, unless other- 
wise specified. 

Pr Prussian. 

Russ Russia. 

Scot Scotland. 

Shrop Shropshire, England. 

So. Afr. , South Africa. 

So. Am South America. 

So. Staff South Staffordshire, Eng- 

So. Wales South Wales, England. 

Som Somerset, England. 

Sp Spanish origin but not ne- 
cessarily used in Spain. 

Sp. Am Spanish America. 

Staff Staffordshire , England. 

Straits Set Straits Settlement. 

Sw Swedish. 

Trans Transvaal, South Africa. 

U. S United States of America. 

Venez Venezuela. 

W. Afr West Africa. 

War Warwickshire, England. 

Wis Wisconsin, U. S. A. 

York Yorkshire, England. 


Aa. A Hawaiian word especially in- 
troduced into American usage to de- 
scribe jagged, scoriaceous lava flows. 
It is contrasted with pahoefioe. 

Abaco (Mex.). A stone trough used to 
wash minerals. (Dwight) 

Abajador (Mex.). The workman in 
charge of tools furnished to miners 
underground. (Dwight). A stable 
boy in mines. (Vel.) 

Abajo! (Mex.). Lower! a signal for 
lowering a bucket or cage. (Halse) 

Abandonment. The act of abandoning ; 
relinquishment. (Webster) 
Abandonment of a mining claim may 
be by failure to perform work; 
by conveyance; by absence, and by 
lapse of time. The abandonment of 
a mining claim is a question of in- 
tent. (Richen v. Davis, 148 Pacific, 
p. 1132; 1915.) 

To constitute an abandonment of 
a mining claim, there must be a 
going away, and a relinquishment of 
rights, with the intention never to 
return, and with a voluntary and 
independent purpose to surrender 
the location or claim to the next 
comer. (Peachy v. Frisco Gold 
Mines Co., 204 Federal, p. 668, and 
Harkrader v. Carroll, 76 Federal, 
p. 475). (Min. Stat, pp. 259-262) 
Compare Forfeiture. 

Abate. In metal working, to lower 
the temper of. (Standard) 

Abatis; Abattis (Leic.). Walls or 
ranges of rough wood, e. g., cord- 
wood placed crossways to keep the 
underground roads open for ventila- 
tion, etc. (Gresley) 

Abbe tube mill. A gear-driven tube 
mill supported on a pair of riding 
rings and distinguished by an Archi- 
medes spiral, through which the ore 
is fed and discharged. Grinding is 
effected by flint pebbles fed into 
mill. See Ball mill. (Liddell) 

Abertura de galeria ( Sp. ) . 1. Tunnel- 
ing; driving. (Lucas) 
2. The reopening of a vein. (Halse) 

Abigarrado (Mex.). Variegated in 
color (applied to minerals). 

Ablation. 1. The formation of resid- 
ual deposits by the washing away of 
loose or soluble minerals. (Kemp) 
2. The wearing away of rocks, or 
the surface melting of glaciers. 

Abnormal. Not conformable to rule 
or system; irregular. (Webster) 

Abra (Mex.). Open fissure or cavity 
in the rocks. (Dwight) 

Abradant. An abrading substance, as 
emery, sand, etc., used in grinding 
and polishing (Standard). See 

Abrade. 1. To rub or wear off; to 
waste or wear away by friction, as 
to abrade rocks. (Webster) 
2. As used in the sharpening-stone 
industry; abrading means cutting, 
as the steel composing the tool is 
cut away rather than worn away. 

Abrasion. 1. The act or process of 
rubbing or wearing away; as the 
abrasion of rock or earth by gla- 
ciers. 2. The resulting injury or 
other effects of abrading; an 
abraided place ; as the abrasion left 
by glacial action. (Standard) 

Abrasive. A ,substance used for abrad- 
ing, as for grinding and polishing. 
The principal substances used as 
abrasives* are: Burstone, corundum, 
emery, garnet, grindstone, infusorial 
earth, millstone, novaculite, oilstone, 
pumice, scythestone, tripoli, volcanic 
ash, and whetstone. Certain furnace 
products, as carborundum, etc., are 
also used as abrasives. 

Abrevadero (Sp. Am.). A mine, the 
openings of which are filled with 
water at the time of working. (Lu- 

Abridura (Mex.). Enlargement of a 
space, so that miners may work 
freely (Dwight). A synonym for 




Abrigo (Mex.). 1. The width of a 
vein. (Dwight) 

8. A. del carbdn (Peru). An argil- 
laceous rock forming the roof and 
floor of coal Seams. (Halse) 

Abrir (Sp.). To drive or open up, 
as a drift, gallery, tunnel, or to 
sink, as a shaft. (Halse) 

Abronceado; Abronziado (Sp.). Yel- 
low copper ore; sulphides. (Lucas) 

Abronzada (Mex.). Chalcopyrite. 

Afecarokite. A general . name ,given by 
Iddings to a group of igneous rocks 
in the Absaroka Range, in the east- 
ern portion of the Yellowstone Park. 
They have porphyritic texture with 
phenocrysts of olivine and augite 
in a groundmass, that is either 
glassy or contains leucite, ortho- 
el ase or plagioclase, one or several. 
They are chemically, SiO, 46-52; 
A1 2 O 3 , 9-12; MgO, 8-13; alkalies, 
5-6.3, with potash in excess. The 
name is of greatest significance 
when taken in connection with sho- 
shonite and banakite. (Kemp) 

Absolute atmosphere. An absolute unit 
of pressure, equal to one million 
times the pressure produced on a 
square centimeter by the force of one 

Absolute pressure. That measure of 
pressure which includes atmospheric 
pressure. Pressure expressed in 
absolute measure, commonly in ab- 
solute atmospheres (Century). 
Pressure reckoned from a vacuum. 

Absolute temperature. The tempera- 
ture measured from the absolute 
zero of temperature on the abso- 
lute or thermodynamic scale of tem- 
perature. This scale differs slightly 
from that of an air thermometer, 
and by the absolute temperature is 
often meant the temperature on the 
latter scale above the absolute zero. 

Absolute zero. That point of tempera- 
ture at which a body would be 
wholly deprived of heat, and at 
which a perfect gas would exert no 
pressure; supposed to be 273 C., 
461 F., or 219 Reaumur ; used 
only on the thermodynamic scale. 

Absorb. To drink in, to suck up, as 
a liquid by a solid like a sponge or 
fuller's earth (Rickard). A term 
used in the flotation process. 

Absorbing well. An excavation in the 
earth through which surface water 
finds its way to a permeable stra- 
tum and is drained away. (Stand- 
ard). A cesspool. 

Absorption. 1. The act or process of 
absorbing, imbibing, swallowing, or 
engulfing mechanically. 2. A taking 
in or reception by molecular or 
chemical action. (Century) 
3. The phenomenon observed .when 
a pleochroic mineral is rotated in 
plane polarized light. In certain 
positions the mineral is darker than 
in others, owing 1 to the absorption 
of light. (Luquer, p. 26) 

Absorption of gases. The action of 
some solids and liquids hi '-taking- 
tip or absorbing gases. (Century) 

Abstract. To absorb (the waters of a 
neighboring stream) by abstraction: 
said of watercourses. (Standard) 

Abstraction. In geology, the with- 
drawal of a stream from a lower 
portion of its course by an adjoin- 
ing stream having more rapid cor- 
rosive action. (Standard) 

Abstrich (Ger.). The black or green- 
ish-brown mass (black litharge) 
appearing upon the bath of work- 
lead early in the cupeling process^ 
and gradually, as the process 'ad- 
vances. giving way to pure litharge. 

Abtheilung ( Ger. ) . A fixed part or dis- 
trict of a mine assigned to the care 
of a fireman or deputy. (Gresley) 

Abysmal sea. That part of the sea 
which occupies the ocean basins 
proper. (Chamberlin, vol. 1, p. 311) 

Abyssal rocks- Plutonic, or deep-seated 
igneous rocks. The word was sug- 
gested and has been especially used 
by W. C. Bro'gger. (Kemp) 

Abzug (Ger.). Thr first scum appear- 

ing (before the abstrich) on the 

surface of molten lead. (Ray- 

Acadialite. A reddish variety of cha- 
bazite. (Dana) 

Acampanar (Sp.). To remove the 
overburden down to the surface of 
the auriferous alluvium. (Lucas) 

Acanthite. A silver sulphide, 

It contains 87 per cent silver. (IL 
S. Geol. Surv.) 

Acarreador (Mex.). A wood carrier, 


Aearreo (Sp.). Carriage or convey- 
ance of minerals. (Halse) 

.Acarreos (Mex.). 1. Float rock. 

2. Drift composed of rounded rocks, 
pebbles and gravel. (Halse) 

.Accessory minerals. Those mineral 
constituents of a rock that occur in 
such small amounts that they are 
disregarded in its classification and 
definition. Opposed to essential min- 
erals. (La Forge) 

JLccion (Mex.). Share in a mine, or 
other enterprise, usually 100 to the 
barra. Right or ground of action 
in a suit. ( Dwight > 

JLccionista (Mex.). Shareholder. 

Accompt. 1. (Corn.) Account day; 
the usual settling day. 2. The 
place of meeting, or account house. 

Accretion. The process by which in- 
organic bodies grow larger, by the 
addition of fresh particles to the 

-Accretion hypothesis. Any hypothesis 
of the origin of the earth which as- 
sumes that it has grown from a 
small nucleus by the gradual addi- 
tion of solid bodies, such as meteor- 
ites, asteroids, or planetesimals, 
formerly revolving about the sun in 
independent orbits, but eventually 
drawn by- gravitation to the earth 
and incorporated with it (La 

Jlceite (Sp.). Oil, whether of vege- 
tal or mineral origin (Halse). 
See Petr61eo. 

Aceitera (Mex.). An oil cup. 

Acendrada (Peru). A whitish marl 
used in making cupelling furnaces. 

JLcendrar (Peru). To refine. 

Acequia (Mex.). Canal or ditch. 

Acequiero (Sp.). A man in charge of 
a ditch; a pe6n who makes a ditch. 

-Acerado (Mex.). Gray copper ore; 
any gray steely ore. (Dwight) 

Aceriate (Fr.). To convert into steel, 
us by cementation. (Webster) 

Icerillo (Peru). Finely crystalline 
galena showing steely fracture. 

Aoero (Mex.). Steel; A. ooiocto, ettt 
steel. (Dwight) 

Acetone. An inflammable liquid 
(CJIO) with a biting taste, ob- 
tained by the destructive distilla- 
tion of acetates and various organic 
compounds. It is used in making 
chloroform and as a solvent for 
fats, camphor, and resins. (Stand- 

Acetylene. The most brilliant illumi- 
nating gas (C 2 H,) ; it may be pro- 
duced synthetically from its ele- 
ments by incomplete combustion of 
coal gas, and commercially from 
calcium acetylid (CaCi) (Calcium 
carbide) by the action of water 
(Standard). Used much for under- 
ground lighting. 

Achaparera (Mex.). Long-handled 
adze. (Dwight) 

Achicador; Achichinqne (Me'x.). Car- 
rier of water. See also Achicar. 

Achicar (Mex.). To remove water 
from a mine, generally by carrying 
it out in bags or buckets. (Dwight) 

Achirite. Same as Dioptase. (Stand- 

Achroite. *A colorless variety of tour- 
maline. (A, F. Rogers) 

Acicular. Needle-shaped ; slender, like 
a needle or bristle, as some leaves or 
crystals. (Webster) 

Acid. 1. Sour, sharp or biting to the 
taste. Having acid-forming constit- 
uents present in excess of the pro- 
portion required to form a neutral 
or normal compound. (Webster) 
2. In modern chemistry an acid may 
be regarded as a salt of hydrogen, 
or as a compound, containing one or 
more atoms of hydrogen which may 
be displaced by a metal, or by a radi- 
cal possessing to a certain extent 
metallic functions. (Century) 

Acid egg. A cylindrical cistern from 
which acid is forced by compressed 
air, as in the manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid. (Webster) 

Acidic. A descriptive term applied to 
those igneous roqks that contain 
more than 65 per cent SiO as con- 
trasted with intermediate and basic. 
(Ln Forge) 

Acido ( Sp. ) . Acid ; A. carbdnico, car- 
bonic acid; A. negro (Mex.) in the 
patio process, spent mother liquor 
from the crystallizing vats. (Halse) 



Acid process. A method of making 
steel or homogeneous iron in a 
Bessemer converter or open-hearth 
furnace having an acid, as opposed 
to a basic lining. (Standard) 

Acid rock. A term rather loosely used 
in lithology, generally to mean one 
of the following : 1. An igneous rock 
containing 60 per cent or more of 
silica, free or combined, in this sense 
being nearly equivalent to acidic. 
2. An igneous rock in which miner- 
als high in silica, such as quartz, 
alkaline feldspar, and muscovite, are 
dominant. 3. Very loosely, an igne- 
ous rock composed dominantly of 
light-colored minerals. In all three 
senses contrasted with basic. 

The term is misleading and unde- 
sirable and is going out of use. As 
used in the first sense it is being re- 
placed by silicic or persilicic, and as 
used in the second sense it should be 
replaced- by felsic or by a term de- 
noting the dominant mineral. (La 
Forge) See also Acidic. 

Acid salt. A salt in which the re- 
placeable hydrogen of the corre- 
sponding acid is only partly ex- 
changed for metallic atoms OF basic 
radicals. (Webster) 

Acid steel. Steel manufactured by a 
process in which the converter or 
open hearth is lined with siliceous 
material (Standard). See also 
Acid process. 

Acidulae. Cold mineral waters, espe- 
cially those impregnated with car- 
bonic acid. (Webster) 

Acidulous water. Mineral water 
charged naturally with carbon di- 
oxide ( Standard). Also applied to 
waters containing sulphur com- 
pounds, especially sulphates, 

Acierage (Fr.). The process of elec- 
troplating a metal with iron or steel. 

Acieral. An alloy containing 92 to 97 
per cent aluminum and offered as 
a metal of strength and lightness 
and noncorrosive, suitable for use 
in the construction of automobiles, 
aircraft, military equipment, rail- 
road cars, valves, hardware, etc. It 
was discovered by M. de Montby. It 
is suitable for the manufacture of 
helmets. It is silver white, and has a 
specific gravity of 2.82 and a melt- 
ing point of 1,382 F. Its tensile 
strength in castings is given as 30,- 
000 pounds per square inch, and in 
rods and sheets as 28,000 to 64,000 

pounds and heat-treated as upward 
of 70,000 pounds per square Inch. 
(Min. and Sci. Press, June 2, 1917) 

Acinose. Granulated; like seeds; ap- 
plied to mineral texture. (Power) 

Aclarar (Sp.). To clear the tuyfcre by 
passing a pointed bar through the 
bustle pipe. (Halse) 

Aclinic. Having no inclination or dip ; 
situated where the compass needle 
does not dip, as the aclinic line, or 
magnetic equator. (Webster) 

Acmite. A brown or green silicate of 
sodium and iron belonging to the 
pyroxene group. Essentially NaFe- 
(SiO)i (Dana). See also Aegi rite. 

Acmite-trachyte. A trachyte whose 
pyroxene is acmite or aegirite and 
whose feldspar is anorthoclase. It 
therefore differs from normal tra- 
chyte in its prevailing soda 'instead 
of potash. The acmite-trachytes are 
intermediate between the true tra- 
chytes and the phonolites. They 
were first described from the Azores 
and have also been found in the 
Crazy Mountains, Mont. (Kemp) 

Acomodana (Peru). Ore deposits. 
(D wight) 

Acopios ( Sp. ) . Waste heaps or dumps, 

Acquia Creek beds- An obsolete term 
for Potomac Series. 

Acre. 1. A measure of superficial 
area, usually of land. The statute 
acre of the United States and Eng- 
land contains 43,560 square feet 
(4,840 square yards or 160 square 
rods). The so-called Scotch acre 
contains about 6,150 square yards 
and the Irish acre 7,840. There are 
various special or local acres in Eng- 
land (as in Cheshire or among the 
hop-growers), varying from 440 to 
more than 10,000 square yards. 

2. (Quebec) A linear measure equal 
to the square root of 43,560, being 
approximately 208.7 ft. 

Sour ; acrimonious. 

Acre (Sp.). 

Acreage rent. Royalty or rent paid by 
the lessee for working and disposing 
of minerals at the rate of so much 
per acre. (Gresley) 

Acre-foot. The amount of water re- 
quired to cover 1 acre to a depth of 
1 foot; equal to 43,560 cubic feet. 
Also used in estimating coal in 



place; thus a horizontal bed of coal 
5 feet thick covering an area of 1 
acre would contain 5 acre-feet of 

A-cropping (Scot). Toward the out- 
crop. (Barrowman) 

Acrotomous. In mineralogy, having a 
cleavage parallel with the base or 
top. (Standard) 

Actinolite. A light-green calcium-mag- 
nesium-iron amphibole, 3Mg(Fe)O. 
CaO.4SiO. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) See 
also Asbestos. 

Activar (Mex.). To quicken the chem- 
ical reactions in the torta. (Dwight) 

Actual horsepower. The horsepower 
really developed, as proved by trial. 

Actual power. See Actual horsepower. 

Acueducto (Sp.). Aqueduct; conduit. 

Acullico (Peru). Resting hour. 

Acunacion (Sp.). Coining, as of 
money. (Min. Jour.) 

Acunador (Sp.). One who coins 
money. (Crofutt) 

Acunar (Mex.). To coin; to wedge. 


Aeuoso ( Sp. ) . Watery; aqueous. 

Acute bisectrix. The line which bi- 
sects the acute angle of the optic 
axes of biaxial minerals. (Dana) 

Aczolling. The treatment of timber 
with a mixture of metallic ammo- 
niates and an antiseptic acid (de- 
rivative of phenol or naphthalene). 

Adamant. A stone imagined by some 
to be of impenetrable hardness; a 
name given to the diamond and 
other substances of extreme hard- 
ness; but in modern mineralogy it 
has no technical significance. (Web- 

Adamantine. 1. Like a diamond in 
hardness or luster. 2. Made of, or 
having the qualities of adamant. 3. 
Crystallized boron (Webster). 4. A 
commercial 'term for chilled steel 
shot used in well drilling. 

Adamantine drill; Shot drill. A core 
drill employed in rotary drilling in 
very hard ground. A steel-cylinder 
bit with a diagonal slot cut in the 
lower edge is attached to a core 
barrel and a small quantity of chilled 

steel shot fed in with the water at 
intervals. These find their way be- 
neath the bit and wear away the 
rock as the bit rotates. A core 
from 4 to 30 inches in diameter is 

Adamantine spar. A variety of corun- 
dum, AlsO*. (Dana) 

Adamellite. A name propose^ by Cath- 
rein as a substitute for tonalite, on 
the ground that tonalite means a 
hornblende-biotite granite, rich in 
plagioclase, whereas adamellite, 
which better describes the rocks at 
the Tyrolese locality, means a 
quartz-hornblende-mica - diorite with 
granitic affinities. Adamellite em- 
phasizes the dioritic characters; 
tonalite, the granitic. The name is 
derived from Monte Adamello, near 
Meran, Tyrol, the locality of tona- 
lite. (Kemp) 

Adamic earth (Bng.). A kind of red 
clay. (Humble) 

Adamite. A honey-yellow hydrous zinc 
arsenate, ZnAsjO8Zn(OH)2, crystal- 
lizing in the orthorhombic system. 

Adamsite. A greenish-black variety of 
common mica. (Standard) 

Adarce. 1. A calcareous sedhnent of 
some mineral springs. (Standard) 
2. A soft and porous saltish concre- 
tion on reeds and grass in marshy 
grounds in Galatia. (Webster) 

Adanne (Peru). A measure of weight 
equal to 1.8 grams. (Pfordte) 

Addle; Adle (No. of Eng.). To earn 
by labor. (Gresley) 

Addling. 1. (No. of Eng.) The act 
of earning by labor. 2. In the plural 
that which is earned; earnings. 
Also written Adlings. (Century) 

Adelgazar (Sp.). 1. To thin or rob 
pillars. 2. To separate gold-bearing 
concentrate from sand and small 
stones in order to facilitate the final 
washing. (Halse) 

Adelpholite. A greasy yellow to black 
iron and manganese columbate that 
crystallizes in the tetragonal sys- 
tem, and is closely related to tapio- 
lite. ( Standard ) 

Adema, or Ademe. (Sp.). A piece of 
timber used in supporting mine 
workings; a prop, shore, or strut. 

Ademador (Sp.) Mine carpenter, or 
timberman. (Halse) 



Ademar (Mex.). 1. To timber. 

2. To make the sides of an artificial 
<lrnin or ditch. (Halse) 

Afleme (Mex.). Timber in mines; tim- 
bering in general. (Dwight). See 

Adeps petrolei. A form of petrolatum. 

Ader wax. Crude ozocerite in leafy 
masses. (Bacon) 

Adhesion. A molecular force by which 
bodies of matter are caused to stick 
together, (llickard). A term used 
in flotation processes. 

Adhesive slate. A very absorbent 
slate that adheres to the tongue if 
touched by it. (Standard) 

Adinole. A dense felsitic rock com- 
posed chiefly of an aggregate of 
excessively fine quartz and albite 
crystals, such that on analysis 
the percentage of soda may reach 
10, Actinolite and other minerals 
are subordinate. Adinoles occur as 
contact rocks, associated with dia- 
base intrusions and are produced by 
them from schists (Compare Spilo- 
site and Desmite). They also con- 
stitute individual beds in metamor- 
phic series (Compare Porphyroid, 
Hiilleflinta). The name was first 
given by Beudant but has been 
especially revived by Lossen. 
( Kemp ) 

Adipocere. A light-colored fatty sub- 
stance, composed of palmitic and 
other fatty acids. Not to be con- 
fused with the mineral adipocire 
which is a native paraffin. (Stand- 

Adfyocerite; Adipocire. A synonym for 
Hatchettie. (Dana) 

A-dipping (Scot.). Toward the dip. 

Adit. 1. A nearly horizontal passage 
from the surface by which a mine 
is entered and un watered. In the 
United States an adit is usually 
called a tunnel, though the latter, 
strictly speaking, passes entirely 
through a hill and is open at both 
ends (Raymond). Frequently also 
called Drift, or Adit level. 
2. As used in the Colorado statutes 
it may apply to a cut either open or 
under cover, or open in part and 
under cover in part, dependent on 
the nature of the ground. (Electro- 
Magnetic Min. & Dev. Co. v. Van 
Auken, 9. Colo.,, p. 207; 11 Pacific, p. 

Adit level. See Adit. 

Adlings. See Addling. 

Administraci6n (Sp.). Management. 

Administrador (Mex.). Manager of a 
mine. (Dwight) 

Adobe. 1. (Sp.). A sun-dried brick; 
often shortened to adob and even 
'dobc. 2. The mixed earth or clay of 
which such bricks are made. 3. In 
mining, a brick of pulverized ore 
mixed with clay, as in quicksilver 
metallurgy. (Standard) 

4. The Mexican silver dollar. See 
also Peso. 

5. See Mudcap. 

Adolescent river. In geology, a river 
in the second stage of a new drain- 
age system, having a well-cut chan- 
nel that may reach base-level at 
its mouth, and a graded bed, and 
having largely obliterated the lakes 
and waterfalls of its youthful stage. 
Its small tributaries may still be in 
the youthful stage. (Standard) 

Adsorb. To condense and hold a gas 
on th surface of a solid, particu- 
larly metals. Also to hold a mineral 
particle within a liquid interface. 
From L. ad, to, and sorbeo, suck in. 

Adsorption. The adhesion of the mole- 
cules of gases or dissolved sub- 
stances to the surfaces of solid 
bodies, resulting in a relatively high 
concentration of the gas or solution 
at the place of contact. (Webster) 

Adular; adularia. A pure or nearly 
pure potassium-aluminum silicate; a 
variety of orthoclase, KAlSi 3 O s . 

Advance workings. Mine workings 
that are being advanced into the 
solid, and from which no pillars are 
being removed. 

Advanced gallery. A small heading 
driven in advance of the main tun- 
nel in tunnel excavation. (Simms) 

Adventive crater. A volcanic crater 
opened on the flank of a great cone. 
(Daly, p. 144) 

Adventure (Corn.). A mining enter- 
prise. (Davies) 

Adventurers (Eng.). Shareholders or 
partners in a mining enterprise: in 
Cornwall, cost-book partners. (Ray- 
mond ) 

Adverse. To oppose the granting of* 
a patent to a mining claim. (U. S. 
Min. Stat., pp. 370-385, 548-550, 
569-570, 606.) 



Advertised out. A term used to ex- 
press the result of the action of a 
joint owner of a mining Claim who 
by proper notices causes the interest 
of his coowner to be forfeited for 
failure to perform his share of the 
assessment work. 

Aegirite. See Acmite; Wurtzilite. 
jAlso written Aegerine. 

The name nf this soda-pyroxene is 
r>ften prefixed to normal rock names 
because of its presence, as for in- 
stance, aegirite-granite, aegirite-tra- 
chyte. Microscopic study has shown 
that the mineral is much more 
widely distributed than was for- 
merly appreciated. (Kemp) 

Aeolian. An adjective applied to rocks 
formed of wind-borne sands. Some 
uch aeolian sands yield large quan- 
tities of oil; practically all the big 
Baku spouters have been obtained 
from sands of this class. (Mitz- 
akis) See also Eolian. 

Aeolian rocks. Fragmental rocks, com- 
posed of wind -drifted materials. 
The drift-sand rock, the common 
building stone of Bermuda, is a good 
example. ( Merrill ) 

Aconite. See Wurtzilite. 

ASrage (Fr.). Ventilation. (Chance) 

Aerate. 1. To expose to the action of 
the air; supply or charge with air. 
2. To charge with carbon dioxide 
or other gas, as soda water. (Stand- 

Aerator. 1. An apparatus ror charg- 
ing water with gas under pres- 
sure, especially with carbon dioxide. 
2. Any contrivance for supplying a 
stream of air or gas, as for fumi- 
gating, destroying fungi, insects, etc. 

Aerial. Relating to the air or atmos- 
phere. " Subaerial " is applied to 
phenomena occurring under the at- 
mosphere ; " subaqueous " to phe- 
nomena occurring under water. 

Aerial railroad. A system of cables 
from which to suspend cars or 
buckets, as in transporting or hoist- 
ing ore. (Standard) See also 
Aerial tramway. 

Aerial spnd. A cable for moving and 
anchoring a dredge. 

Aerial tramway. A system for the 
transportation of material, as ore 
or rock, in buckets suspended from 

744010 O47 2 

pulleys or grooved wheels that run 
on a cable, usually stationary. A 
moving or traction rope is attached 
to the buckets and may be operated 
by either gravity or other power, as 
determined by topographic features 
or ether conditions. 

Aerify. 1. To change into a gaseous 
form. (Standard) 
2. To infuse or force air into; to 
combine with air. (Webster) 

Aerinite. A bright:blue earthy vari- 
ety of fahlunite. 

Aerites. A synonym for Metallites. 

Aerogene gas. The gas produced by 
the system of carbureting air de- 
vised by Van Vriesland. This sys- 
tem is installed at Breukelen, Hol- 
land, for lighting both streets and 
houses. (Bacon) 

Aerohydrous. Inclosing a liquid in 
the pores or cavities: said of some 
minerals. ( Standard ) 

Aerolite. A mass of metallic or other 
mineral substance which has fallen 
to the earth through the air. The 
metallic aerolite consists principally 
of metallic iron, nickel, and chro- 
mium; the nonmetallic aerolite con- 
sists of crystalline rocks resembling 
greenstones; others consist of mix- 
tures of these. A meteorite. (Roy. 

Aerophore. 1. A respirator in the 
form of a tank which leceives the 
exhalations from the lungs and con- 
taining chemicals designed to revive 
the air, to render it fit for breath- 
ing. (Ihlseng") 

2. A portable apparatus containing 
a supply of compressed air for res- 
piration, as for a miner. (Webster) 

Aeroplane oil. A white, straight-re- 
duced viscous neutral oil having a 
gravity of 32f to 34 B., a flash- 
point of 415 F., a fire test of 480 F., 
a cold test of 20 F., and a viscosity 
of 185 to 200 Saybolt. 

Aerosiderite. A meteorke consisting 
chiefly of iron, generally nickelifer- 
ous, with particles of phosphide of 
iron, carbon, and hydrocarbons, 

Aerosiderolite. A meteorite that is 
both metallic and stony. (Standard) 

A e r o s i t e . Same as Pyrargyrite. 

Aerosphere. The atmosphere consid- 
ered as a spherical shell of gases 
surrounding the earth. (Standard) 



Aerugo. Copper rust; verdigris; es- 
pecially, green copper coating adher- 
ing to old bronzes. (Standard) 

Aetite. A nodule consisting of a hard 
shell of hydrated oxide of iron, 
within which the yellow oxide be- 
comes progressively softer toward 
the center, which is sometimes quite 
empty. (Power) 

Affluent. A stream that flows into 
another; a tributary. (Standard) 

Afiladera (Mex.) . Whetstone. 

Afilar (Mex.). To sh'arpen (tools). 

Aflnaci6n (Mex.). 1. Art or process of 
refining. Refining works. (Dwight) 
2. A. por criatalizacidn, the Pattin- 
son process. (Halse) 

Aflnador (Mex.). A refiner (Halse). 
A synonym for Refinador. 

Afinar (Sp.). To refine gold and silver 
(Halse). A synonym for Reflnar. 

Aftno (Sp.). In tin smelting, melting 
the ingots in reverberatory furnaces 
and refining by poling. A. de cobre, 
fusing copper under an oxidizing at- 
mosphere. ( Halse ) 

Aflojadero (Mex.). Soft part of a 
vein. (Dwight) 

Aflojar el cana!6n (Sp. Am.). To 
treat the material that has accu- 
mulated In the ground sluice, by 
washing away the lighter and allow- 
ing the heavier mineral to settle. 

Afloramiento (Mex.). Outcrop of vein. 

Afrechera (Peru). Finely divided 
amalgam produced with insufficient 
mercury. (Dwight) 

Afrentar un hilo (Colom.). To make 
a perpendicular cut in a lode or vein 
to ascertain its thickness, dip, and 
strike. (Halse) 

Afroid (Fr.). In a cold state, *. e., 
not afterward subjected to the firing 
process: said of painting and other 
decoration in ceramics. (Standard) 

Afterdamp; Aftergases. The mixture 
of gases which remain in a mine 
after a mine fire or an explosion of 
fire damp. It consists of carbonic 
acid gas, water vapor (quickly con- 
densed), nitrogen, oxygen, carbon 
monoxide, and in some cases free 
hydrogen, but usually consists prin- 
cipally of carbonic acid gas and ni- 
trogen, and is therefore irrespirable. 
See also Black damp. 

Aftergases. Gases produced by mine 
explosions or mine fires. 

Agachadero (Mex.). Place in a level 
where the roof is low. (Dwight) 

Against the air. In a direction oppo- 
site to that in which the air current 
moves. To fire shots "against the 
air," is to fire shots in such an order 
that the shot firer travels against 
the air. (Steel) 

Agalite. Fibrous talc, pseudomorph- 
ous after enstatite. (A. F. Rogers) 

Agaimatolite. Essentially a hydrous 
silicate of aluminum and potassium, 
corresponding closely to muscovite. 
A secondary or alteration product. 
See alto Finite (Dana). A soft 
waxy mineral used for carvings by 
the Chinese. Also called Lardstone. 

Agamasar (Sp.). To make mortar; to 
cement with mortar. (Halse) 

Agaphite. A conchoidal variety of 
Persian turquoise. (Standard) 

Agaric mineral. 1. A soft, light, pul- 
verulent hydrated silicate of magne- 
sium found in Tuscany, from which 
floating bricks can be made. ( Power ) 
2. A light, chalky deposit of calcium 
carbonate, sometimes called rock 
milk, formed in caverns or fissures 
of limestone. (Webster) 

Agate. A variegated waxy quartz fn 
which the colors are in bands, in 
clouds, or in distinct groups; also, 
a gem or precious stone made from 
this mineral. (Standard) A varie- 
gated chalcedony. 

Agate jasper. An agate consisting of 
Jasper containing veinings of chalce- 
dony. (Dana) 

Agate opal. Opalized agate. 

Agate ware. 1. An enameled iron or 
steel ware used for household uten- 
sils. Used extensively as table 
equipment in miners* camps, and 
boarding houses. 2. Pottery, veined 
and mottled to resemble agate. 

Agatized wood. See Wood, 2. 

Age. 1. Any great period of time in 
the history of the earth or the ma- 
terial universe marked by special 
phases of physical conditions or or- 
ganic development; an eon; as the 
age of mammals. Called also Era. 
2. One of the minor subdivisions of 
geological time, a subdivision ot the 
epoch corresponding to stage or 
formation ; recommended by the 
International Geological Congress, 



Aged. Approaching base-level. For- 
merly used in topography, geology, 
and physiography, and applied to the 
configuration of ground. ( Standard ) 

Agent (Eng.). One to whom the gen- 
eral laying out and supervision of 
the mine is intrusted by the owner 
or lessee. See also Viewer (Ores- 
ley). The manager of a mining 

Agente (Mex.). Agent; A. de mineria, 
a mining agent appointed by the gov- 
ernment in each district to receive 
documents, give possession, etc. ; A. 
de correos, a postmaster. (Halse) 

Agglomerate. 1. A -breccia composed 
largely or wholly of fragments of 
volcanic rocks. More specifically, a 
heterogeneous mixture of fragments 
of volcanic and other rocks filling 
the funnel or throat of an extinct or 
quiescent volcano. (La Forge) 
2. To wind or collect into a ball; 
hence to gather into a mass; to 
cluster. (Webster) 

Aggradation. 1. In geology, the nat- 
ural filling up of the bed of a water- 
course by deposition of sediment. 

2. Specifically, the building up by 
streams in arid regions of fan-like 
graded plains, by reason of the shift- 
ing streams and the loss of the water 
in the dry soil. Contrasted with 
Degradation. ( Standard ) 

Aggradation plain. A plain formed 
by aggradation in arid districts. It 
begins by the building up of the hol- 
lowed bed of a stream, at the foot 
of a declivity, forming a plain with 
a nearly straight longitudinal profile, 
that may become a very broad plain 
of deposition. (Standard) 

Aggregate. 1. To bring together; to 
collect or unite into a mass. 2. Com- 
posed of a mixture of substances, 
separable by mechanical means. 

3. The mineral material, such as 
sand, gravel, shells, slag, or broken 
stone, or combinations thereof, with 
which cement or bituminous mate- 
rial is mixed to form a mortar or 
concrete. "Fine aggregate" may be 
considered as the material that 
will pass a i-inch screen, and 
" coarse aggregate " as the material 
that will not pass a i-inch screen. 

Aggregate polarization. The polariza- 
tion displayed by extremely small 
grains of doubly refracting minerals. 

Aggregate structure. A confused mass 
of separate little crystals, scales, or 
grains all extinguished under the 
polarizing microscope at different 
times. (Luquer) 

Agitation. In metallurgy, the act or 
state of being shaken, stirred, or 
moved with violence. 

Agitation ratio. The ratio between 
the maximum diameter of a gangue 
particle and the diameter of the 
mineral particle that travels with 
it on a vanner. (Richards, p. 665) 

Agitator. 1. An implement or appara- 
tus for shaking or mixing. (Web- 

2. A mechanical apparatus employed 
in- refining petroleum to keep the 
oil in constant motion when it is 
treated with sulphuric acid. Agita- 
tion on a large scale is now per- 
formed by means of compressed air. 

3. (Pac.) See Settler. 

4. A vat in which ore pulp is main- 
tained in constant movement by com- 
pressed air, or mechanical means. 

Agnesite (Corn.). An early name for 

Agonic line. A line passing through 
points on the earth's surface at 
which the direction of the magnetic 
needle is truly north and south; a 
line of no magnetic declination. 

Agricolite. An adamantine colorless 
or yellow bismuth silicate, BUSUOn, 
crystallizing in the monoclinic sys- 
tem. ( Dana ) 

Agrimensor (Mex.). 


Agna (Sp.). Water. A. arrimanda 
(Colom.), water brought along the 
side of a ravine to be used in min- 
ing. A. de alimentacidn, feed water 
for a steam engine. A. de cant era, 
natural moisture in stones. A. del- 
gada, water containing a small 
quantity of salts in solution. A. 
dulce, fresh water. A. gorda, water 
containing a large quantity of salts 
in solution. A. llorediza, rain water. 
A. potable, drinking water. A. 
fnerte, nitric acid. (Halse) 

Aguador (Sp.). One in charge of the 
water supply of a mill. (Halse) 

Agua fnerte (Sp.). Nitric acid. 



Aguas de cabeza (Peru). Water filter- 
ing into the mine, due to rain. 

Aguilarite. A sectile silver selenide, 
Ag,-S.Ag 2 Se occurring in skeleton 
dotlecahedral crystals. (Dana) 

Aguja (Sp.). 1. (Colom.) A leader 
or narrow vein. A branch. (Lucas) 
2. A mountain peak. 3. A compass 
needle. 4. A blasting needle. 5. A 
switch rail. (Halse) 

Aguja magnetica (Mex.). Magnetic 
needle. {Dwight) 

Agujero (Mex.). Drillhole. (Dwight) 

Aguj6n (Mex.). Surveying instru- 
. ment with compass. (Dwight) 

Agulhas (Braz.). Oxides of titanium 
associated with diamonds. (Halse) 

Aguzar (Mex.). To sharpen (drills). 

Ahogarse. To pinch out, as a vein. 

Ahogarse el oro (Colom.). To lose 
gold by its being carried off by the 
water. (Lucas) 

Ahondar (Sp.). To sink; to deepen. 
(Min. Jour.) 

Ahonde (Mex.). A shaft to establish 
mining title (Dwight). A discovery 


Aich's metal. See Gun metal. 

Aiguille (Fr.). 1. A very sharp peak; 
used especially of certain peaks, or 
clusters of needle-like rocks near 
Mont Blanc. 2. An instrument for 
boring holes, used in blasting. 

Aikinite. A blackish lead-gray sul- 
phide of lead, copper, and bismuth. 
3(Pb,Cu 2 )S.Bi 2 S 3 , that crystallizes 
in the orthorhombic system; needle 
ore. (Dana) 

Ailsyte. A name derived from Ailsa 
Craig, Scotland, and suggested for a 
microgranite containing consider- 
able riebeckite. (Kemp) 

Ainalite. A variety of cassiterite con- 
taining tantalum pentoxide. ( Stand- 

Air. 1. The mixture of gases that sur- 
rounds the earth and forms its at- 
mosphere ; cpmposed by volume of 21 
parts of. oxygen and 78 of nitrogen ; 
by weight of -about 23 parts of oxy- 
gen and- 77 of nitrogen. It contains 
filso about 0.03 per cent of carbon 
dioxide, some aqueous Vapor, and 

about 1 per cent argon. (Century) 
2. The current of atmospheric air 
circulating through and ventilating 
the workings of a mine. 3. To venti- 
late any portion of the workings. 

Air adit. An adit driven for the pur- 
pose of ventilating a mine. (Mil- 

Air blast. 1. A disturbance in mines 
accompanied by a strong rush of air 
through the workings. It is caused 
by the falling of large masses of 
roof in stopes, or by sudden crum- 
bling of pillars under the weight of 
the rock above the mine workings, 
due to a stress en the rocks, which 
has produced a strain, and in mining 
operations this strain results in a 
violent rupture. Such a disturbance 
is sometimes called " quake," and 
the rock, *' explosive rock." (Eng. 
and Min. Jour., vol. 105, p. 957) 
2. A stream or current of air under 
pressure, especially that used in 
forges and furnaces. (Century) 

Air box. 1. A rectangular wooden 
pipe or tube made in lengths of, say, 
9 to 15 feet for ventilating a head- 
ing or a sinking shaft. (Gresley) 
2. A box for holding air. 3. A flue 
for conducting air to a furnace, etc. 

Air brick. A hollow or pierced brick 
built into a wall to allow the pas- 
sage of air. (Ries) 

Air bridge. 1. A furnace bridge so 
constructed as to admit heated air 
to the gases passing over it and thus 
facilitate their combustion. (Cen- 
2. See Overcast. 

Air cock. A cock for letting off air. 

Air compartment. An air-tight portion 
of any shaft, winze, raise, or level, 
used for ventilation. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Air compressor. A machine for com- 
pressing air to a pressure sufficient 
to actuate machinery. (Weed) 

Air condenser. A surface condenser 
cooled by contact with air instead of 
water. ' (Webster) 

Air course.. A passage through which 
air- is circulated. Particularly a 
long passageway driven parallel to 
the workings to carry the air cur- 
rent. Entry air course, a passage 
for air parallel to an entry. Slope 
air course, an air course parallel 
with a slope. (Steel) 



Air crossing. A bridge or overcast 
where one current of air passes an- 
other without coming in contact 
with it. (Roy) 

Air cushion. An air-tight inflatable 
cushion; also a device for arresting 
motion without shock, by confined 
air. (Webster) 

Air door. A door placed in a mine 
passage to prevent the air from tak- 
ing a near way to the outcast, or 
return, without making a circuit of 
the workings. (Tucker) 

Air drain. A passage for the escape of 
gases from a moTd while the molten 
metal is being poured in. (Stand- 

Air drift. A drift connecting a venti- 
lation shaft with the fan. (Power) 

Air drill. A rock drill oriven by com- 
pressed air, as distinguished from a 
drill driven by steam. (Century) 

Air dry. Dry to such a degree that no 
further moisture is given up on ex- 
posure to the air. Most air-dry 
substances contain moisture that 
can be expelled by heating them or 
placing them in a vacuum. (Web- 

Air duct. See Air box, 1 and 3. 

Aire (Sp.). 1. Air or wind. 2. Fire 
damp, explosive or inflammable air. 
3. Foul air. (Halse) 

Air-end way (Eng.). Roadways or 
levels in the coal seam driven paral- 
lel with a main level, chiefly for re- 
turn air in mine ventilation. (Ores- 

Air furnace. 1. A furnace that de- 
pends on natural draft and not on 
blast. A furnace for heating air. 

2. A reverberatory furnace in which 
to smelt lead. Also a reverberatory 
melting furnace used in the manu- 
facture of malleable cast iron. 

Air gas. A combustible gas made by 
saturating air with the vapor of 
some volatile hydrocarbon mixture, 
as gasoline, and used for lighting 
and heating. (Webster) 

Air gate. 1. (Mid.) An underground 
roadway used principally for ven- 
tilation. (Gresley) 
2. An air regulator. 3. In molding, 
an orifice through which the dis- 
placed air and gases escape from 
the mold while the molten matter is 
filling it. (Century) 

Air hammer. A pneumatic hammer. 

Air head, or Air heading. (So. Staff.) 
A smaller passage, driven parallel 
with the gate road and near its 
roof, to carry the ventilating cur- 
rent. It is connected with the gate 
road at intervals by openings called 
spouts (Raymond). See also Air- 

Air hoist. Hoisting machinery oper- 
ated by compressed air. (Century) 

Air hole. 1. A hole drilled in advance 
to improve ventilation by communi- 
cation with other workings or with 
the surface. (C. and M. M. P.) 
2. A flaw in a casting. (Standard) 

Air jig. An apparatus for separating 
ores without water, by intermittent 
puffs of air. (Lawver) 

Airless end. The extremity of a stall 
in long- wall workings in which 
there is no current of air. The air 
is kept sufficiently pure by diffusion, 
and by the ingress and egress of 
tubs, men, etc. (Gresley) 

Air level (Eng.). A level or airway 
(return airway) of former work- 
ings made use of in subsequent 
deeper mining operations for ven- 
tilation. (Gresley) 

Air lift. An arrangement for raising 
water or other liquid from a well or 
sump, air under pressure being in- 
troduced near the foot of an open- 
ended pipe having a certain sub- 
mergence. The column of liquid or 
mixture of solid and liquid in the 
pipe, because of the introduction of 
the air, is made lighter than the sub- 
mergence column outside and an 
upward flow within the pipe results. 

Air lock. 1. (Aust.) A passage, 
closed at both ends by doors, be- 
tween airways along which currents 
of different pressures are flowing. 
Persons desirous of passing from 
one airway to the other can do so 
without personal inconvenience or 
interference with the system of ven- 
tilation. (Power) 

2. An air chamber between the outer 
air and the working chamber of a 
pneumatic caisson. (Webster) 

Air machine. A machine for forcing 
fresh air into and withdrawing bad 
air from a mine, as a fan. (Hanks) 

Air man. A synonym for Brattice 

Air motor. A motor driven by com- 
pressed air. (Webster) 

Airometer. An instrument for meas- 
uring the rate of flow of air; UD 
air meter. (Webster) 



Air oven. A heated chamber for dry- 
ing samples of ore, etc. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Air pipes. Pipes for conveying air for 
ventilation or for other purposes. 

Air pit (Eng.). A mine shaft used 
expressly for ventilation. (Gresley) 

Air propeller. A device, as a rotary 
fan for circulating air, as for venti- 
lation. (Webster) 

Air pump. A pump for exhausting air 
from a vessel or closed space. Also 
a pump for compressing air. (Web- 

Air receiver. A strong vessel, into 
which air from a compressor is de- 
livered. It serves as a reservoir 
to equalize the pressure before the 
air is used. It also cools the air, 
collects moisture, which may be 
drawn off, and eliminates the pul- 
sating effect of the piston strokes. 

Air-reduction process. See Roasting 
and reaction process. 

Air saddle. (Aust). A surface sad- 
dle or depression produced by 
erosion at the top of an anticline. 

Air shaft. A shaft used for ventilating 
mines ; it may either receive or dis- 
charge the circulating current. 
(Roy). See Upcast, also Downcast. 

Air shot. A shot prepared by loading 
(charging) in such a way an air 
space is purposely left in contact 
with the explosive for the purpose 
of lessening its shattering effect. 
(Du Pont) 

Air shrinkage. The decrease in 
volume which a clay undergoes in 
drying. (Ries) 

Air-slaked. Slaked by exposure to the 
air; as air-slaked lime. (Webster) 

Air slit (York.). A short heading 
driven more or less at right angles 
to and between two headings or 
levels for ventilation. (Gresley) 

Air sollar. A compartment or passage 
way carried beneath the floor of a 
heading or of an excavation in a 
coal mine for ventilation. (Cen- 
tury). See also Sollar. 

Air split. The division of the main 
current of air in a mine Into two 
or more parts. (Roy) 

Air stack (Penn.). A chimney used 
for ventilating a coal mine. (Cen- 

Air trap. A trap for shutting off* or 
carrying off foul air or gas from 
drains, sewers, etc. (Webster) 

Air trunk. A large pipe or shaft for 
conducting air, as for ventilation, or 
to a furnace. (Webster) 

Air tub. The cylinder on a blowing 
engine that pumps the blast 6f 
wind or air. (Willcox) 

Air valve. A valve to regulate the 
ingress or egress of air. (Web- 

Air vessel. A chaihber connected with 
a pump and partly filled with air 
to regulate the flow of water and 
lessen shocks (Barrowman). Also 
an air receiver. 

Air volcano. A miniature crater re- 
sembling a true volcano in shape 
and often provided with a cone ; 
produced by explosions of gas and 
the emission of mud. (Century) 

Airway. Any underground gallery or 
passage through which a portion of 
the ventilation passes. (Gresley) 

Airy's spiral. A four-rayed spiral 
curve, named after the discoverer 
and shown when sections of right- 
handed and left-handed crystals are 
placed together in a polariscopo. 

Aitch-piece. See H-piece. 

Aixtrie (Scot). An axle. (Barrow- 

Ajkite. A resin related to succinite, 
from Ajka, Hungary. See also Suc- 
cinite. (Bacon) 

Ajuste (Sp.). 1. Contract. 2. Adjust- 
ment (of parts of a machine). 

3. A timber joint or connection made 
by notching or scarfing. (Halse) 

Akerite. A variety of syenite, consist- 
ing of orthoclase, considerable pla- 
gioclase, biotite, augite, and some 
quartz. (Kemp) 

Akins' classifier. A classifier consist- 
ing of an interrupted-flight screw 
conveyor, operating in an inclined 

Alabandite. Manganblende. M a n - 
ganese sulphide, MnS. (Dana) 

Alabaster. Compact fine-grained gyp- 
sum, white or delicately shaded. 
See also Gypsum. (U. S. Geol. 
Surv. ) 

Alabasterine. Of, pertaining to, or 
like, alabaster. (Webster) 


Alabastro (Sp.). Alabaster. (MIn. 
Jour. ) 

AlacrAn (Mex.). A wheel or pair of 
wheels sometimes used in turning 
(stirring) the ore In the patio pro- 
cess. (Halse) 

Ala dc Mosca (Peru). Granite or very 
hard rock. (Dwlght) 

Alajites (Mex.). Altered rhodonite. 

Alallte. A light-green variety of diop- 
side from the Ala Valley, Tyrol. 

Alambrc (Sp.) Wire of any metal. 

Alandier (Fr.). In ceramics, a special 
fireplace at the base of a porcelain 
kiln, fed from the outside. (Stand- 

Alarife (StO. Mine mason. (Dwlght) 

A la ski te. Any igneous rock consisting 
essentially of quartz and alkalic 
feldspar, without regard to texture. 

Albanil (Sp.) A mason; a bricklayer. 

Albafiileria (Sp.). Walling of masonry. 


Albani stone (L.). The peperino of 
the Italians; a well-known volcanic 
rock, much used at Rome before 
building with marble became com- 
mon. See Peperino. (Page) 

Albarium (L.). White lime used for 
stucco and obtained by burning mar- 
ble. (Standard) 

Albarradon (Sp, ) . A dike. (Halse) 

Albata (L.). A white alloy resembling 
German silver, consisting of nickel, 
copper, and zinc. (Standard) 

Albayalde (Mex.). White lead, lead 
carbonate. (VeL) 

Albert coal; Albertite (Eng.) An 
asphaltic mineral occurring at Hills- 
boro, New Brunswick. It fills a fis- 
sure that cuts the associated strata 
almost vertically, and is from 1 to 
16 feet thick. 

Albert! furnace. A continuously work- 
ing revef beratory furnace for the 
roasting of quicksilver .ores, with 
condensation of the mercury in 4ron 
tubes and brick chambers. (Ray- 

Albertite. A jet-black, pttchllke, brittle 
hydrocarbon with conchoidal frac- 
ture, differing from ordinary as- 
phalt In being only partly (about 30 
per cent) soluble in turpentine and 

in very imperfect fusion when heat- 
ed (U. 8. Geol. Surv.). Also called 
Albert coal in Nova Scotia. 

Albion metal (Eng.). A combination 
made by overlaying lead with tin 
and causing the two to adhere by 
passing them under pressure, be- 
tween rollers. (Century) 

Albinipean. An obsolete geological 
term for Potomac series. 

Albite. An end member of the plagio- 
clase series of feldspars, containing 
no calcium and consisting of sodium- 
aluminum .silicate ; sodium feldspar. 
Less common than the intermediate 
members, which may be considered 
as mixtures of albite with the other 
end member, anorthlte (Ransome). 
Compare Anorthite. 

Albite law. A mode of twinning in 
which the twinning plane is the 
brachypinacoid. It is common with 
the mineral albite, and gives rise to 
the fine striations on Its cleavage 
surface. (Webster) 

Albitization. The production, in a 
rock, of albite as a secondary min- 
eral. (Webster) 

Albitophyre. A dike rock containing 
large polysynthetic phenocrysts of 
albite. In the groundmass are mi- 
crolites .of the same mineral, to- 
gether with chlorite and llmonite. 

Albo-carbon. A solid residuum of creo- 
sote. (Century) 

Albolite; Albolith. A kind of plastic 
cement, Or artificial stone, consisting 
chiefly of magnesia and silica. 
( Webster > 

Alboranite. > variety of hypersthene- 
andesite, poor in soda, from the is- 
land of Alboran, east of the Straits 
of Gibraltar. ( Kemp ) 

Albrecht condenser. A condenser 
used in petroleum distillation, to 
separate the distillate into its vari- 
ous fractions. (Mltzakis) 

Albrecht viscometer. See Viscometer. 

Albronz. A durable alloy of copper 
and aluminum, used for telescope 
bearings, etc, (Standard* 

Alcalde (Sp.). 1. A Justice of the 

peace. 2. A city mayor. (Halse) 
Alcali (Sp.), Alkali. (Vel.) 

Alcance; Saldo (Sp.). 1. Balance due. 

2. Extent of underground wbrfctagB. 
8. (Gnile) A rich *one Of dre, 



Alcancia <Mex.). A loading chute. 
(D wight) 

Alcantarillado; Alcantarilla (Sp.). An 
underground aqueduct, drain, or 
tunnel. (Vel.) 

Alcaparrosa ( M e x . ) . Efflorescence 
(of sulphates, etc.) in old workings 
(D wight). See also Caparrosa. 

Aloarraza (Mex. ) . A water can used in 
drilling. (Dwight) 

Alcatruz (Port). A bucket of a 
dredge. (Halse) 

Alchemy. 1. The immature chemistry 
of the Middle Ages, characterized by 
the pursuit of the transmutation of 
base metals into gold, and the search 
for the alkahest and the panacea. 

2. To coat or alloy with another 

Alchymy (Scot). A white film, 
usually calcium carbonate, in joints 
of coal, iron-stone, and other min- 
erals (Barrowman). Probably from 
alchemy, to coat or alloy with an- 
other metal. Now obsolete. 

Alcove. A large, deep niche formed by 
a stream of water in a precipitous 
face of approximately horizontal 
strata. (Standard) 

Alcribis (Mex.). A tuyere. See also 
Tobera. (Dwight) 

Aleacion (Sp.). 1. The art of alloy- 
ing metals. 2. An alloy. (Halse) 

Alear (Sp.). To alloy. (Vel.) 

Alembic. An apparatus formerly 
much used in distilling. Usually 
made of glass or metal. (Webster) 

Aiembroth. The chloride of ammonium 
and mercury. Formerly used as a 
stimulant. The alchemist's "salt of 
wisdom." (Webster) 

Aleutite. A name proposed by J. E. 
Spurr for those members of his 
belugites (which see) having a por- 
phyritic texture with an asphanitic 
or finely crystalline groundmass. 

Alexandrite. An emerald-green variety 
of chrysoberyl, columbine-red by 
transmitted light (Standard) 

Alexjejevite. A resin from the Kaluga 
province, Russia. (Bacon) 

Alfenid. A nickel alloy electroplated 
with silver. (Standard) 

Alfileret de oro (Colom.). Gold in 
needle-shaped filaments. (Lucas) 

Algam. In Wales, a common term for 

Algonkian; Proterozoic. In the no- 
menclature of the United States 
Geological Survey, the second in 
order of age of the systems into 
which the stratified rocks of the 
earth's crust are divided ; also the 
corresponding period of geologic 
time. Some authorities use Protero- 
zoic in the same sense. (La Forge) 

Algovite. A name proposed by Wink- 
ler for a group of rocks, practically 
diabases or porphyritic phases of 
them, in the Algauer Alps. They 
also embrace gabbros, according to 
Roth, and are doubtless textural 
varieties of an augite-plagioclase 
magma. (Kemp) 

Alidade. 1. An auxiliary circle, frame, 
or movable arm, carrying micro- 
scopes or verniers for reading. the 
divisions of a graduated circle or 
arc; also a theodolite having such 
an arm. 2. The straight-edge carry- 
ing the telescope for plane-table ob- 
servations. ( Standard ) 

Alien locator. A foreigner who locates 
a mining claim on the public domain. 
(U. S. Min. Stat, p. 101) 

Alignment; Alinement. 1. The act of 
laying out or regulating by line; an 
adjusting to a line. 2. The line of 
adjustments. 3 The ground plan of 
a railway or o^aer road in distinc- 
tion from profile. (Century) 

Alimentador (Sp.). Ore feeder of a 
stamp battery ; A. mecdnico, an auto- 
matic feeder ; A. de un homo, a fur- 
nace charger; A. de la caldera, a 
boiler feeder. (Halse) 

Alimentar (Sp.). To feed a mill, etc.; 
A. un homo, to charge a furnace. 

Alimento (Sp. Am.). An allowance as 
subsistence ; a kind of ' grubstake ' 
to miners until their mines become 
profitable. (Crofutt) 

Alipite. A massive apple-green hy- 
d rated magnesium-nickel silicate 
similar to genthite. (Standard) 

Alipus (Mex.). A gad. (Dwight) 

Alive (Corn.). The productive part of 
a lode. (Power) 

Alizarin. A dyestuff, C,4H,O 2 (OH) 2 , for- 
merly prepared from madder, and 
now produced artificially from an- 
thracene, and forming when pure 
a reddish-yellow powder or orange- 
red crystals. (Webster) 



Alkahest. In alchemy, an imaginary 
liquid, reputed to be a universal 
solvent, capable of resolving all 
bodies into their constituent ele- 
ments. (Standard) 

Alkali. In chemistry, any substance 
having marked basic properties. In 
its restricted and common sense 
the term is applied only to hydrox- 
ides of potassium, sodium, lithium, 
and ammonium. They are soluble 
in water, have the power of neutral- 
izing acids and forming salts with 
them, the property of corroding or- 
ganic substances, and of turning red 
litmus blue. In a more general sense 
the term is applied to the hydroxides 
of the so-called alkaline-earth met- 
als : barium, strontium and calcium. 

Alkali flat. A sterile plain, contain- 
ing an excess of alkali, at the bot- 
tom of an undrgined basin in an arid 
region. A playa. (Wetoter) 

Alkali metal. Any metal of the al- 
kali group, as lithium, sodium, po- 
tassium, rubidium, or caesium. 

Alkalimeter. An instrument to ascer- 
tain the strength, of alkalies, or the 
quantity of an alkali in a mixture. 

Alkaline. 1. Applied to minerals hav- 
ing *he taste of soda. (Dana) 
2. Of or pertaintng to the proper- 
ties of an alkali. (Webster) 

Alkaline earths. The oxides of ba- 
rium, calcium, and strontium. Some 
include also magnesium oxide. 'All 
are in their properties intermediate 
between the true alkalies and the 
earths proper. (Webster) 

Alkaline metals. Those metals whose 
oxides combine with water to form 
alkalies, as lithium, sodium, and 
potassium, etc.. (Standard) 

Alkali test. A process by which kero- 
sene is treated with a solution of 
caustic soda, making it purer and 
more suitable for illuminating. The 
kerosenes are divided into classes 
according to the results given by 
this alkali test and a ^ c' 1 cale 
constructed. (Mitzakis) 

Alkali wash. In the cyanide process, 
a preliminary treatment of the pulp 
with an alkaline solution, commonly 
of lime, the chief object being to 
secure the neutralization of free acid 
before adding the strong cyanide 
solution, thus avoiding the undue 
consumption of cyanide. 

Alkali waste. Waste material from 
the manufacture of alkali; as soda 
waste in the Leblanc process. (Web- 

Alkinite. A compound of lead, copper, 
bismuth, and sulphur, occurring in 
lead-gray, needle-shaped crystals, 
and also massive. (Webster) 

Allagite. A heavy dull red or green 
altered carbonated rhodonite. 

Allalinite. A name derived from Al- 
lalin Mountain in the Pennine Alps, 
and applied by H. Rosenbusch to an 
actinolite-saussurite rock derived 
from gabbro without losing the char- 
acteristic texture of the latter. 
That is, the allalinites are not 
sheared and crushed as in the flaser- 
gabbros and forellensteins. (Kemp) 

Allanite; Orthite. 1. A complex varia- 
ble silicate of aluminum, iron, the 
cerium metals, and, in smaller quan- 
tity, those of the yttrium group. 
(U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

2. A comparatively rare mineral 
closely related to common epidote 
and occurring generally as a micro- 
scopic constituent of igneous rocks. 
It contains a number of the rarer 
elements. (Ransome) 

Allegheny formation. The second in 
order of age of the formations com- 
prised in the Pennsylvanian series of 
strata in the bituminous coal dis- 
tricts of the northern Appalachian 
field. It overlies the Pottsville for- 
mation, comprises all the beds from 
the base of the Brookville coal to 
the top of the Upper Freeport coal, 
and is succeeded by the Conemaugh 
formation. It was formerly called 
the Lower Productive Coal Meas- 
ures. (La Forge) 

Allemontite. A rhombohedral or amor- 
phous metallic tin-white or reddish- 
gray compound of antimony and ar- 
senic, SbAs (Dana). Also called 
Arsenical antimony. 

Allen-O'Hara furnace. A horizontal 
double-hearth furnace for calcining 
sulphide ores. ( Peters, p. 201 ; Hof- 
man, p. 198) 

Alley stone. A synonym for Websterite 
(Chester). Alummite. 

Alliaceous. Applied to minerals hav- 
ing the odor of garlic, for example, 
arsenical minerals. (Dana) 

Alligator. 1. See Squeezer. 2. A rock 
breaker operating by jaws. ( Ray- 
mond ). 

3. (Aust.). A self -tipping tank, used 
for raising rock or coal. (Power) 


Alligator wrench. A kind of pipe- 
wrench having a fixed flaring jaw 
with teeth on one side. (Webster) 

Allingite. A fossil resin from Switzer- 
land. See also Succinite. (Bacon) 

All-mine pig. Iron smelted entirely 
from raw ore. (Standard) 

AUpchroite. A calcium-chromium gar- 
iiet. (Dana) 

Alloclasite; Alloclase. A steel-gray, 
cobalt-arsenic-bismuth sulphide, 
usually with part of the cobalt re- 
placed by iron, Co(AsBi)S, that 
crystallizes in the orthorhombic 
system. (Dana) 

Allomorph. In mineralogy, a pseuao- 
morph formed without change of 
chemical composition, as calclte 
after aragonite. (Standard) 

Allopalladium, A nearly silver-white 
palladium, found in hexagonal plates 
in the Harz Mountains, Germany. 

Allophane. A hydrous silicate of 
aluminum, amorphous, translucent, 
and of various colors, often in in- 
crustations or stalactitic forms ; 
Al 2 SiO 6 + 5H 2 O, (Webster) 

Allothigene. In geology, produced 
from elsewhere; said of the ingred- 
ients of clastic rocks, or of the clas- 
tic ingredients of any rock: con- 
trasted with Anthigene. (Standard) 

Allotriomorphio. An adjective coined 
by Rosenbusch in 1887 to describe 
those minerals in an igneous rock 
that do not possess their own crys- 
tal faces or boundaries, but which 
have their outlines impressed on 
them by their neighbors. They re- 
sult when a number of minerals crys- 
tallize at once so as to interfere 
with one another. They are espe- 
cially characteristic of granitoid 
textures. The word was unneces- 
sary, as xenomorphic had been sug- 
gested for the same thing, but it is 
in more general use than xenomor- 
phic. See also Anhedron. Opposed 
to Idiomorphic. (Kemp) 

Allotrope. One of the forms assumed 
by an allotropic substance; as the 
diamond is an allotrope of carbon. 

Allotropy; Allotropism. The capacity 
of existing in two or more condi- 
tions, that are distinguished by dif- 
ferences in properties. Thus carbon 
occurs crystalline as in the diamond, 
and amorphous as in charcoal. 

All over. End of a shift; when the 
breaker at a colliery shuts down for 
the day it is said to be " all over." 

Allowance (Eng.). 1. Refreshment of 
bread, cheese, and beer supplied by 
the lessees or owners of a mine to 
surveyors. 2. Ale given to workmen 
on having to work under unusual 
conditions, for example, when they 
are wet through. (Gresley) 

Allowance coal (Eng.). See Colliers' 

Alloy. 1. A compound of two or more 
metals, usually produced by fusion. 
When composed of two, three, or 
four metals or elements it is called 
respectively Binary alloy, Ternary 
alloy and Quaternary alloy. 
2. The baser metal that reduces the 
commercial value of the compound 
or mixture as its proportion is in- 
creased ; as, the alloy used for 
hardening gold and silver coins. 

Alloyage. The act or process of alloy- 
ing: specifically, in minting, of al- 
loying the precious metals with 
baser ones to harden them. (Stand- 

Alloy balance. An adjustable balance 
that is in equilibrium when the 
metals in the scale pans are in the 
proper proportions for forming an 
alloy. (Standard) 

Alloy cast-iron. Cast-iron alloyed with 
some other metal. (Webster) 

Alloy steel. Steel that contains one or 
more elements other than carbon in 
sufficient proportion to modify or im- 
prove substantially and positively 
some of its useful properties. (Hib- 
bard) e. ff., Manganese steel. 

Alloy-treated steel. A simple steel to. 
which one or more alloying elements 
have been added for curative pur- 
poses, but in which the excess of the 
element or elements is not enough to 
make it an alloy steel. (Hibbard) 

All-sliming. Crushing all the ore in 
a mill to so fine a state of subdivi- 
sion that only a 'small percentage 
will fail to pass through :. 200-rnesh 

All-ups (Leic.). A mixture of every 
quality of coal, excepting fine slack, 
raised from one seam, and sold as 
such. ( Gresley ) 

Alluvial. 1. Of or pertaining to allu- 
vium. Relating to deposits made by 
flowing water. 2. Gold-bearing de- 
posits of alluvium. 



Alluvial epoeh. The latter part of the 
Champlain period (Quaternary), 
overlying the Diluvial period, and 
characterized by the more quiet 
fluvial and lacustri depositions. 
(Standard) Now obsolete. 

Alluvial fan. The outspread sloping 
deposit of bbwlders, gravel, and sand 
left by a stream where it spreads 
from a gorge upon a plain or open 
valley bottom. (Rahsome) 

Alluvial gold. Gold found in associa- 
tion with water- worn material. 

Alluvial tin. Stream tin, or disinte- 
grated cassiterite found in the gravel 
along the courses of valleys and 
.rivers on the bedrock. Generally 
the purest tin ore. 

Alluviao (Port). Alluvium. (Halse) 

Alluviation. The process of building 
alluvial deposits. .(Standard) 

Alluvion. 1. Wash or flow of water 
against a bank or shore. An over- 
flowing; an inundation; a flood. 2. 
Synonymous with Alluvium, which 
see. (Webster). 

3. A consolidated volcanic cinder- 
mud. (Standard) See also Tufa. 

Alluvium. 1. Lyell's name foi the de- 
posit of loose gravel, sand and mud 
that usually intervenes in every dis- 
trict between the superficial cover- 
ing of vegetal mould and the sub- 
jacent rock. The name is derived 
from the Latin word for an inun- 
dation. It was employed by Nau- 
mann as a general term for sedi- 
ments in water as contrasted with 
eolian rocks. It is generally used 
today for the earthy deposit made 
by running streams, especially dur- 
ing times of flood. (Kemp) 
2. See Alluvion, 3. 

Allwork (Derb.). A term formerly 
used for longwall, (Gresley) 

A 1 m a c 6 n (Mex.). Warehouse. 

AJmacenista (Sp.).. A store keeper; a 
person who sells goods in a ware- 
house. (Halse) 

Almaden ( Sp. ) . A mine or mineral de- 
posit. ( Halse * 

Almadeneta. 1. (Me?.), Stamp head 
or shoe (Dwight) 

2. (Sp.) A small hammer for 
breaking stones. < Halse) 

Almagra (Sp.). A deep-red ocher ori- 
ginally 'from Andalusia, Spain, simi- 
lar to Indian red: used as a pig- 
ment, and in polishing glass and 
metals. ( Standard ) 

Almacral (Sp.). A place where red 
ocher is found. < Halse) 

Almagre (Mex.). Red ocher. 

Alman. See Almond furnace. 

Almandite. An iron-aluminum garnet, 
3FeQAlaO.3SiO 2 . Used as a gem. 
(U. S. Geol. Surv.) Also called 
Almond stone. 

Almartaga (Peru). Litharge. 

Almendrilla (Sp. Am.). 1. Pudding 
stone ; banket. ( Lucas ) 
2. In Mexico, a quartz forming, the 
matrix of a copper vein, (Halse) 

Almocafre, 1. (Colom,) A kind of 
hoe used in placer mining. (Lock) 
2. (Port) A pick or mattock used 
in working mines. (Halse) 

Almond furnace. A furnace in which 
the slags of litharge left in refining 
silver are reduced to lead by being 
heated with charcoal. (Century) 

Almond rock. An amygdaloin. (Web- 

Almond stone. See Almandite. 

Alnoite. A very rare rock with the 
composition of a melilite basalt. It 
was first discovered in dikes on the 
island of Alno, off the coast of east- 
ern Sweden. The special name was 
given it by Rosenbusch to emphasize 
its occurrence in dikes and its asso- 
ciation as a very basic rock, with 
nepheline syenite. Alnoite also oc- 
curs near Montreal, Canada, and at 
Manheim Bridge, N. Y (Kemp) 

Aloes rope. A special kind of rope, 
sometimes used in oil-well drilling, 
the breaking strain of which is 300 
kg. per circular centimeter. It is 
manufactured from the aloe, a plant 
indigenous to Cape Colony. (Mit- 

Alpine glacier. A type of glacier oc- 
curring about the peaks and in 
the valleys and gorges of moun- 
tains, originating above by various 
branches in amphitheaters, termi- 
nating below, either by melting, or 
by spreading out into jftedmont gla- 
ciers; an ice river. (Standard) 

Alquifol (Sp.). Galena. (Min. JouM 

Alquifou (Fr.). A coarse-grained ga- 
lena used by potters in preparing a 
green glaze. Also called Potters' 
ore. (Standard) 

Alqullar (Sp.). To hire; to let; to 
rent (Halse) 



Alquitrin (Sp.). Tar or liquid pitch; 
A. de hulla, coal tar; A. mineral. 
See Betun. (Halse) 

Alsbachite. A variety of granite- 
porphyry containing large mica 
crystals and rose-red garnets. 

Alshedite. A variety of titanite con- 
taining yttrium peroxide. Found in 
Sweden. ( Standard ) 

Alstonite. See Bromlite. 

Altai (Mongolia). Gold. (Lock) 

Altaite. A lead telluride, PbTe, found 
in Colorado (U. S. Geol. Surv.). 
Originally found in the Altai moun- 
tains of Asia. 

Altar of a reverberatory furnace. See 
Bridge, 1. 

Alt-azimuth. An instrument for si- 
multaneously observing the azimuth 
and altitude of a celestial body. 

Alteration. Strictly, any physical or 
chemical change in a rock or mineral 
subsequent to its formation. As 
ordinarily used, however, the term 
excludes cementation or induration 
of sediments to form hard rocks and 
implies change to such an extent 
that new minerals or new rock tex- 
tures are developed. (La Forge) 

Altered mineral. A mineral that has 
undergone more or less chemical 
change under the processes of na- 
ture. (Century) 

Altered rock. A rock that has under- 
gone changes in its chemical and 
mineralogical structure since its 
original deposition. (Weed) 

Altern. A crystal form having oppo- 
site parts corresponding in form, 
but alternating with each other in 
the position of sides and angles. 

Alternating motion. Up and down, or 
backward and forward motion. (C. 
and M. M. P.) 

Altitude. Vertical distance or eleva- 
tion above any given point or base- 
level, as the sea ; height ; hence, also, 
such distance numerically expressed. 

Alto. 1. (Sp.) A bluff, height, hill. 
Used in southwestern United States. 

2. (Mex.) A hanging wall. See 
alto Respaldo. (D wight) 

Altogether-coal (Eng.). Large and 
small coal mixed. (Gresley) 

Alto homo (Sp.). Blast furnace, 

Altura (Mex.). Height; altitude. 

Aludel. One of a series of pear-shaped 
vessels of glass or earthenware 
fitted one into another and used for 
condensation, as in subliming mer- 
cury (Standard). See also Busta- 
mente furnace. 

Alum. 1. Specifically, the hydrous 
double sulphate of aluminum and 
potassium, found in nature as the 
mineral kalinite. 2. In chemistry, 
any one of a group of salts which 
are hydrous double sulphates of 
aluminum, chromium, iron, or man- 
ganese and one of the alkali metals. 
3. In mineralogy, one of a group of 
minerals which are hydrous sul- 
phates of aluminum and potassium, 
sodium, or ammonium. (La Forge) 

Alumbrado (Sp.). Lighting. (Lucas) 

Alumbre (Sp.). Alum; A. de roca, 
rock alum ; A. de piedra, alumstone ; 
alunite. (Halse) 

Alum cake. A product of the action of 
sulphuric acid on clay, consisting 
chiefly of silica and aluminum sul- 
phate. (Webster) 

Alum earth. An argillaceous rock, con- 
taining considerable pyrite, and 
largely impregnated with bUnmen. 

Alum feather. See Iron alum. 

Alum flower. Powdered burnt alum. 

Alum glass. Crystallized alum. 

Alumina. Oxide of aluminum, Al 2 Os. 
Pure crystalline alumina is repre- 
sented by corundum, sapphire, and 
ruby. The commonest form of alu- 
mina is as a silicate, of which clays 
are mostly composed, and as the 
compound silicates of aluminum and 
other metals, of which a large class 
of minerals is formed. (Roy. Com.) 

Aluminite. A hydrous sulphate of alu- 
minum, A1 2 O 8 .SO S .9H 2 O, usually oc- 
curring in white reniform masses. 

Aluminium. See Aluminum. 
Aluminous. Of the nature .of alumina 
or clay. (Hitchcock) 

Aluminum. A bluish silver-white 
metal, malleable, ductile, sonorous, 
noted for its lightness and resist- 
ance to oxidation. Symbol, Al; 
atomic weight, 27.1 ; specific gravity 
2.7 (Webster). Also Aluminum. 


Aluminum bronze, or Aluminum gold. 
An alloy of aluminum and copper 
resembling pale gold : used in cheap 
jewelry, etc. (Standard). As a 
powder, used in gilding. 

Aluminum minerals. Alunite, ambly- 
gonite, andalusite, bauxite, coruti- 
dum, cryolite, eyanite, dtaspore, 
sjllimanite, spinel, topaz, turquois, 
wavellite, and many silicates. (A, 
F. Rogers) 

The commercial ores of aluminum 
are cryolite, a fluoride of sodium 
and aluminum, found in Greenland ; 
bauxite, a hydrous compound ot 
almumina, ferric oxide, and silica, 
found in Arkansas, Georgia, and 

Aluminum silver. A bright alloy of 
aluminum and silver, used in in- 
struments where lightness is an ob- 
ject, the lightness increasing with 
the proportion of al uminum. ( Stand- 

Aluminum solder. An alloy or gold, 
silver, and copper, with some- 
times a little zinc. Used for solder- 
ing aluminum bars. (Standard) 

Alumocalcite. A variety of opal with 
alumina and lime as impurities. 

Alum salts. Natural salts from which 
alum. can be made. See also Halloy- 
site, Kaolinite. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Alum schist, shale, or slate. A clayey 
rock containing carbonaceous ma- 
terial and marcasite that when de- 
composed yields by efflorescence 
common alum. (Standard) SeeaUo 
Alum shale. 

Alum shale. Shale charged with alum, 
that in favorable localities may be 
commercially leached out and 
crystallized. The alum results from 
the decomposition of pyrite, be- 
cause the sulphuric acid, thus pro- 
duced, reacts on the alumina present, 
yielding a double sulphate. (Kemp) 

Alum siate. See Alum schist, and 
Alum shale. 

Alum stone. An impure siliceous alu- 
nite. (A. F. Rogers) 

Alundum. An artificial abrasive used 
in the manufacture of oilstones and 
grinding wheels. Made by fusing 
the natural mineral bauxite in elec- 
tric furnaces. Alundum has the 
i;nme chemical Composition ns the 
natural mineral corundum. (PIko) 

Alunite; Alumstone. A hydrous sul- 
phate of aluminum and potassium, 
K(A1O),(SO),.3EW>, containing 

11.4 per cent potash, K,O. (U. S. 
Geol. Surv.) Closely resembles kao- 
linite and occurs in similar loca- 
tions. Generally the result of the 
action of water, containing sul- 
phuric acid, on feldspathic rocks, as 
when pyrite in granite porphyry is 
oxidized. ( Ran some ) 

Alunogen. A hydrous aluminum sul- 
phate, A1,(SO4)H-18H 2 O, frequent- 
ly found on the walls of mines aud 
quarries. Also called Feather alum 
and Hair salt. (Webster) 

Alurgite. A purple to red variety .of 
manganese, mica from St Marcel, 
Piedmont. (Dana) 

Alutaci6n OSp.). A nugget, or a layer 
of. gold in. grains found at or n^ar 
the surface of the ground. (Halse) 

Aluvidnes (Sp.). Alluvial deposits. 

Alvarfc (Port). A definite title or pat- 
ent for a concession. (Halse) 

Alvecas (Peru). A name given to the 
three tubes leading from the furnace 
to the aludeles. (Halse) 

Alveo (Port.). The bed of a river. 

Alza (Bol.). Separating gold from 
sand in a washer. (Halse) 

Alza dor (Mex.). Workman employed 
in loading wagons, etc. (Dwight) 

Alzas (Peru). The upper portion at a 
mine. (Halse) 

Amagamiento (Sp. Am.). Rivulet; ra- 
vine ; torrent. (Lucas) 

Amain (Eng.). With great force or 
speed. Wagons or tubs are said to 
run amain, if by accident they go 
over an incline, bank, or dump, with- 
out the rope being attached; or 
through the rope becoming detached 
or broken. (G. C. Green well) 

Amalgam. 1. A native compound of 
silver and mercury, in which the 
percentage of silver ranges from 

27.5 to 95.8. Native gold am^gain 
carrying 39 to 42.6 per cent gold 
has also been found. (U. 3. Geol. 

2. An alloy or union of mercury 
with another metal. Amalgams are 
made by bringing mercury in con- 
tact with another metal, a salt of 
another metal, or by placing the 
metal in a salt of mercury. & In 
gold metallurgy, an alloy of gold 



and mercury, usually obtained by 
allowing gold-bearing minerals, after 
crushing, to come in contact with 
mercury in stamp batteries, sluices, 
or mercury-coated copper plates. 
The alloy (amalgam) is collected 
and the mercury is driven off by dis- 
tillation, the gold remaining in the 

Amalgama (Sp.). Amalgam. (Dwight) 

Amalgamar (Sp.). To amalgamate. 

Amalgam arc. An arc in a vacuum 
tube having electrodes of mercury 
amalgamated with zinc, cadmium, 
or other metal. The spectra of such 
arcs contain the bright lines of the 
metals in the electrodes. (Webster) 

Amalgamate. 1. To unite (a metal) in 
an alloy with mercury. 2. To form 
an amalgam with ; as, mercury easily 
amalgamates with gold. (Stand- 

8. To merge two or more corpora- 
tions into a single body. (Webster) 

Amalgamated claims (Eng.). Mining 
claims adjoining one another that 
have been grouped into one claim 
for more economical working. (Dur- 

Amalgamating-barrel. A short cylin- 
drical vessel or barrel with solid 
ends turned to fit bearings. The 
barrel is used for amalgamating 
battery accumulations and other 
material. It is run with intermittent 
charges, and contains a load *>f steel 
balls or pebbles to effect comminu- 
tion arid to bring the mercury into 
contact with the metal to be amal- 
gamated. Charging and discharging 
are done through suitable doors. 

Amalgamation. 1. The production of 
an amalgam or alloy of mercury. 2. 
The process in which gold and sil- 
ver are extracted from pulverized 
ores by producing an amalgam, from 
which the mercury is afterward ex- 
pelled. See also Retorting. (Ray- 

Amalgamation-pan. A pan in which 
the process of amalgamation or 
combination with mercury is effect- 
ed (Rickard). Used in gold and 
silver metallurgy. 

Amalgamator. An apparatus used in 
metallurgy for bringing pulverized 
ore into close contact with mercury 
to extract free metal from it by 
amalgamation. See Amalgamation 
pan ; also Amalgamating-barrel. 

Amalgam gilding. A process of gild- 
ing in which a metallic surface is 
coated with gold amalgam and the 
mercury driven off by heat. (Stand- 

Amalgam retort. An iron retort hav- 
ing a convex lid, luted at the edges, 
and held by a key or wedge pressed 
between its crown and the bail. 
The retort is arranged so that heat 
enough to volatilize the mercury can 
be applied ; and a suitable exit pipe 
is connected to a condenser, or 
merely cooled with circulating water 
at a safe distance from the retort. 

Amalgam silvering. A process of sil- 
vering similar to amalgam gilding. 

Amarantite. A monoclinic hydrous- 
ferric sulphate, Fe,O,.2SO..7H,O. 

Amarillo (Sp.). Yellow. A. de mon- 
tano, yellow earth; orcherous clay. 

Amarrar las agnas (Sp. Am.). To 
clear the mine or pit of water, by 
means of trenches. (Lucas) 

Amas (Sumatra). Gold; A. Lichin, 
nugget-gold ; A. Muda, inferior gold ; 
A. Supayang, vein-gold; A. Urei, 
gold dust. (Lock) 

Amatista (Sp.). Amethyst. (VeU) 

Amatito. A red pigment prepared 
from hematite; formerly used 4n 
frescoing. (Standard) 

Amatrice. See Variscite. 

Amansite. Same as Pctrosilex. 

Amazonite. See Amazon stone. 

Amazon stone; Amazonite. A green mi- 
crocline. A variety of orthoclase. 
Used as a gem. (Dana) 

Ambar. The Russian najne given to 
excavations dug around a derrick 
forming small reservoirs, where the 
sand raised- from the bore-hole is 
deposited. Also used as a temporary 
reservoir for oil. (Mitzakis)- 

Ambar (Sp.). Amber; A. negro, Jet. 

Amber. A hard, brittle, translucent, 
fossilized vegetal resin, of a clear 
yellowish - brown or li^ht - yellow 
color. Called in mineralogy Succi- 
nite. (Standard) 

Amber forest. A fossil forest from 
which amber had been formed. 



Amblygonite ; Hebroaite. A fluo-phos- 
phate of aluminum and lithium 
Li(AlF)PO<. Used in the manufac- 
ture of lithium preparations in medi- 
cine. (Dana) 

Amblystegite. A dark brownish-green 
to black magnesium-iron metasili- 
cate, (Mg.Fe)SiOs, that crystallizes 
in the orthorhombic system, and is 
closely related to hypersthene. 

Ambrite. A greasy, yellowish-gray 
fossil resin, resembling Kauri-gum, 
found in New Zealand ; sometimes 
used as jewelry. (Standard) 

Ambroid. A reconstructed amber, 
made by heating and uniting by 
pressure fragments of amber. 

Ambrosine. A yellowish to clove- 
brown resin found in the phosphate 
beds near Charleston, S. C. ; it may 
be a modern resin that has been 
subjected to the action- of salt wa- 
ter. (Bacon) 

Amercement (Derb.). A fine in the 
barmote court, imposed on a miner 
for violation of the laws. (Mander) 

American-Belgian furnace. A direct- 
fired Belgian furnace employed in 
the United States, conforming essen- 
tially to the Lige design, but pre- 
senting minor differences because of 
local adaptation. (Ingalls, p. 433) 

American forge. See Catalan forge; 
Champlain forge. 

American paraffin-oil. An English term 
for kerosene of American origin. 

American pump. A special kind of 
bailer, used in oil fields for clean- 
ing out wells (Mitzakis). See also 

American system of drilling. See 
Cable system. 

American vermilion. A basic chro- 
mate of lead. (Webster) 

Amethyst. A purple or bluish-violet 
quartz, SiO 2 . Used as a gem. (U. 
S. Geol. Surv.) 

Amethystine quartz. A phenocrystal- 
line variety of quartz colored pur- 
plish or bluish-violet by manganese 
(Standard). See also Amethyst. 

iianthinite. Asbestos. ( Standard ) 
Lmiantho (Port). Same as Amianto. 
Amianthus. One of the finer and more 
silky varieties of asbestos. Called 
also Earth-flax and Mountain-flax. 

Amianto (Sp.). Amianthus; a fine 
silky variety of asbestos. (Halse) 

Amiantoid. 1. Having the appearance 
of a s b e st o s . 2. An t>live-green r 
coarse, fibrous variety of asbestos. 
Called also Byssolite. (Standard) 

Ammite. Oolite ; roestone. (Standard) 

Ammonal. An explosive consisting of 
a mixture of powdered aluminum 
(1 part), and nitrate of ammonium 
(8 parts). 

Ammonia. A colorless gaseous com- 
pound of hydrogen and nitrogen 
(NHs) with extremely pungent 
smell and taste. Sp. Gr. as com- 
pared with air, 0.589. (Webster) 

Amonia gelatin. An explosive con- 
sisting of blasting gelatin, ammo- 
nium nitrate, and charcoal. (Web- 

Ammonia oil. An oil suitable for the 
lubrication of the cylinders of am- 
monia compressors. Low cold-test 
is essential for this purpose, 

Ammonite. Ammonium nitrate explo- 
sives, containing from 70 to 95 per 
cent ammonium nitrate, besides com- 
bustile components, which are so- 
called carbon carriers, as resin, 
meal, naphthalene. (Brunswig, p. 

Amo. 1. (Sp.) An overseer. 2, 
(Mex.) An owner of a mine, 

Amojonar (Mex.). To set monuments 
or landmarks. (Dwight) 

Amolinar (Sp. Am.). To wash the 
auriferous alluvion in a wooden 
trough. (Lucas) 

Amonedar (Sp.). 'To coin. (Min, 

Amoniaco (Mex.). Ammonia, 

Amontonar (Sp.). To pile up; to 
make into heaps. (Halse) 

Amorfo (Mex.). Amorphous. (Dwight) 

Amorphism. The state or quality of 
being amorphous; especially, the ab- 
sence of crystalline structure. 

Amorphous. Without form ; applied " 
to rocks and minerals having no 
definite crystalline structure. (Roy. 

Amorphous phosphorus. A reddish- 
brown, nontoxic, allotropic modifica- 
tion of phosphorus obtained by heat- 
ing common phosphorus to about 



450 F. In air-tight vessels; largely 
used for safety matches. Called also 
Red phosphorus. (Standard) 

Amortization. The repayment of u 
debt, principal and interest, in equal 
annual installments. Frequently 
used in finance as the extinction of 
a debt, regardless of the means em- 
ployed. (E. B. Skinner, p. 114). 
Important in connection with min- 
ing finance. 

Amortization schedule. In finance, a 
table so constructed as to show 
the principal remaining due or out- 
standing immediately after the an- 
nual payment, the interest for the 
interval, and the amount of princi- 
pal repaid. (E. B. Skinner, p. 121) 

Amortize. To clear off, liquidate, or 
otherwise extinguish, as a debt. To 
extinguish by periodically charging 
off a portion so as to bring the value 
to par at maturity. (Webster) 

Amparar (Mex.). 1. To cover (title). 

2. A. en la posesitin, to maintain in 
possession. (Halse) 

Amparo .(Sp.). .Continued possession 
of a mine to secure title; keeping 
the necessary number of men at 
work in accordance with mining 
laws. (Crofutt) 

Ampelite. 1. A name, specially cur- 
rent among the French, for shales, 
charged with pyrite and carbonace- 
ous . matter, that may yield alum- 
shales. (Kemp) 

2. Cannel coal; also carbonaceous 
schist. (Webster) 

Amperage. The strength of an elec- 
tric current measured in amperes. 
< Century) 

Ampere. The practical unit of elec- 
tric current; the current produced 
by 1 volt acting through a resistance 
of 1 ohm. (Webster) 

Ampere foot. One ampere flowing 
through 1 foot of an electric con- 
ductor. A wire 20 feet long con- 
ducting a current of 6 amperes is 
said to have 120 ampere feet. 

Ampere hour. The quantity of elec- 
tricity delivered in 1 hour by a 
current whose average strength is 
1 ampere. (Webster) 

Ampere meter. An instrument for 
measuring in amperes the strength 
of an electric current ; an ammeter. 

Ampere turn. A unit equal to the 
product of one complete convolution 
of a coiled conductor into 1 am- 
pere current. Thus a conductor 
having 5 convolutions with $ am- 
pere current is said to have 2$ am- 
pere turns. (Webster) 

Ampere volt. A watt. (Standard) 

Amphibole. The generic name for the 
group of bisilicate minerals whose 
chief rock-making member is horn- 
blende. It is often prefixed to those 
rocks that have hornblende as a 
prominent constituent, as amphibole- 
andesite, amphibole-gabbro, amphi- 
bole-granite, etc. (Kemp). See also 

Amphibolite. A metamorphic rock 
consisting chiefly of hornblende, or 
of some member of the amphibole 
group. It is, as a rule, a synonym of 
hornblende schists, but is preferable 
to the latter, when the schistosity is 
not marked. (Kemp) 

Amphibolization. Metamorphic altera- 
tion of other material into amphi- 
bole. (Standard) 

Amphigene. Leucite, K 2 O.Al 2 O 3 .4SiO 2 . 

Amphigenite. Lava containing amphi- 
gne. (Standard) 

Amphimorphic. In geology, formed by 
a two-fold process, as the action of 
mineral-bearing thermal springs 
upon sedimentary argillaceous de- 
posits during deposition. (Stand- 

Ampliacion (Mex.). The enlargement 
of a mining claim. (Dwight) 

Ampollosa (Mex.). Rock structure 
containing cavities. (Dwight) 

Amurang (Ceylon). Gold ore. (Lock) 

Amygdaloidal. Relating to an amyg- 

Amygdaloid. A vesicular or cellular 
igneous rock, ordinarily basaltic, in 
which the vesicles have been partly 
or wholly filled with a secondary de- 
posit of calcite, quartz, epidote, na- 
tive copper, or zeolites. (La Fo'irge). 
The term is used in the form of the 
adjective, amygdaloidal, and prop- 
erly should be limited to this. As a 
noun it is also employed for second- 
ary fillings of the cavities, which 
are usually calcite, quartz, or some 
member of the zeolite group. Amyg- 
daloidal rocks are of chief interest 
in America because certain basaltic 
lava sheets on Keweenaw Point, 



Lake Superior, have their amygdules 
filled with native copper and are 
important sources of the metal. 
Amygdaloldal cavities are limited to 
the upper and lower portions of lava 
sheets. The name is derived from 
the Greek word for almond. ( Kemp ) 

Amygdule. A small globular cavity in 
an eruptive rock caused by steam or 
vapor at the time of its eruption 
and generally lined afterwards with 
secondary minerals. (U. S. Geul. 
Surv. Bui. 521, p. 162) 

Anabranch (Aust.). An effluent of a 
stream that rejoins the main stream, 
forcing an island between the two 
watercourses. ( Standard ) 

Anacllnal. Descending in a direction 
opposite to the dip of the strata, as 
an anaclinal river. Opposed to Cata- 
clinal. (Webster) 

Aflagna (Arg.). A shrub used as fuel 
in high desert regions. (Halse) 

Analcite. A hydrous sodium-alumi- 
num silicate, NaAlSiO.+H a O, be- 
longing to the zeolite group. (Dana) 

Analcite-basalt. A variety of basalt 
whose feldspar IB more or less re- 
placed by analcite. The analcite is 
in places in such relations as to give 
reason for thinking it an original 
mineral and not an alteration prod- 
uct from feldspar. Analcite-basalts 
occur in the Highwood mountains, 
Mont Analcite-diabase has been 
found in California. See alto Tes- 
chenite. (Kemp) 

Analcite- tingnaite. Tinguaite (which 
see) with considerable analcite. 

Analcitite. Pirsson's name for the 
olivine-free analcite-basalts. (Kemp) 

Analizar (Mex.). To analyze. 

Analysis. Spectflcially, in chemistry 
and mineralogy, the determination, 
by chemical methods* of the nature 
and proportionate amounts, and 
sometimes also of the manner of 
combination, of the elementary con- 
stituents of a compound substance, 
as a mineral or a rock. Also, 
loosely, a tabular statement of the 
result of such an analysis. (La 

Analyzer. That part of a polariscope 
that receives the light after pol- 
arization, and exhibits its properties. 

744010 O J7 3 

Anamesite. An old name suggested by 
von Leonhard in 1832 for those finely 
crystalline basalts that textur- 
ally stand between the dense typical 
basalt and the coarser dolerites. 
The name is from the Greek for "in 
the middle." (Kemp) 

Anamorphic zone. A zone correspond- 
ing to the zone of rock-flowage. It 
Is especially characterized by sili- 
catization involving decarbonation, 
dehydration and deoxidation; the 
processes are constructive. See also 
Katamorphic zone. (Watson) 

Anamorphism; Anamorphosis. Meta- 
morphism at considerable depths in 
the earth's crust and under great 
pressure, resulting in the formation 
of complex minerals from simpler 
ones. (La Forge) 

Anatase (Fr.). Same as Octahedrite. 

Anatexis. A refusion of igneous rocks. 
(Daly, p. 309) 

Anchi eutectic. Magmas which are in- 
capable of undergoing notable differ- 
entiation. (Daly, p. 360) 

Ancho (Sp.). Wide. See Anchura. 

Anchor. An iron plate used In with- 
drawing coke from a coke oven. 

Anchor bolt. A foundation bolt; a 
drift spike, or other device used for 
holding any mechanism or structure 
down. It may or may not be 

Anchor ice. See Ground ice. 

Anchor oven. An oven from which 
coke is removed with an anchor- 
shaped rabble. (Standard) 

Anchnra (Sp.). 1. Width or thickness 
of a mineral deposit. 2. The widen.- 
ing of a vein. 3. The width of & 
gallery, etc. (Halse) 

Anchnr6n (Sp.). A large room opened 
in massive ore deposits. (Halse) 

Ancla (Mex.) . Anchor; hook. 

Ancon de tierra (Mex.). A projecting 
or salient corner of a raining claim. 

Andalusite. An aluminum silicate 
Al?SiO B . Sometimes used as a semi- 
precious stone. (Dana) 



Andalusite-hornstone. A compact con- 
tact rock containing andalusite. It 
is usually produced from shale or 
slate by intrusions of granite. 

Andamio (Mex.). 1. Builders' jack. 
2. A scaffold. (Dwight) 

Andarivel (Sp.). An overhead cable- 
way. (Lucas) 

Anden (Sp.). 1. A path for horses 
around the shaft, as at a horse 
whim. (Dwight) 

2. A railroad station platform. 

Andendiorite. A Tertiary quartz-au- 
gite-diorite that occurs In areas 
like islands in the midst of the vol- 
canic rocks of the Chilean Andes. 
The quartz crystals are remarkable 
for their inclusions of glass and of 
fluids with salt crystals. (Kemp) 

Andengranite. A biotite-bearing horn- 
blende-granite, similar in occurrence 
and microscopic features to Anden- 
diorite. (Kemp) 

Andesine. One of the plagioclase feld- 
spars. Intermediate between albite 
and anorthite (Dana). A silicate 
of sodium, calcium, and aluminum, 
with the sodium in excess of ' the 
calcium. An important constituent 
of andesite and diorite. (Ransome) 

Andesita (Mex.). Andesite. (Dwight) 

Andesite. A volcanic rock of por^hy- 
ritic or felsitic texture, whose cr/s- 
tailized minerals are plagioclase and 
one or more of the following: 
biotite, hornblende, and augite. The 
name was suggested by L. von Buch 
in 1836, for a certain rock from the 
Andes resembling trachyte, but 
whose feldspar was at first thought 
to be albite, and later oligoclase. 

Andradite. The common calcium-iron 
garnet, OasFe, (SiO 4 ). (Dana) 

Anegada (Mex.). Drowned; over- 
flowed; left to fill with water. 

Anemometer. An instrument for meas- 
uring the velocity of air currents; 
specifically, in mines, a common 
form consists of a small delicately 
mounted disk fan connected by 
means of gears with indicating 
dials. Especially useful when air 
current is over 100 feet per minute. 

Anemometry. The process of deter- 
mining the pressure or velocity of 
the wind (air) by means of an 
anemometer. (Century) 

Aneroid barometer. An instrument for 
showing the pressure of the atmos- 
phere by means of the movements of 
the elastic top of a metallic box 
from which the air has been, partly 
exhausted. The most sensitive an- 
eroids show the variation of pressure 
due to a difference of height of a 
few feet; hence the instrument is 
much used in measuring altitudes 
(Standard). See aUo Barometer. 

Anfbolita (Sp.) Amphibolite. (Lucas) 

Angle. 1. The figure formed by two 
meeting lines (plane angle), two 
meeting planes (dihedral angle), or 
three or more planes meeting in a 
point (solid angle). 2. The differ- 
ence in direction of two lines. 3. A 
projecting or sharp corner. (Web- 

Angle beam. A two-limbed beam used 
for turning angles in shafts, etc. 
(C. and M. M. P.) 

Angle brace. A brace used to pre- 
vent mine timbers from riding or 
leaning (Sanders, p. 156). A brace 
across an interior angle. 

Angle of dip. A synonym for Dip. 

Angle of incidence. The angle formed 
by the line of incidence and a line 
drawn from the point of contact 
perpendicular to the plane or sur- 
face on which the incident ray or 
body impinges. (Century) 

Angle Iron. A bent piece of Iron used 
for joining two or more parts of a 
composite structure at an angle. 
Also a rolled shape largely used in 
structural work. 

Angle of nip. The angle between tan- 
gents drawn to an ore particle at 
the point of its contact with the 
surface of the rolls. (Richards) 

Angle of polarization. That angle 
whose tangent is the index of re- 
fraction of a reflecting substance. 

Angle of pull. The angle between t;he 
vertical and an inclined plane 
bounding the area affected by the 
subsidence beyond the vertical. Ap- 
plied to slides of earth. (Watson) 

Angle of rest or repose. The angle 
with a horizontal plane at which 
loose material will stand on a hori- 
zontal base without sliding. It is 
often between 30 and 35. (Web- 



Angle of slide. The slope, measured 
in degrees of deviation from the hori- 
zontal on which a slide of material 
will start (Watson). It is slightly 
greater than the angle of rest 

Anglesite. Lead sulphate, PbSO,, con- 
taining 68 per cent lead. (Dana) 

Angleur furnace. A furnace for the 
distillation of zinc. (Ingalls, p. 448) 

Angostura (Sp.). Narrowness; a nar- 
row mountain pass. (Halse) 

Angulo (Mex.). Angle. (D wight) 

Angus Smith composition. A protec- 
tive coating for valves, fittings, and 
pipe used for underground work. 
It is composed of coal tar, tallow, 
resin, and quicklime, and must be 
applied hot. (Nat Tube Co.) 

AnhedraL Having a form determined 
by the surrounding crystals ; allotrio- 
morphic ; xenomorphic ; said of min- 
erals in a granular igneous rock. 
Contrasted with Euhedral and Sub- 
hedral. (La Forge) 

Anhedron. A name proposed by L. V. 
Pirsson for the individual mineral 
components of an igneous rock that 
lack crystal boundaries, and that 
can not therefore be properly called 
crystals according to the older and 
most generally accepted conception 
of a crystal. Xenomorphic and allo- 
triomorphic are adjectives implying 
the same conception. The name 
means without planes. (Kemp) 

Anhydride. An oxide of a nonme- 
tallic body, or an organic radical, 
capable of forming an acid by unit- 
Ing with water, or of being formed 
from an acid by the abstraction of 
the water, or of uniting with basic 
oxides to form salts. (Webster) 

Anhydrite. . Calcium sulphate, CaSO*, 
or CaO.SOi. Contains 41.2 per cent 
lime and 58.8 per cent sulphur tri- 
oxide. Usually associated with gyp- 
sum, to which it alters. Differs 
from it in being harder and in lack- 
ing water of crystallization. (U. S. 
Geol. Surv.) 

Anhydrous. Destitute of water, espe- 
cially water of crystallization. 

Aftilado (Sp.). An indigo-colored cop- 
per ore, (Halse) 

Anillo (Mex.). Ring; collar; loop on 
the end of a rope. In the plural, a 
set of shaft-timbers ; shells for crush- 
ing-rolls. (Dwight) 

Animikean system. The middle 
division of the Proterozoic era, some- 
times known as the Upper Huronian 
or Penokean. (Chamberlin, vol. 2, 
p. 183) 

Animikite, A white to gray silver 
antimonide, AgSb, that is found in 
fine granular masses in the Lake 
Superior region. (Standard) 

Anisometric. Having unsymmetrical 
parts. Not Isometric. (Webster) 

Anisotropic. Not having the same 
properties in all directions with re- 
gard to light; characteristic of all 
crystalline minerals except those of 
the isometric system. (Power) 

Ankerite. A white, red, or grayish 
calcium-magnesium-iron carbonate, 
CaCO,(Mg,Fe,Mn)CO (Dana) 

Ankylostomiasis. A disease due to the 
presence of parasites in the small 
intestines. When present in large 
numbers, by sucking the blood from 
the intestinal walls they produce a 
severe anemia (Webster). Also 
called Miner's worm; Hookworm; 
Tunnel disease. 

Anna. An East Indian money of ac- 
count, one-sixteenth rupee, or about 
two cents. (Webster) 

Annabergite. A hydrous nickel arse- 
nate, Ni^s,O fc 8HO. (U. S. Geol. 

Anneal. ?. To heat, fire, bake, or fuse, 
as glass, earthenware, ore, etc. JL 
To heat, as glass, earthenware, or 
metals in order to fix colors. 3. To 
treat, as glass, earthenware, or met- 
als, by heating and gradually coot- 
ing, so as to toughen them and re- 
move brittleness. (Century) 

Annealed steel Steel that has been 
subjected to an annealing operation. 

Annealed wire rope. A wire rope made 
from wires that have been softened 
by anneaMng. (C. M. P.) 

Annealing. 1. The process by 
glass and certain metals are heatod 
and then slowly cooled to make them 
more tenacious an less brittle. Im- 
portant In connection with the 
manufacture of steel castings, for$- 
ings, etc. 2. See Malleable castings. 

Annealing-arch. The oven in which 
glass is annealed. (Century) 

Annealing-box. A box in which ar- 
ticles to be annealed are enclosed 
while in the furnace (Standard). 
Also called Annealing pot. 


Annealing-color. The hue taken by 
steel in annealing. (Standard) 

Annealing-furnace. See Annealing 

Annealing-oven. An oven or furnace 
for heating and gradually cooling 
metals or glass to render them less 
brittle (Standard). Also called An- 
nealing furnace. 

Annealing-pot. A closed pet in which 
articles are placed to be annealed 
or subjected to the heat of a fur- 
nace. They are thus enclosed to 
prevent the formation of oxide upon 
their surfaces (Century). Also 
called Annealing-box. 

Annerodite. A submetallic black ura- 
nium-yttrium pyroniobate, crystal- 
lizing in the orthorhombic system. 

Annual labor. Same as Assessment 
work on mining claims. (U. S. Min. 
Stat, D. 232-253) 

Annuity. 1. An annual allowance, 
payment, or income. 2. The return 
from an investment of capital with 
interest in a series of yearly pay- 
ments. ( Standard ) 

Annular borer. A tool with a tubular 
bit for removing a cylindrical core 
as a sample. Used in prospecting 
( Standard ) . Compare Diamond 
drill; Adamantine drill; Shot drill. 

Annular kiln. A kiln having compart- 
ments. (Standard) 

Anode. The positive terminal of an 
electric source, or more strictly the 
electrode by which the current en- 
ters an -electrolyte on its way to the 
other pole. Opposed to Cathode. 

Anode copper. Crude-copper plates, 
usually cast from the converter, 
used as anodes in the electrolytic 
process of refining copper. 

Alodo (Sp.). Anode. (Halse) 

Anogene. An old name for rocks that 
have come up from below ; 4. e., erup- 
tive rocks. .(Kemp) 

Anomalies. As applied to crystals, re- 
fers to lack of harmony of optical 
phenomena with apparent symmetry 
of external form. >(Dana) 

Anomite. A variety of biotite. (Stand- 

Anorthie. In crystallography, same as 
triclinic. (Standard) 

Anorthite. An end-member of the 
plagioclase feldspar series, the one 
consisting of calcium-aluminum sili- 
cate and containing no sodium. The 
intermediate plagioclases may be re- 
garded as mixtures of anorthite with 
the other end-member, albite (Ran- 
some). Compare Albite. 

Anorthite rock. A coarsely crystalline 
granitoid igneous rock that consists 
almost entirely of anorthite. It was 
observed on the Minnesota shore of 
Lake Superior. The rock is a felds- 
pathic extreme of the gabbro group, 
practically an anorthosite formed of 
anorthite. (Kemp) 

Anorthoclase. A triclinic feldspar 
closely related to the orthoclase 
group. Chiefy a soda-potash feld- 
spar. (Dana) 

Anorthosite. A name applied by T. 
Sterry Hunt to granitoid rocks that 
consist of little else than labradorite 
and that are of great extent in east- 
ern Canada and the Adirondacks. 
The name is derived from anorthose, 
the French word for plagioclase, 
and is not to be confused with anor- 
thite, with which it has no necessary 
connection, although anorthosite is 
used as a general name for rocks 
composed of plagioclase. The rocks 
are extremes of the gabbro group 
into whose typical members they 
shade by insensible gradations. 

Anqueria (Peru). Silver ore which 
has the appearance of cubical ga- 
lena. (Dwight) 

Anquerita (Mex.). Ankerite. (Dwight) 

Anta (Peru). Copper; A. charca, a 
copper mine. (Halse) 

Antecedent. 1. Pertaining to or char- 
acterizing the internal movements 
of the earth concerned in the ele- 
vation of continental masses and 
their exposure to degradation. Con- 
trasted with consequent. 2. Estab- 
lished previous to the displacement 
of a terrane by faulting or fold- 
ing; as an antecedent valley, ante- 
cedent drainage. Contrasted with 
consequent and superimposed. Epi- 
genetic. (Standard) 

Antecedent streams. Streams that 
hold their early courses in spite of 
changes since their courses were as- 
sumed. (Chamberlin vol. 1, p. 161) 

Anthraciferous. Yielding anthracite. 



Anthracite; Hard coal. A hard black 
lustrous coal containing 85 to 95 per 
cent carbon as against 70 to 85 per 
cent in bituminous . or "soft" coal. 
See also Coal. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 
Characterized by its small percent- 
age of volatile matter, high specific 
gravity, hardness, nearly metallic 
luster, rich black color, and semi- 
conchoidal fracture. It ignites with 
difficulty, produces an intensely hot 
fire, giving off no smoke, and burns 
with a very small blue flame of car- 
bonic oxide (produced by incomplete 
combustion), which disappears after 
the coal is thoroughly ignited. Vol- 
atile matter is usually less than 7 
per cent. (Chance) 

Anthracolite. Same as Anthraconite. 

Anthraconite. A coal-black bitumi- 
nous marble or -limestone usually 
emitting a fetid smell when rubbed. 
Also called Stinkstone and Swine- 
stone. (Webster) 

Anthracosis. Chronic inflammation of. 
the lungs, produced by inhaling par- 
ticles of solid matter, as coal dust; 
the 'blacklung' of coal workers. 

Anthracoxenite. A black powder ob- 
tained from a resinoid material in 
the coal bods of Brandeisl, near 
Schlan/in Bohemia. The resin is 
treated^ with ether which dissolves 
the schlanite, leaving the insoluble 
portion, anthracoxenite. (Bacon) 

Anthrax. A gem stone of the an- 
cients; probably identical with the 
carbuncle. ( Standard ) 

Anthraxolite. A black combustible 
coal-like substance of varying com- 
position, occurring in Ontario and 
Quebec. (Bacon) 

Anticaustic. 1. Checking or prevent- 
ing the corrosive action of caustics. 
2. Any remedy for arresting or miti- 
gating the action of caustics. 

Anticlinal. Of. or pertaining to, an 
anticline. ( Webster ) The crest of 
an anticlinal roll may be the apex 
of a vein. (Tonopah Min. Co. v. 
West End Cons. Min. Co. 158 Pacific, 
p. 881) 

Anticlinal flexure; Anticlinal fold, 
See Anticlinal; Anticline. 

Anticlinal line or axis. In geology, 
the medial line of a folded struc- 
ture from which the strata dip on 
either side. (Century) 

Anticline. A fold or arch of rock 
strata, dipping in opposite direction 
from an axis. (Webster) 

Anticlinoritim. A series of anticlines 
and synclines, so grouped that- taken 
together they nave the general out- 
line of* an arch; opposed to Syncli- 
nori urn . ( Webster ) 

Antifriction metal. Any alloy having 
a low coefficient of friction : used 
for bearing surfaces. (Standard) 

Antigos (Braz.). "Old men," or old 
workings (Halse). Compare An- 

Antiguo, rna (Mex.). A mine worked 
by Spaniards or Mexicans at a time 
so remote (from 50 to 900 years) 
that particulars have been forgotten. 

Antimonial silver. Same as Dyscra- 
site. (Standard) 

Antimonide. A binary chemical com- 
pound of which antimony ia one 
constituent. (Webster) 

Antlmonio (Mex.). Antimony; A. 
bianco, valentinite; A. rojo, kerme- 
site. (Dwight) 

Antimonite. The native sulphide of. 
antimony; stibnite. (Century) 

Antimony. An element of metallic ap- 
pearance and crystalline structure, 
tin-white in color, hard, and brittle. 
Occurs in free tate and combined 
in various minerals. Symbol, Sb; 
Atomic weight, 120.2. Specific grav- 
ity, 6:7. (Webster) 

Antimony bfende. Same as Kennesite, 

Antimony bloom. A synonym for 
entlnlte, which is often found as an 
efflorescence (Chester). SbO. 

Antimony glance. Synonym for Stib- 
nite, (A. F. Rogers) 

Antimony ocher. A synonym for Stib- 

iconite, also Cervantite. 

Antimony ores. Native antimony; 
stibnite (sulphide of antimony) ; 
valentinite, and. senarmontite (ox- 
ides). (Raymond) 

Antimony regnlns. An impure product 
of the smelting process: largely anti- 
mony sulphide. (Standard) 

Antimony star. The fern-like marking 
on the upper surface of the metal 
antimony when well crystallized. 



Antimony vermilion. 1. A fine ver- 
milion pigment prepared by treat- 
ing antimony chloride or tartar 
emetic with a thiosulphate, in solu- 
tion. (Webster) 

2. A sulphide of antimony suggested 
for, but never used as, a pigment. 

Antimony white. Antimony trioxide, 
Sb,0. (Webster) 

Antisepsii. Prevention of oepsis by 
excluding or destroying micro-organ- 
isms. (Webster) 

Antiseptic. That which may be used 
to destroy bacteria with little or no 
harmful effect on the living body. 
Very common antiseptics are aque- 
ous solutions of carbolic acid and of 
corrosive sublimate. 

Antitoxic. Counteracting poison. 

Antlerite. A light-green basic sulphate 
of copper, 8CuSO.7Cu(OH),, found 
in Arizona. (Dana) 

Antozonite. A dark violet-blue fluor- 
ite that emit an odor often caus- 
ing nausea among miners. For- 
merly ascribed to hydrogen dioxide,* 
. but now known to be free fluorine. 

Antracita (Mex. ). Anthracite. 

Aavil. 1. A block, usually of iron, 
steel-faced, and of characteristic 
shape on which metal is shaped, as 
by hammering and forging. (Web- 

2. An iron block placed between a 
stamp-mill mortar box and the foun- 
dation block ; generally used in light 
mortars and concrete foundations. 

Anvil vise. A vise of which an anvil 
forms one Jaw. (Webster) 

Apachite. A name suggested by Osann, 
from the Apache, or Davis moun- 
tains ot western Texas, for a va- 
riety of phonolite, that varies from 
typical phonolites in two particulars : 
It has almost as much of amphibole 
and of senigmatite as of pyroxene, 
whereas in normal phonolite the 
former is rare. The feldspar of 
the groundraass is generally ml- 
croperthitic. (Kemp) 

Apagar (Sp.). To quench; to ex- 
tinguish; A. un homo, to blow out 
a furnace. (Halse) 

Apalancar. 1. (Mex.) To move with 
a lever. (Dwight) 
2. (Sp.) To get ore. (Halse) 

Aparador (Mex.)V Re-worker of tail- 
ings from silver mills. (Dwight) 

Aparato (Mex.), Apparatus. (Dwight) 

Aparejo (Mex.) 1. Packsaddle. 2. 
Any rough apparatus for moving 
heavy timbers, etc, (Dwight) A 
block and tackle. 

Aparinar (Sp. Am.). To disclose in- 
dications of pay ore. (Lucas) 

Apartado (Mex.). 1. Ore separation 
or concentration. Parting gold and 
silver. 2. The place where this 
work is performed. 
3. Pos toffies box. 

Apartador ( Mer. ). Hand-sOftef W 
.ore. (Dwight) 

Apartar (Sp.). 1. To pick by hind, 
sort, cob, or break ore. &, In assay t 
ing, to part (Halse) 

Apatelite. A hydrous ferric sulphate, 
found in yellow nodules in clay. 

Apatite. A calcium phosphate con- 
taining a little fluorine or chlorine, 
Ca 4 (CaF)(PO4)8 or Oa^CaCl) 
(POO*. The fluor-apatite contains 
42.3 per cent PiO. and the chlor- 
apatite 41 per cent P.CV (U. S, 
Geol. Surv.) 

Apeador. A land surveyor. (Halse) 
Apeadura (Sp.). Surveying. (Halse) 

Apelmazado (Mex.). Compressed 
ground. (Dwight) 

Apeo (Sp.). 1. Timbering; A. par 
estacas, piling, spiles. 2. Surveying. 

Aperador (Mex. ) . Storekeeper*. 

Aperos (Mex.). A, general term for 
mining supplies. (Dwight) 

Apex. 1. The tip, point, or angular 
summit of anything, as the apex ot a 
mountain. The end, edge, or crest 
of a vein nearest the surface.* (Web- 

2. The highest point of a stratum, 
as a coal seam. (Standard) 

3. In geology, the top of an anti- 
clinal fold of strata. This term, as 
used in United States Revised Stat- 
utes, has been the occasion of much 
litigation. It is supposed to, mea& 
something nearly equivalent to out- 
crop. (Century) 

4. The highest point at which the 
ore or rock is found in place or 
between the walls of the vein, and 
not a " blow-out H or part of the vein 



broken down outside the walls. In 
case the vein outcrops at the sur- 
face, any portion of such outcrop is 
the top, or apex. If the vein does 
not reach the surface, then the high- 
est point to which the vein, or lode, 
can be traced is the apex not neces- 
sarily the nearest point to the sur- 
face, but the absolute highest point. 
It Is reasonable to believe that the 
top or apex was used instead of the 
word "outcrop," in order to cover 
"blind lodes," which do not crop out 
The conception of an apex, which is 
properly a point, was probably taken 
from the appearance of a blind lode 
in a cross- section,, where the walls 
appear as lines and the upper edge 
as a point. The term may also have 
been Intended to cover the Imagi- 
nary case of an ore deposit that 
terminates upward In u point. We 
may, however, dismiss from consid- 
eration the case of a simple point, 
and safely assume that the apex is 
the same as a top, and is either a 
line or a surface (Raymond). 

The top or apex of a vein* within 
the meaning of the law, is the high- 
est point of such vein where it ap- 
proaches nearest to the surface of 
the earth, and where it is broken on 
its edge so as to appear to be the 
beginning or the end of the vein. 
(Stevens v. Williams, 23 Federal 
Gas., p. 46.) 

The top or apex of a vein or lode 
is the end or edge or terminal of 
such vein or lode nearest the sur- 
face of the earth. It is not neces- 
sary that It should be on or near or 
within any given distance of the sur- 
face, but if found at any depth and 
the locator can define on the surface 
the area that will enclose It, then 
the vein or lode may be held by such 
location. (Iron Silver Mtn. Co. v. 
Murphy, 8 Federal, p. 37&) 

The apex or top of a vein is the 
point where it ceases to continue in 
the direction of the surface. (Sloss- 
Sheffleld Steel and Iron Co. t>. Payne, 
64 Southern, 617.) 

The apex of a vein or lodt in nrit 
necessarily a point, but may be a 
line of great length, and if a por- 
tion is found within the limits of a 
claim it is a sufficient discovery to 
enable the locator to obtain title. 
(Poplar Creek ConsoU Quartz Mine, 
In re, 16 Land Decisions, p. 2 ; Lar- 
kin v. Upton, 144 IT. S., p. 20; Deb- 
ney v. lies, 8 Alaska, p. 451.) 

An apex of a vein is that part or 
portion of the terminal edge of a 
vein from which the vein hat ex- 

tension downward In the direction 
of the dip and the definition involves 
the elements of terminal edge and 
downward course therefrom. (Stu- 
art Min. Co. t>. Ontario Min. Co., 237 
U. S., p. 860.) 

(Additional cases are cited in U. 
S. Min. Stat, p. 105.) 

Aphanite. An old name, now prac- 
tically obsolete, for dense dark 
rocks, whose components are too 
small to be distinguished with the 
eye. It was chiefly applied to finely 
crystalline diabases. An adjective, 
aphanltic, Is still more or less In 
current usage. (Kemp) 

Aphanitic. Having a texture so fine 
that the individual grains or crys- 
tals can not be distinguished with 
the naked eye. (Ransome) 

Aphanophyric. Containing phenocrystB 
in an aphanitlc groundmass ; said of 
some porphyritic Igneous rocks. 
(La Forge) 

Aphrite. A foliated or gcaly white 
pearly calcite. Called also Earth 
foam and Foam spar. (Standard) 

Apkrizite. A black variety of tourma- 
line. (Standard) 

Aphrodite. A hydrous silicate of mag- 
neaiuin, in appearance much like 
meerschaum. (Chester) 

Aphrosidcrite. A chlorite-like mineral 
of scaly structure and olive-green 
color, near penninite in composition. 

Aphthitalite. A white saline potas- 
sium-sodium sulphate, (KNa) 8 SO 4 . 
crystallizing in the rhombohedral 
system. (Dana) 

Aphthonite. .A steel-gray argentifer- 
ous variety of tetrahe4rlte. ( Stand- 

Apilar (Sp.). To form a heap or pile, 

A plqtife (Mex.). Vertical. (Dwight) 

Apique (Colom.). 1. Shaft 8. Winze. 
S. In alluvial mines, the point where 
the pump is placed. (Halse) 

Apireo (Chile). Transporting ore on 
men's shoulders. See also Hapire. 

Apirei (Peru). Ore carriers in mines. 

Aplaaador (Sp.). 1. A blacksmith's 
flatter. (Dwight) 

8. An ingot hammer. I. A riveter. 



Aplite. A term chiefly applied to finely 
crystalline muscovite-granite that 
occurs in dikes. Its original appli- 
cation was to granites poor or lack- 
ing mica. The name is from the 
Greek for simple. (Kemp) 

Apo. The Greek preposition meaning 
'from,' suggested by F. Bnscom as 
a prefix to the names of various 
volcanic rocks to describe the de- 
vitrified or silicified varieties, that 
indicate their originals only by the 
preservation of characteristic tex- 
tures, us apobsidian, aporhyolite, 
apobasalt, etc. Many rocks called by 
the old indefinite name petrosilex 
are of this character. (Kemp) 

Apobsidian. Obsidian that has been 
devitrified by metamorphism. 

Apolvillado (Hex.). 1. Ore of a su- 
perior grade (D wight) 
2. A second-class ore from the Veta 
Mflrtre, Guanajuato, Mex., yielding 
about 750 ounces of silver per short 
ton. (Halse) 

Apophyllite. A calcium-hydrogen sili- 
cate sometimes containing potassium 
and 11 u o r i n e, K,O.8CaO.16SiO,.- 
IGHaO. Occasionally used as a gem. 
(U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Apophysis. A branch from a vein or 
dike to which it is attached; an 
epiphesis is the same, but not at- 
tached. (Mln. and Sci. Press, vol. 
116, p. 694) 

Aporhyolite. Rhyolite that has been 
more or less devitrifled by meta- 
morphism. ( Standard ) 

Aporreador (Chile). A sledge ham- 
mer; a maul. (Halse) 

Appalachian. Of, or pertaining to, a 
system of mountains in the eastern 
United States, also incorrectly called 
Allegheny from its western range. 

Appalachian coal field. The coal-pro- 
ducing area extending from north- 
ern Pennsylvania to Alabama in and 
adjacent to the Appalachian moun- 

Apparatus (No. of Eng.). 1. The 
screening appliances upon the pit 
bank (at or near a mine). (Gresley) 
2. Any complex device or machine 
designed or prepared for the accom- 
plishment of a special purpose; also 
a collection of tools, appliances, ma- 
terials, etc., as that necessary to the 
pursuit of a profession, as surgical 
or chemical apparatus. (Standard) 

Apparent superposition. The actual or 
visible order in which strata lie in 
any locality. (Standard) 

Apple coal (Scot.). See Yolk coal. 

Appliances of transportation. As ap- 
plied to a coal mine, these include the 
motor tracks, roadbed, cars, and mo- 
tors used for the removal of coal 
from the mine. (Jaggie v. Davis 
Colliery Co., 84 Southwestern, p. 

Appolt oven. An oven for the manu- 
facture of coke, differing from the 
Belgian in that it is divided into 
vertical compartments. (Raymond) 

Approved. Accepted as suitable by a 
competent committee, board, or or- 
ganization designated by those adopt- 
ing the rules. (H. H. Clark) Ap- 
plies to permissible explosives, safety 
lamps, motors, etc., as passed upon 
by the Bureau of Mines. 

Apron. 1. A canvas-covered frame set 
at such an angle in the miner's rock- 
er that the gravel and water in 
passing over it are carried to the 
head of th machine. 2. An amal- 
gamated copper plate placed below 
the stamp battery, over which the 
pulp passes. The free gold con- 
tained in the pulp is caught by the 
quicksilver on the plate (Hanks). 
See also Copper plates. 

3. A hinged extension of a loading 
chute. Commonly called Lip in Ar- 
kansas. (Steel) 

4. A broad shallow vat for evaporat- 
ing. 5. A receptacle for conveying 
rock by means of a cable- way and 
trolley. 6. An endless belt for con- 
veying material of any kind; called 
also a Traveling apron. 7. A shield 
of planking, brushwood, or other 
material, below a dam, along a sea- 
wall, etc. (Webster) 

8. A sheet of sand and gravel lying 
for some distance in front of the 
terminal moraines of a glacier. 
Called also Frontal apron and Mo- 
ra inal apron. (Standard) 

Apron plate. The large amalgamated 
plate, of copper or silvered copper, 
that receives the discharge from a 
stamp mill, or other crushing or 
screening apparatus, but sometimes 
placed in a separate building. 

Apron roll. One of the rolls that car- 
ries a traveling apron. (Webster) 

Apurador (Mex.). 1. One who looks 
for particles of ore in waste waters. 
2. Men who re wash the ore from 
the fin a*, or patio process. (Halse) 



Apuradora (Sp.). 1. Long drills used 
in finishing a borehole. 2. A large 
vat used in the patio process in 
which the batea* are washed. 

Apurar; Puriflcar (Sp.). 1. To purify 
metals. 8. To clean up ores. & To 
consume. (Halse) 

Apuro (Sp.). A cast-iron settling pot 
used in the patio process. (Halse) 

Apyrous, Not changed by extremte 
heat, as mica: distinguished from 
Refractory, (Standard) 

Aqua fortU. Nitric acid. ' Applied 
especially to the weaker grade of the 
commercial acid. (Webster) 

Aquamarine. A transparent, light blu" 
ish-greea beryl. Used as a gem. (U. 
S. Geol. Surv.) 

Aqua regia. A mixture of nitric and 
hydrochloric acids. By the action 
of the chlorine evolved it dissolves 
gold or platinum. (Webster) 

Aqueduct, An artificial elevated way 
for carrying water. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

AqUeo-glacitl. Of, or pertaining to, or 
resulting from, the combined action 
9t ice and water. (Webatet ) 

Aqueo-igaeons. Of, of pertaining to, 
or resulting from the joint Influence 
of heat and water. (Webster) 

Aqueons fusion. Melting in the water 
of crystallization. (Webster) 

Aquttmt lava. The mud lava formed 
by the mixture of volcanid ash with 
condensing volcanic vapor or other 
water, (Standard) 

Aqueous rooki. Sedimentary rocks. 
See also Sedimentary. 

Aquifer. A porous rock stratum that 
carries water. (Lowe) 

Aquilatar (Sp.). See Quilatar, 

Aragonite* Orthorhomblc calcium 
carbonate, CaCOi. See also Oalcite. 

Amgoaitt group. Aragonite, bromllte, 
wltherite, strontianite, and cerusite. 

Arag otite, A peculiar kind of bitumen 
found in the Sulphur Sprfbgs district 
of California, find also in the quick- 
silver mines of Lake, Ydlo and Santa 
Clara counties, in the same State. 
Not to be confused with Aragonite. 

Aralo-Caspian. In physical geography, 
a term applied to the extensive basin 
or depressed area occupied by the 
Aral and Caspian Seas, and which 
Is a true "basin of continental 
streams," having no communication 
with the ocean; (fage) 

Arancel (Peru). A list of fees pay- 
able to Government engineers, for 
surveying, marking out boundaries, 
etc. (Halse) 

Arborescent. Applied to minerals 
when assuming a tree-like form, 
onore especially when fairly mas- 
sive ; if so ^thin a to resemble the 
painting of a tree they are generally 
termed Dendrites. (Power) 

Amnit. Samfe as AphthitAlite. 


Arch. 1. (Corn.) A portion of a lode 
left standing when the rest is ex- 
tracted, to support the hanging wall 
or because It is too poor for profit- 
able extraction. (Raymond). 
Ground unworked near a shaft 

*. One of the fire chambers of a 
brick kiln ; also the fire chamber in 
certain kinds of furnaces and ovens, 
from the arfched roof. (Webster) 
I. The roof of * rfcvefberatory fur- 
nace. (Raymotid) 

Arohaam; Archean. Ancient. The 
term is sometimes used as the equiv- 
alent of Pre-dambrian, but is re- 
stricted by the U. S. Geol. Surv. and 
most American geologists to the old- 
est stratified rocks. 

Arch brick. 1. Commonly applied to 
those brick taken from the arches 
of a kiln. They are usually over- 
burned. (Ries) 

Iv A wedge4haped brick used ID 
building an arch. (Webster) 

Arched (Corn.). Said of the roads In 
a mine, when built with stones of 
bricks. (Min. Jour.) 

Arohemy. A variant of Alchemy. 

Archeozoic. 1. The era during whlcn, 
or during the later part of which, 
the oldest system of rocks was made. 

8. Belonging to the last of three sub- 
divisions or Archean time, when the 
lowest forms of life probably ex- 
isted. (Standard) 

Archetto (It). A wire stretched on a 
forked or bent stick for smoothing 
potter's clay in molding. (Stand- 



Archimedean screw. A spiral screw, 
fitting closely In a tube, for raising 
water or other liquids ; often used as 
a screw conveyor for grain, sand, 
gravel, and fine ore. 

Archimedes limestone. One of the sub- 
ordinate beds 6f the lower Carbonif- 
erous series. (Emmons, 1860) 

Arching (Eng.). Brickwork or s.tone- 
work forming the roof of any under- 
ground roadway. (Gresley) 

Archolithic. Of or pertaining to the 
earliest sedimentary rocks, as the 
Laurenthian and Silurian. (Stand- 
ard). The term is not in common 

Arcilla (Mex.). Clay (Dwight). Kao- 

Arcilloso (Mex.). Argillaceous. 

Arcose. Same as Arkose. (Standard) 
Arc welding. See Electric welding. 

Ardennite. A yellow to yellowish- 
brown vanadio-silicate of aluminum 
and manganese that crystallines in 
{lie orthorhombic system. (Dana) 

Area (-Sp.). A square of 10 meters on 
each side, equivalent to about 143 
sq. varas. (Halse) r 

Areal geology. That branch of geol- 
ogy which pertains to the distribu- 
tion, position, and form of the areas 
of the earth's surface occupied by 
different sorts of rock or different 
geologic formations, and to the mak- 
ing of geologic maps. (La Forge) 

Areia (Port). Sand, gravel; A. mo- 
vedica, quicksand ; A. preta, black 
sand (Halse). Compare Arena. 

Arena (Sp.) Sand or grit; A. de oro, 
gold-bearing sand; A gorda, coarse 
sand or gravel. (Halse) 

Arenaceous. An adjective applied to 
rocks that have been derived from 
sand or that contain sand. (Kemp) 
Not to be confounded with siliceous. 

Arendalite. A dark-green crystalline 
epldote. (Standard) 

Areng (Borneo). A yellowish gravelly 
earth, sometimes containing dia- 
monds. (Lock) 

Arenilitic. Of or pertaining to sand- 
stone. (Standard) 

Arenilla. 1. (Sp.) Fine sand. 2. 
( Venez. ) Black, magnetic-iron sand. 

3. (Colom.) Titaniferous iron ore. 

4. (Chile) Copper matte mixed with 
slag; also specular iron ore. (Halse) 
5 (Mex.). Tailings; refuse earth. 

Arenisca (piedra arenisca) (Mex.). 
Sandstone. (Dwight) 

Arenose. Full of grit or fine sand; 
gritty. (Standard) 

Arenoso (Sp.). Sandy ; gravelly:; gritty. 

Areometer. An instrument for meas- 
uring the specific gravity of liquids ; 
a hydrometer. (Standard) 

Arents tap. An arrangement by which 
the molten lead from the crucible of 
a shaft furnace is drawn through 
an inverted siphon into an exterior 
basin, from which it can be ladled 
without disturbing the furnace. 

Arfvedsonite. A slightly basic meta- 
silicate of sodium, calcium, and fer- 
rous iron. One of the amphibole 
group. (Dana) 

Argal. See Argol. 

Argall furnace. A reverberatory 
roasting furnace of which the hearth 
has a reciprocating movement 
whereby the ore is caused to move 
forward by the action of rabbles ex- 
tending across the hearth. . (Ingalls, 
p. 116.) 

Argall tubular furnace. A tubular 
roasting furnace consisting of 4 
brick-lined steel tubes 30 feet long 
nested together inside two steel 
tires, which revolve upon steel- 
faced carrying rolls. (Ingalls, p. 

Argamasa. 1. (Sp.). Lime mortar. 

2. A. hidrdulica, cement mortar or 
hydraulic cement. 3. (Sonora, Mex.) 
A cement gravel, or conglomerate 
containing mica, hematite, black 
sand, and quartz cemented with cal- 
cite, (Halse) 

Argental mercury! A silver amalgam. 

Argentiferous. Containing silver. 

Argentina. In ceramics, unglazed por- 
celain coated by a chemical process 
with gold, silver, or copper. (Stand- 

Argentine. 1. A lamellar variety of 
calcite with a pearly white luster. 

2. Silver-coated white metal. 3. A 
finely divided tin moss or sponge 
obtained from a solution of tin by 
precipitation with einc. (Standard) 

Argentine flowers of antimony. The 
tetroxide of antimony. (Century) 


AD MltfEfcAL 

; !lv*r gl&iic*. A silver sul- 
phide, AgiS. Contains 87 per cent 
silver. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Argentopyrite. A silver and iron sul- 
phide occurring in email hexagonal 
prisms. (Chester) 

Argentns! (L.). Silver, the chemical 
symbol of which is Ag. 

Argil. 1. Potters' clay; white clay. 
2. Same as Alumlnite. (Standard) 

Argile plastique (Fr.). A clay near 
the base of the Tertiary system in 
France; used for pottery purposes. 

Argillaceous. Containing clay, either 
soft or hardened, as in shale, slate, 
argilllte, etc. ; applied to minerals 
having the odor of moistened clay. 

Argillaceous sandstone. A sandstone 
containing a considerable proportion 
of clay. (Bowles) 

Argillite. 1. A thick-bedded argilla- 
ceous sedimentary rock without dis- 
tinct slaty cleavage or shaly frac- 
ture; mudrock: sometimes called 
Pelite. 2. A clay slate : tn this sense 
* metamorphic rock With fa*u slatj 
cleavage. The term is probably 
more generally used in the first 
sense in the United States and in the 
second sense abroad. (La Forge) 

Argillomrenaeeotis. Composed Of 6* 
containing cla/ and sand. (Stand- 

Argillo-oalcareous. Composed of or 

containing clay and lime. (Stand- 

ArgiUo-otieit* A clayey cateitev 

Argillo-ferniginous. Composed of or 

containing clay and Iron. (Stand- 

Argillo-magneslan. Composed of or 

containing clay attd magnesia of 

magnesium. (Standard) 
Argirosa (Sp.). Dark ruby sliver. 

ArgeL Unrefined or crude tartar* A 

hard crust of potassium bltartrate 

formed on the Sides of vessels In 

which wine has been fermented; 

Also written, Argal, Argoll, Argall, 

Orgal (Century). Used extensively 

fn assaying for Its fed^ing tww^r. 
Argon. A colorless odorless gas In the 

hir, of Which it constitutes alttflSt 1 

per cent by volume. JSytaWli A; 

atomic weight, 39.88 4 Specific , grav* 

ity, 1.4. (Webster) 
Argyrite. Same as Argentita Also 

called Argyrose. (Standard) 

Arfyropyrlte. A silver-iron stllpttW4 
Ag.FerSii, sfmllaf to argefttopyrtte, 
that crysthllizes* in the hexagonal 
system (Standard). Probably ttoe 
same as ArgentopyWte. 

Argyrose. Same as Argentite. l[ Stand- 

Argyrythrore. Same as 

Arid. Parched with heat; without 
moisture; very dry; barren; specifi- 
cally* having little or no rainfall 
and requiring artificial irrigation. 

Arieglte. A name given by A. Lacrtilx 
to a special family of granitoid 
rocksV Consisting primarily Of mono- 
cltnlc pyroxene and spinel. Bub- 
Vferieties result from the presence of 
amphibole and garnet. The rocks 
are found in the French Pyrenees, 
in the department of Ariege, from 
which they take their name. They 
are most closely related to the py- 
roxeirttes. {Kemp) 

Arista (8p.). The intersection line of 
two planes. (Dwight) 

Arlte, A nickel mineral intermediate 

between nlccolite and breithauptite. 

Arkansas strfne. A true novaculite 
(see Novaculite) used as an oilstone 
for sharpening tools or instruments. 
Found in the Ozark Mountains of 
Arkansas. (Pike) 

Arkansite. A variety of brookite from 
Magnet Cove, Arkansas (Century) 

Arklte. A name based on the common 
abbreviation Ark, for Arkansas, and 
given by H> S. Washington to a 
rock that occurs near the Diamond 
Jo (iuarfy, Magnet Cote", Ark. 
rock waS earlier called 
phyry, by J. F. Williams. (Kemp) 

Ai-kose. 1. A sandstone rich In feld- 
spar" fragments, as dUtlngtHshed 
from the more common richly quattz- 
ose varieties. (Kemp) 
9. A sedimentary rock composed of 
material derived from the disinte- 
gration of granite, transmitted brtif 
redeposited with little sorting. (La 

Arkosio. Having, wholly or IB part 
the character of arkose. 

Arlequines (Mex,), Precious opal a 

Aries, or Etrlei (No. of Bng.) Harn- 
est money formerly allowed to col- 
liers at the time of hiring them. 



Arm. 1. The inclined member or leg 
of a set or frame of timber. (Ray- 

2. An inlet of water from the sea 
or other body of water. (Webster) 

Armar (Mex.). To erect or fit up ma- 
chinery, etc. (D wight) 

Armature, 1. A piece of soft iron or 
steel used to connect the poles of a 
magnet or of adjacent magnets. 
2. That part of a dynamo-electric 
machine carrying the conductors 
whose relative movement through 
the magnetic field between the pole 
pieces causes an- electric current to 
be induced in the conductors (as in 
a dynamo) ; or which by having a 
current passed through them are 
caused by electro-magnetic induction 
to move through this field (as in a 
motor). (Webster) 

Armaz6n; Armadura (Sp.). Any 
framed structure, truss, trestle, etc. 

Armenian stone. An old name for 
azurite, alluding to a locality in 
which it is found. (Chester) 

Armenite (Armenia). A synonym for 
Azurite; Armenian stone. (Ches- 

Aromatic compounds. Compounds de- 
rived from the hydrocarbon benzene 
(C 8 H), distinguished from those de- 
rived from methane (CH). (Stand- 

Aromatite. A bituminous stone re- 
sembling myrrh in color and odor. 

Arquerite (Chile). Silver amalgam, 
containing only a small proportion 
of mercury. (Chester) 

Arrage. A sharp edge or corner in a 
drift. Called also Arris. (Standard) 

Arranque (Sp.). Breaking ground, 
winning, or mining; A. mecdnico, 
rock drilling by machinery; A. tra- 
bajo, a working place. (Halse) 

Arrastrador (Mex.). Slag-poc puller. 

Arrastrar (Mex.). 1. To drag along 
the ground; to haul or convey. 2. 
To unite as veins and form one. A. 
el agua. To remove the water from 
a sump or working. (Halse) 

Arrastre (Sp.). 1. Apparatus for 
grinding and mixing ores by means 
of a heavy stone dragged around 
upon a circular bed. The arrastre 
is chiefly used for ores containing 
free gold, and amalgamation is com- 
bined with the grinding. Sometimes 

incorrectly written arrastef, arras- 
tram, or raster (Raymond). A. de 
cuchara, an arrastre driven by 
rough impact waterwheel, the blades 
of which are called cucharas. A. 
de marca, a large arrastre. A. de 
mula, mule-power arrastre. A. de 
mano, a hand arrastre for sampling 
purposes. 2. Haulage or conveyance. 
A. interior, underground haulage. 
3. A. de uncriadero, footwall or floor 
of -a deposit. (Halse) 

Arrastrero. One who works an ar- 
rastre. (Halse) 

Arreador; Arriero. 1. (Mex.) The 
mule driver on a hoisting whim. 

2. (Bol.) A man who follows ore 
carriers to see that they do not steal 
ore. (Halse) 

Arrebol (Mex.). The jerking of a 
rope as a signal to miners under- 
ground. (Dwight) 

Arrested anticline. A term applied by 
Orton to a gentle monocline in the 
natural-gas fields of Ohio. (Ore 
Dep., p. 11) 

Arriero (Mex.). Muleteer. (Dwight) 

Arrinonada ( Sp. ) . B o t r y o i d a 1. 

Arris. Same as Arrage. 

Arris-cleat (Aust). A strip of wood 
having a triangular cross-section 
used for keeping brattices In posi- 
tion. (Power) 

Arroba (Mex.). Twenty-five pounds. 

Arroyo (Sp.). A small stream, or its 
dry bed; in geology, a deep dry 
gully. (Standard) 

Arrugia (Sp.).- A deep gold mine. 

Arsenic. A solid brittle element of 
tin-white to steel-gray color and me- 
tallic luster, occuring free and also 
combined in various minerals. Sym- 
bol, As; atomic weight, 74.96. 
Specific gravity, 5.7. (Webster) 

Arsenico (Sp.). Arsenic. (Dwight) 

Arsenical nickel. A synonym for Nic- 

Arsenical pyrite. A synonym for 
Arsenopyrite. (A. F. Rogers) 

Arsenicite. Same as Pharmacolite. 

Arsenious. Pertaining to, or contain- 
ing, arsenic; said of compounds in 
which arsenic is trivalent. (Web- 


Arwaite. Same as Arsenolite. 

Arsenolamprite. A metallic lead-gray 
variety of native arsenic containing 
bismuth. (Standard* 

Anenollte. A white arsenious oxide, 
AsjOi, with occasional yellow or red 
tinge, crystallizing in the isometric 
system. ( Standard ) 

Arvenopyrlte; Mispickel. A sulph-ar- 
senide of iron, FeAsS. Contains 46 
per cent arsenic, equivalent to 57.7 
pec cent white arsenic, A&O.. (U. 
S. Geol. Surv.) 

Argentine plate. German silver. 

Arshime (Riiss.). A measure of vol- 
ume equal to 12.7 cu. ft 

Anine. Arseniureted hydrogen, AsH ( . 

Artesian. Of, or pertaining to Artois, 
anciently called Artesium, in France 
(Webster). See al*o Artesian well. 

Artesian casing. See Screwed casing. 

Artesian well. 1. A well bored down 
to a point, usually at great depth, 
where the water pressure, owing to 
the conformation of the strata, is so 
great as to force the water to the 
surface. 2. Often applied to any 
deep-bored well, even where pump- 
ing is necessary, as in an ordinary 
driven well. (Standard) 

Artificial mineral A mineral formed 
artificially, as In the laboratory, and 
so distinguished from one found in 
nature (Standard). A synthetic 

Artificial soft porcelain. Porcelain 
with a body resembling glass con- 
sisting chiefly of alkaline salts and 
coated with a lead glaze, as the 
early tender porcelain of Sfcvres. 

Artificial stone. A stony substance 
formed from certain basic natural 
materials which in the course of 
manufacture undergo chemical 
changes whereby an entirely new 
material is created. This new sub- 
stance is then crushed, graded, 
molded into desired shapes and 
baked under intense heat in kilns 
or ovens. Often used as an abrasive. 

Arappnkarans. A gold-washing caste 
in Madras. <L-k) 

Arronian rock. A rofck consisting of 
quartz-felsites, halleflintas, and brec- 
cias, characteristic of the Cambrian 
or an earlier period in Wales. 

Aibestiform. Formed like or resem- 
bling asbestos; fibrous: said of 
stones. ( Standard * 

Asbesto (Sp.). Asbestos; A. lefloso, 
ligniform asbestos; A. de oorcho, 
mountain cork. (Halse) 

Asbestos. White, gray, or green-gray 
fibrous variety of amphibole, usually 
one containing but little aluminum, 
as tremolite or actinollte; also, im- 
properly, a fibrous serpentine or 
chrysotile. Called also Earth-flax, 
Mountain - cork, and Amianthus. 

Asbolite. An earthy manganese min- 
eral (wad) containing oxide of co- 
balt, which sometimes amount^ to 
32 per cent. (Dana) 

Ascendente (Sp.). Working upward. 

Ascensional ventilation (Eng.). The 
arrangement of the ventilating cur- 
rents so that the vitiated air shall 
rise continuously until reaching the 
surface. Particularly applicable to 
steep coal seams. (Gresley) 

Ascension, infiltration by. The theory 
of infiltration by ascension in solu- 
tion from below considers that ore- 
bearing solutions come from the 
heated zones of the earth, and that 
they rise through cavities, and at 
diminished temperatures and pres- 
sures deposit their burdens. (Ore 
Dep., p. 40) 

Ascension theory. The theory that the 
matter filling fissure veins was intro- 
duced in solution from below. (Ray- 

Aschafflte. A name suggested by Gtim- 
bel for a dike rock occurring near 
Aschaffenburg, Bavaria. It is de- 
fined by Rosenbusch as a dioritic 
dike rock containing quartz and 
plagioclase, with biotite as the chief 
dark silicate. (Kemp) 

Asehistlc. A term applied by Brogger 
to dikes that are direct branches 
from larger intrusive masses and 
have essentially the same composi- 
tion. (Daly, p. 39) 

Asentador (Sp.). 1. A stonemason. 
2. A settler used in ore dressing. 

Asenter el hoyo (Sp. Am.). To wast 
away the overburden. (Lucas) 

Asentar planes (Col cm.). To place 
dies or other resisting material be- 
low the stamps preliminary to crush- 
ing. (Halse) 

Aserrador (Sp.). A sawyer. (Halse) 

Aserrar (Sp.). To saw. (D wight) 



Asfalto (Sp.). Asphalt. (Dwlgbt) 

Ash; Volcanic ash. Tuff that In color, 
texture, and general appearance re- 
sembles ashes. (La Forge) 

Ash-ball (Shrop). A fixture of small 
fragments of greenish day, quartz, 
etc. (Gresley) 

Ash-bed. A deposit. of volcanic ash. 

Ash-bed diabase. A rock on Kewee- 
naw Point, Lake Superior, resem- 
bling a conglomerate, but which is 
Interpreted by Wadsworth as a 
scoriaceous amygdaloidal sheet into 
which much sand was washed in its 
early history. (Kemp) 

Ashes. The earthy or mineral part of 
combustible substances remaining 
after combustion, as of wood or coal. 

Ash furnace. A furnace or oven for 
fritting materials for glass making. 

Ashlar. 1. A block of stone, as 
brought from the quarry, 9. A 
squared stone. S. Mason work of 
squared stones. (Standard) 

4. A facing of cut Stone applied to 
a backing of rubble or rough ma- 
sonry or brickwork (C. and M. M. 
P.) Also called Bastard ashlar. 

5. A thin brick made especially for 
facing walls. (Webster) 

Ash oven. An ash furnace. (Stand- 

Ash pit. The receptacle for ashes un 
der a grate. 

Ash's furnace. A furnace for refining 
spelter. (Ingalls, p. 571) 

Asiderite. Daubree's name for stony 
meteorites that lack metallic iron. 

Asiento (Mex.). 1. The concentrate 
in panning. 2. A. mineral, mineral 
region. (Dwight) 

Asin (Philippines). Salt. (Stand- 

Aslope (Corn.). In a slanting posi- 
tion. (Crofutt) 

Asmanite. An orthorhombic variety 
of silica found in meteoric iron. 

Asombrarse (Sp.). Said of a lode 
when it varies its dip so as to be- 
come almost horizontal. (Lucas) 

Aspa. 1. (Peru) Intersection or junc- 
tion of two veins. (Dwight) 
2. (Sp.). In gold milling, a tappet. 
S. Two timbers in the form of a 
cross to operate an endless chain 
device for hoisting water. See 
also Noria, 1. (Halse) 

Asparagus stone. A greenish-yellow 
variety of apatite. (Power) 

Asperite. A collective name suggested 
by O. F. Becker for the rough cellu- 
lar lavas whose chief feldspar is 
plagioclase, but of which it is im- 
possible to speak more closely 
without microscopic determination. 
The name is intended for general 
field use much as trachyte was em- 
ployed in former years. It is coined 
from the Latin word for rough. 

Asperolite. A variety of chrysocolla, 
containing more than the usual per- 
centage of water. (Chester) 

Asperon (Mex.y. Sandstone; Grind- 
stone. (Dwight) 

Asphalt. 1. A complex compound of 
various hydrocarbons, part of which 
are oxygenated. Related in origin 
to petroleum. Is brown or brown- 
ish black in color, melts at 90 to 
100 F., and is mostly or wholly 
soluble in turpentine. See alto 
Albertite, Elaterite, Gilsonite, Gra- 
hamite, Impsonite, Nigrite, Wurtzil- 
ite (U. S. Geol. Surv.). Also called 
Mineral pitch. Same as Asphaltum. 
3. To cover or treat with asphalt. 

Asphalt-base petroleum. Asphalt-base 
oils contain asphalt and no paraffin. 
They are distilled to asphalt, and 
the distillates are cut according to 
gravity; such oils do not yield 
steam-refined cylinder stock or par- 
affin wax. See also Paraffin-asphalt 
petroleum . (Bacon) 

Asphalt-block pavement. A pavement 
having a wearing course of previ- 
ously prepared blocks of asphaltic 
concrete. (Bacon) 

Asphalt cement. A fluxed or .unfluxed 
asphaltic material, especially pre- 
pared as to quality and consistency ; 
suitable for direct use in the manu- 
facture of asphaltic pavements. 

Asphalted.- Coated with asphalt. Usu- 
ally Calif ornian oil (which has an 
asphaltic base), coal tar, gilsonlte 
or elaterite are added to give the 
right consistence to suit the average 
temperature that prevails when the 
coating is used. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Asphaltenes. The components of the 
bitumen in petroleum, petroleum 
products, malthas, asphalt cements, 
and solid native bitumens, that are 
soluble in carbon disulpfilde, but in- 
soluble in naptha (petroleum spirit) 
See also Petrolene. (Bacon) 

Asphalt furnace. A portable furnace 
in which asphalt is heated for use 
in roofing, paving, etc. (Century.) 



AspliftHio. Similar .to, or essentially 
composed of, asphalt. (Ba-coo) 

Asphaltlo fittx. Se Flu*, 2. The 
asphfcltie flttt is differentiated frbm 
paraffin flux and Bfeart'dspha'ltlC flux 
by a greater density, nearly that of 
water; by the absence of bard par- 
affin scale, and by the fact that the 
unsaturated hydrocarbons predomi- 
nate. It yielda larger amount & 
asVrree residual <coke on Ignition 
than other ffuxe*. (Bacon) 

Aipha Hi c sandstone. See Sandstone; 
Asphalt rock 

Asphaltite. A dark-colored, solid, dif- 
ficultly fusible, naturally occurring 
hydrocarbon complex, itfs&ldbte Ift 
water, but more or less completely 
soluble in carbon disulphide, bea^oi, 
etc. (Bacon; 

Asphalt rock, Auphalt sone. Lime- 
stone impregnated With asphalt 
(Webster). Also a term applied to 


Asphalt stone. See Asphalt rock. 
Aiphaltum. See Asphalt, 1. 

Aspirador (Mex.). An aspirator; a a 
exhauster. (Halse) 

Aipirail <Fr.). An opening for venti- 
lation. (Da vies) 

Aspirator. An inhaler. (Standard) 

Assay. 1. tfo test ores or minerals 
by chemical or blowpipe examina- 
tion. To determine the proportion 
erf metals in ore* by smelting in the 
way appropriate to each. Gold and 
silver require an additional process 
called cupelling, f^r the purpose of 
separating them from the' base met- 
als. See Fire assay. 2. An exami- 
nation of a mineral, an ore, or alloy 
differing from a complete analysis 
in that It determines only certain 
ingredient* in the substance ex- 
amined/ whereas an analysts deter- 
mines everything It contains. 

Assay balance. A sensitive balance 
used in the assaying of gold, silver, 
etc., for- weighing the beads, df 
prills. (Webster) 

Assayer. One who performs ftssay* 

Assay fool The assay value multi- 
plied by the number of feet across 
which the sample is taken. (H. C. 
Hoover, p. 10) 

Assay inch. The assay value multi- 
plied by the number of inches over 
which the sample was taken. 
(H. C. Hoover, p. 10) 

Assay master. A chief or official as- 
say er. (Standard) 

Assay office (U. S.). A laboratory for 
examining ores, especially gold and 
silver ores, in order to determine 
their economic value, ( Standard ) 

Amypbtnd. A small standard weight 
tlsea In assaying bullion, etc., some- 
times equaling a half gram, but 
varying with the assay er, (Web- 

Assay ton. A weight of 29.1864- grains 
irted in assaying, for convenience. 
Bine* it bears the same relatlob to 
the milligram that a ton of 2000 
pounds does to the troy ounce the 
weight in milligrams of precious 
metal obtained from the assay of an 
ore gives directly the number of 
ounces to the ton. (Webster) 

Assay value. The amount of the gold 
or silver, In ounces per ton of ore, 
as shown by assay of any given 
sample. Average assay value. The 
weighted result obtained from a 
number of samples, by multiplying 
the assay value of each sample by 
the width or thickness of the ore 
face over which it is taken, and 
then dividing the sum of these 
products by the total width of cross 
section sampled. . The result ob- 
tained would represent an average 
face sample. 

Assessment. 1. The sum that the of- 
ficers of ft mining company levy on 
the stock held by shareholders. 
8. See Assessment work. 

Assessment work. The annual work 
upon an unpatented mining claim on 
the public domain necessary under 
the United States law for the main- 
tenance of the possessory title there- 
to. Same as Annual labor. (Min. 
Stat., pp. 233-253) 

Asta (Sp.). A shaft or spindle; A. de 
6omZ>a, a pump rod ; A. de bandera, 
flagstaff. (Halse) 

Astatki; Ostatki. A Russian name for 
a petroleum residue now nsed as 
fuel. Until 1870 it was considered 
a useless article, and was disposed 
of by burning in open pita near the 
refineries. (Mitzakis) 

Astel. Overhead boarding or arching 
in a mine gallery. (Raymond) 

Asteriated quartz. A phenocrystalline 
variety of quartz having whitish or 
colored radiations within the crys- 
tals: called also Star-quartz. (Stand- 

Asterism. The name given to the pe- 
culiar starllke rays of light ob- 
served in certain directions in some 
minerals. (Dana) 



Astiaes (Port). The sides or walls of 
an oven. (Halse) 

Astlllero (Mex.). A place in a forest 
where firewood is cut; an open 
forest; a pasture for mules, etc. 

Astral. 1. The stage in earth growth 
when It glowed with incandescent 
heat, like a star. (Lowe) 
2. Pertaining to the earliest of three 
subdivisions of Archean time, that 
of the fluid globe surrounded by a 
heavy vaporous envelope. (Stand- 
ard) Now obsolete. 

Astraline. A Russian petroleum prod- 
uct possessing the specific gravity 
0.850-0.860, a flash point not less 
than 50 C. (122 F.), and of a pale 
yellowish color. (Bacon) 

A-stretching (Scot). In the line of the 
strike of the strata; level course. 

Astringent A taste that puckers the 
mouth (George). Said of certain 

Astyllen. 1. (Corn.) A mine stop- 
ping to prevent the flow of water; 
a dam. 2. A wall to separate ore 
from waste. (Pryce) 

Asymmetrical. 1. Without proper pro- 
portion of parts; un symmetrical. 
2. Crystals not divisible into similar 
halves by a plane; triclihic (Stand- 
ard). Also used in geology in de- 
scribing structural features. 

Asymmetric class. The class of crystal 
forms without any symmetry. (A. 
F. Rogers) 

Asymmetric dispersion. The disper- 
sion that produces an interference 
figure without any symmetry of 
color distribution. (A. F. Rogers) 

Atacadero (Sp.). A rammer; stamp- 
ing bar. (Halse) 

Ataoamlte. A basic chloride of cop- 
per, CrbOHsOn, containing 59.4 per 
cent copper (Dana). Also called 
Green sand of Peru. (Chester) 

Atacar (Peru). To tamp. (Mex.). 
To express mercury from a canvas 
bag by beating it with a stick. 

Atajador (Sp.). A boy who attends 
the mules, horses, or burros; a 
hostler. (Orofutt) 

Ataje (Colom.). A natural obstruc- 
tion that diverts water from its 
regular channel. (Halse) 

Ataquea (Mex.). Rubbish. (Dwight) 

Atccas (Mex.). Men who carry water 
from the bottom workings of a mine, 
by use of bags or buckets, to a sump 
from which it can be pumped to the 
surface. (Halse) 

Atelene. Lacking the essential form; 
imperfect ( Standard ) . Said of crys- 

Ateleatite. A sulphur-yellow adaman- 
tine bismuth arsenate. H>BUAsO, 
crystallizing in the monocllnic sys- 
tem. (Standard) 

Atelite. A green copper hydroxychlo- 
ride, H a CuOCla, found near volca- 
noes. (Standard) 

Atcrrar (Port.). To fill with waste; 
to pack. (Halse) 

Atcrro (Port). Attle; waste rock. 

Atierres (Mex.). Waste rock In a 
mine. (Dwight) 

Atincar (Sp.). Refined tincal; borax 
of commerce. (Halse) 

Atlnconar (Sp.) To secure the walls 
provisionally with stulls. (Halse) 

Poles .for lagging. 

Atiz (Colom.). 

Atlzador (Sp.). 1. A man who at- 
tends the furnace; a stoker. 2. A 
dresser of magistral. 3. (Colom.) 
A battery feeder. (Halse). 

Atlasite. A cupric carbonate contain- 
ing chlorine. Probably a mixture of 
atacamite and azurite. (Standard) 

Atmosphere. 1. The whole mass of air 
surrounding the earth. 2. The pres- 
sure of air at the sea level used as 
a unit. See also Atmospheric pres- 
sure. (Webster) 

Atmospheric pressure. The pressure of 
air at the sea level, exerted equally 
in all directions. The standard pres- 
sure is that under which the mercury 
barometer stands at 760 millimeters. 
It is equivalent to about 14.7 pounds 
to the square inch. (Webster) 

Atoll. A coral island of circular form, 
inclosing a lagoon. 

Atom. According to the atomic theory, 
the smallest particle of an element 
that can exist either alone or in 
combination with similar particles of 
the same or of a different element; 
the smallest particle of an element 
that enters into the composition of 
a molecule. (Webster) 

Atomic weight. The weight of an 
atom of a chemical element as com- 
pared with that of an atom of hydro- 
gen. (Standard) 




On account of the difficulties of correspondence between its mem- 
bers, due to the war, the International Committee on Atomic Weights 
has decided to make no full report for 1918. Although a good num- 
ber of new determinations have been published during the past year, 
none of them seems to demand any immediate change in the table for 
1917. That table, therefore, may stand as official during the year 

F. W. CLARKE, Chairman. 


Symbol. weight. 

Aluminum Al 27. 1 

Antimony Sb 120.2 

Argon A 39.88 

Arsenic As 74.96 

Barium Ba 137. 37 

Bismuth Bi 208.0 

Boron..... B 11.0 

Bromine Br 79. 92 

Cadmium Cd 112. 40 

Caesium Cs 132. 81 

Calcium Ca 40.07 

Carbon C 12.005 

Cerium Ce 140. 25 

Chlorine .'...Cl 35.46 

Chromium Cr 52.0 

Cobalt Co 58.97 

Columbium Cb 93.1 

Copper Cu 63.57 

Dysprosium Dy 162.5 

Erbium Er 167.7 

Europium Eu 152.0 

Fluorine F 19.0 

Gadolinium Gd 157.3 

Gallium Ga 69. 9 

Germanium.. Ge 72.5 

Glucinum Gl 9.1 

Gold Au 197.2 

Helium He 4.00 

Holmium Ho 163. 5 

Hydrogen II 1. 008 

Indium In 114. 8 

Iodine I 126.92 

Indium Ir 193.1 

Iron Fe 55.84 

Krypton Kr 82.92 

Lanthanum La 139. 

Lead Pb 207.20 

Lithium Li 6.94 

Lutecium Lu 175.0 

Magnesium Mg 24.32 

Manganese Mn 54.93 

Mercury Hg 200. 6 

74401 oo 47 4 


Symbol. weight. 

Molybdenum Mo 96.0 

Neodymium Nd 144.3 

Neon Ne 20. 2 

Nickel Ni 58.68 

Niton (radium emanation) Nt 222. 4 

Nitrogen... N 14.01 

Osmium OB 190.9 

Oxygen O 16.00 

Palladium Pd 106.7 

Phosphorus P 31.04 

Platinum Pt 195.2 

Potassium K 39.10 

Praseodymium Pr 140.9 

Radium Ra 226.0 

Rhodium Rh 102.9 

Rubidium Rb 85. 45 

Ruthenium Ru 101.7 

Samarium Sa 150.4 

ScancUum Sc 44.1 

Selenium Se 79.2 

Silicon Si 28.3 

Silver Ag 107.88 

Sodium Na 23.00 

Strontium Sr 87.63 

Sulphur S 32.06 

Tantalum Ta 181.5 

Tellurium Te 127. 5 

Terbium i Tb 159. 2 

Thallium Tl 204.0 

Thorium Th 232.4 

Thulium Tm 168.5 

Tin Sn 118.7 

Titanium Ti 48.1 

Tungsten W 184.0 

Uranium..; U 238.2 

Vanadium V 51.0 

Xeno Xe 130.2 

Ytterbium(Neoytterbium)Yb 173. 5 

Yttrium Yt 88.7 

Zinc Zn 65.37 

Zirconium Zr 90.6 



Atomization. 1. The method by which 
a jet of steam, or compressed air, is 
made to finely divide a fluid, as in 
an oil-burning furnace. 
2. A patent process for producing a 
metallic dust, as zinc dust. 

Atomizer. An apparatus for convert- 
ing liquid into spray. See also Ato- 

Atrancar (Mex.). To drill (for blast- 
ing) at a very acute angle. (Dwight) 

Attal. See Attle. 

Attle ; Attal. 1. ( Corn. ) Rubbish ; rock 
containing too little ore to be worth 
working. (Whitney) 
2. (No. of Eng.) To arrange or set- 
tle, as an account. (Gresley) 

Atreol. A petroleum product produced 
by the action of sulphuric acid on 
certain petroleum distillates. Prop- 
erly refined and combined with am- 
monia, it produces the active prin- 
ciple of atreol, ammonium atreo- 
late. It is soluble in water and al- 
cohol, and is miscible with petro- 
leum and lanolin. 

.Attrition. Act of rubbing together; 
friction ; act of wearing, or state of. 
being worn ; abrasion. (Webster) 

Aturdir (Mex.). To subdivide, me- 
chanically, the quicksilver in a 
torta so as to quicken its action 
upon the mineral treated. (Dwight) 

Anerlite. A sili co-phosphate of tho- 
rium containing about 70 per cent 
thorium. Like zircon in form. (U. 
S. Geol. Surv.) 

Aufre (Sp. Am.). A very hard yellow 
stone; sulphur-like rock. (Lucas) 

Augen. The German word for eyes; 
used as a prefix before various rock 
names, but more especially gneiss, 
to describe larger minerals or aggre- 
gates of minerals, that are in con- 
trast with the rest of the^ rock. 
In the gneisses, feldspar commonly 
forms the augen. They are lenticu- 
lar with the laminations forking 
around them, in a way strongly sug- 
gesting an eye. The term is seldom 
used in any other connection than 
with gneiss in America. (Kemp) 

Auger. An instrument for. boring or 
perforating soils or rocks. A car- 
penter's tool for boring wood (Web- 
ster). A tool for drilling holes in 
coal for blasting. 

Auger machine. A machine for the 
manufacture of zinc-distillation re- 
torts. Similar to used for 
manufacturing drain pipes. (In- 
galls, p.' 234) 

Auger-nose shell (Eng.). A clearing 
tool used in boring for coal, etc., 
having an auger-shaped end (Gres- 
ley). See also Wimble. 

Auger stem. The iron rod to which the 
bit is attached in well drilling. 

Auger-stem guides. See .Sinker-bar 

Auget; Augette. A priming tube, used 
in blasting. (Raymond) 

Augite. The commonest rock-making 
pyroxene. As distinguished from 
other pyroxenes augite refers to the 
dark varieties with considerable 
alumina and iron. The name is used 
as a descriptive prefix to many 
rocks that contain the mineral, as 
for instance augite-andesite, augite- 
diorite, augite-gneiss, augite-granite, 
augite-syenite, etc. (Kemp) 

Augitite. Non-feldspathic, porphyritlc 
rocks consisting essentially of a 
glassy groundmass. with dissemi- 
nated augite and magnetite. Vari- 
ous minor accessories also occur. 

Augitophyric. In petrology, contain- 
ing distinct crystals of augite. 

Augustin process. The treatment of 
silver ores by chloridizing roasting, 
lixiviation with hot brine, and pre- 
cipitation on copper. (Raymond) 

Aumento (Bol.). In the patio process, 
the apparent increase in the amount 
of mercury used when treating ores 
containing a large percentage of sil- 
ver; in reality due to loss of mer- 
cury. (Halse) 

Auquis (Peru). Rock drillers in 
mines. (Dwight) 

Auralite. Altered iolite. (Standard) 

Aureola azul (Sp.). The blue cap or 
halo of a candle or lamp in an at- 
mosphere containing fire damp. 

Aureole. The area that is affected by 
contact metamorphism around an 
igneous intrusion. (Kemp). 

Auri-argentiferous. Containing both 
gold and silver ; applied to minerals. 

Auric. Of, pertaining to, or contain- 
taining gold, especially when com- 
bined in its highest or triad valency, 
as auric chloride, AuCl. (Stand- 

Aurichalcite. A basic carbonate of 
zinc and copper, 2(Zn,Cu)CO- 
8(Zn,Cu) (OH) 3 (Dana) 


Anrlfcro (Sp.). Gold-bearing. 

Autfftroms. Containing, gdld. 

Atirif erous pyrites. Pyrite containing 
gold. (Standard) 

AurijreroHs. Gold-bearing; auriferous. 

Auroral. Of, pertaining to, or desig- 
nating the, second group of Paleozoic 
Strata in the Lowe? SUurlah of the 
original system of the Pennsylvania 
Purvey (Standard). Kow obsolete. 

Auui. Gold. 
ia An. 

Its chemical symbol 

Atisschartn (Gef.). 'the junction of 
lodes. (Davies) 

Aultrian rtrmillon. A basic ehromate 
of lead. (Webster) 

Anwslmmern (Ger.). Timbering. (Da 

Authigencms. Ac adjective coined by 
Kftlkowsky to describe those min- 
erals which form in sediments after 
their deposition, as, for instance, 
during metamorphism. The name 
emphasizes in its etymology the local 
origin of the minerals as contrasted 
with that of the other components, 
the latter having been brought from 
a distance. (&empj 

Authigenio. Produced where found; 
said of the ingredients of crystalline 
rocks, or Of crystalline ingredients 
of rocks. (Standard) 

Autochthonous. An adjective derived 
from two Greek words, meaning 
indigenous. It is applied to those 
rocks that have originated in situ, 
such as rock salt, staiagmitic lime- 
stones, peat, etc., but it is of fare 
use. (Kemp) 

Antoclastic. Having a clastic or f rag- 
mental structure due to crushing or 
to dynamic metamorphism instead of 
to sedimentation: said of intrafor- 
mational conglomerates. (La Forge) 

Autogenetio drainage. Drainage due 
to erosion caused by the waters of 
the constituent streams. (Stand- 

Autogenetio topography. Conforma- 
tion of land due to the physical ac- 
tion of rain and streams. (Stand- 

Autogenio soldering. The process of 
uniting pieces of metal by merely 
fusing them together. (Webster) 

Automatic mine-doors. Doors on a 
haulage road tttfct are atrtotaat* 
cally opened by an approaching trip 
passing over a lever, and ittat 
close automatically after the trip 
has passed through, thus making the 
services of a door- or trapper-boy 

AmtaBorphi*. The contrasted term 
with xenomorphie or allotriomorphlc, 
and Is used to describe those min- 
erals in rocks which have their own 
crystal boundaries. he late*, sug- 
gested word, idiomorphic, means the 
same thing and is somewhat more 
widely used. (Kemp) 

Autunite. Calcium utnite. A hy- 
drous phosphate of uranium and cal- 
cium, Oa(UQ,)P*O.+8H*O. Con- 
tains 02.7 per cent UOi, equivalent 
to 61.6 per cent UO (Dana). The 
mineral is radioactive. 

Antnn shate e& A name 
certain kind of illuminating oil,, so 
called through being extracted from 
the bituminous Shale found *rt At- 
tun in France. ( Miteakis ) 

Avalanches. 1. Masses of snow, that 

being detadhed from great heights 
in the mountains, acquire enormous 
bulk by fresh accumulations aS they 
descend; and when they fall into 
the valleys below, often cause great 
destruction; (Davies) 
ft, Falling masse* of rock and earth, 
sometimes called avalanches, are 
better designated landslides. (Stantf- 

Avalite/ An Impure variety of musco- 
vite 1 containing chromium oxide. 

Avanoo (Port.). Hie main level fol- 
lowing the strike. /Halse) 

Avasita. A black, massive, hydrated 
iron silicate: probably only siliceotis 
llmonlte. (Standard) 

Avena (Sp.). Oats. (Dwight) 

Avcatadcro. 1. (Sp. Am.) A slide 
of loose ground containing alluvial 
gold. (Lucas) 

8. (Colom.) A placer higher than 
a iabana. 9. (Pern 1 ) An aunferots 
deposit or placer. (Halse) 

Aventurine. 1. A kind of glass con- 
taining gold-colored spangles, f. A 
variety of translucent quartz, span- 
gled throughout with scales of mica 
ot oihef mineral. (Webster) 
8. A variety of feldspar containing 
shining particles. (Standard) 



Aventurine feldspar. A name for sun- 
stone, which may be orthoclase, al- 
blte, or oligoclase (Chester). Dana 
confines this term to the oligoclase 

Aventurine quartz. See Aventurine, 2. 

Average clause (Eng.). A clause 
that, in granting leases of miner- 
als (coal, ironstone, and clay in 
particular), provides that lessees 
may, during every year of the term, 
make up any deficiency in the quan- 
tity of coal, etc., stipulated to be 
worked, so as to balance the dead 
or minimum rent. (Gresley) 

Average igneous rock. According to 
Clarke, the arithmetic mean of all 
the good analyses should give a fair 
chemical average for the outermost 
ten-mile shell of the earth, which 
represents the composition of an 
average igneous rock. Authorities 
differ somewhat from above man- 
ner of securing result. (Daly) 

Average produce (Corn.). The quan- 
tity of pure or fine Copper in one 
hundred parts of ore. (Raymond) 

Average standard (Corn.). The price 
per ton of the fine copper in the ore, 
after deducting the charge for smelt- 
ing. (Whitney) 

Average weight (Eng.). The mean 
weight of a car of coal for a certain 
period, on which wages are calcu- 
lated. (Bainbridge) 

Avezacite. A name given by a La- 
croix to a peculiar cataclastic rock 
found in veins or dikes in a peridotite 
at Avezac-Prat, in the French 
Pyrenees. The rock is dense, black, 
and brittle, but contains large 
basaltic hornblendes and yellow 
sphenes, in a fine-grained mass, 
which, on microscopic examination 
is resolved into*a cataclastic aggre- 
gate of apatite, sphene, titanifer- 
ous magnetite, ilmenite, hornblende, 
augite, and rarely olivine and bio- 
tite. It is supposed to have resulted 
from the crushing of basic pegma- 
titic veins or dikes. (Kemp) 

Aviado (Sp.). One who works a mine 
with means furnished by another. 

Aviador (Sp.). A person who habili- 
tates a mine ; that is, who furnishes 
the money for working it by a con- 
tract with proprietors. (Raymond) 

Avio (Sp.). Operating funds fur- 
nished to the proprietors of a mine 
by another person, the aviador. 
Contrato de avio, a contract between 

two parties for working a mine by 
which one of the parties, the avia- 
dor, furnishes the money to the pro- 
prietors for working the mine. (C. 
and M. M. P.) 

Avios ( Sp. ) . Tools; implements. 

Aviso. 1. (Mex.). Announcement on 
a bulletin board, at the mining 
agency, of application for claims, 
etc. 2. (Colom.) Notice of a de- 
nouncement given before an alcade. 

Avogadrp's law. One of the funda- 
mental chemical laws that equal 
volumes of all gases and vapors con- 
tain the same number of ultimate 
particles or molecules at the same 
temperature and pressure. (Lid- 

Avoirdupois. The system of weights 
used in England and the United 
States for the ordinary purposes of 
trade, of which the fundamental unit 
is the pound of 16 ounces or 7,000 
grains (Standard). The avoirdu- 
pois pound is equivalent to 14.583 
troy ounces, 453.6 gra.ns, and lias a 
fine-gold value of $301.4375 or 

Avulsion. A sudden change in the 
course of a stream by which a por- 
tion of land is cut off, as where a 
river cuts across, forming an "Ox 
bow." (Shamel, p. 30 7 ) 

Award (Forest of Dean). A grant or 
lease of certain minerals. See also 
Gale, 1. (Gresley) 

Awaruite. A native alloy of nickel 
and iron. It has the formula FeNi. 

Axe store. A species of jade. It is a 
silicate of magnesia and alumina. 

Axes of elasticity. Those axes in crys- 
tals that represent the directions 
of greatest, mean, and least indices 

, of refraction. (Dana) 

Axes of reference. Co-ordinate axes to 
which crystal faces are referred. 
(A. F. Rogers) 

Axial angle. The angle between the 
two optic axes of a biaxial crystal. 
(Luquer, p. 5) 

Axial elements. The axial ratio and 
the angles between the axes of a 
crystal. (A. F. Rogers) 

Axial figure. Sec Interference figures. 



Azlal plane. 1. A crystallographic 
plane that includes two of the cry- 
stallographic axes,. (Dana) 
2. As applied to folds, is a plane 
that Intersects the crest or trough 
In such a manner that the limbs or 
sides of the fold are more or less 
symmetrically arranged with refer- 
ence to it (Leith) 

Axial ratio. The ratio obtained by 
comparing the length of a crystal- 
lographic axis with one of the lat- 
eral axes taken as unity. (Dana) 

Axiaite. A boro-silicate of aluminum 
and calcium with varying amounts 
of iron and manganese. Exact com- 
position doubtful. (Dana) 

Axlolite. A term coined by Zirkel in 
his report on Microscopical Petrog- 
raphy, for the U. S. Geol. Survey 
along the Fortieth Parallel, 1876, to 
describe those sphemlltic aggregates 
that are grouped around an axis 
rather than around a point. The 
application comes in microscopic 
work rather than in ordinary de- 
termination. Compare Spheral ite. 

Axis. 1. A straight line, real or imagi- 
nary, passing through a body, on 
which it revolves or may be sup- 
posed to revolve; a line passing 
through a body or system around 
which the parts are symmetrically 
arranged. (Webster) 
2. In crystallography, one of the 
imaginary lines in a crystal which 
are used as coordinate axes of ref- 
erence in determining the positions 
and symbols of the crystal planes. 
(La Forge) 

8. See Anticlinal axis, and Synclinal 
axis. Often used synonomously 
with anticlinal; thus the "Brady's 
bend axis" for Brady's bend anti- 
clinal. (Chance) 

4. In geology the central or dominat- 
ing region of a mountain chain, or 
the line of which follows the crest 
of a range and thus indicates the 
position of the most conspicuous 
part of the uplift (Century) 

Axis of a crystal. See Axis, 1 and 2. 

Axis of deration. Line of elevation. 

Axis of rotation. The Imaginary line 
about which all the parts of a ro- 
tating body turn. (Century) 

Axis of symmetry. An imaginary line 
in a crystal, about which it may be 
rotated a certain number of degrees 
ao as to occupy the same position in 
pact a* before. (La Forge) 

Axle. A transverse bar or shaft con- 
necting the opposite wheels of a car 
or carriage. (Webster) 

Axletree. An axle made of wood ; th* 
center shaft of a horse gin. (Bar- 

i; Axeman. In surface survey- 
ing, one who clears the ground and 
drives the stakes for the rodman. 

Axotomous. In crystallography, hav- 
ing cleavage perpendicular to an 
axis: said of minerals. (Standard) 

Ayatc (Mex.). Coarse fiber-cloth for 
carrying ore, rock, etc. fDwight) 

Ayr stone. A fine-grained stone used 
in polishing marble and giving a fine 
surface to metal work, particularly 
iron and steel, also as a whetstone. 
Called also Scotch stone, Water of 
Ayr. (Standard) 

Ayuda (Mex.). A small bonus to 
tributers who fail to make expenses 
(Dwight). Met ales de ayuda, ore 
containing lead, used to assist in 
smelting other ore. (Halse) 

Ayndante (Mex.). Assistant; A. d? 
fundicidn, a master smelter. (Halse) 

Azabache (Mex.). Jet (Dwight) 

Azad6n (Sp.). Pick, mattock, hoe: 

Azanoa (Sp.). Subterranean spring. 

Azaracdn (Sp.). Red lead; A. nativo, 
minium. (Halse) 

Azimut (Mex.). Azimuth-bearing* 

Azimuth. The azimuth of a body is 
that arc of the horizon that is in- 
cluded between the meridian circle 
at the given place and a vertical 
plane passing through the body. It is 
measured (in surveying) from due 
north around to the right (C. and 
M. M. P.). In astronomy it is meas- 
ured from the south to the right 
i. e. clockwise. 

Azimuth circle. An instrument for 
measuring azimuth, having for its 
chief characteristic a graduated 
horizontal circle. (Standard) 

Azimuth compass. A magnetic com- 
pass supplied with sights, for meas- 
uring the angle that a line on the 
earth's surface, or the vertical circle 
through a heavenly body, makes 
with the magnetic meridian. 



Azogmdo (Mex.). Poisoned by mer- 
cury. (Dwight) 

Azogue (Sp.)> 1. Quicksilver. 9. Ore 
amenable to amalgamation; free 
milling ore. (Halse) 
3. (Mex.). Common name for third- 
class silver ore, generally carrying 
86 to 150 ounces per ton, which will 
pay for mining and shipping 
(Dwight). A. apolvillado, good ore 
suitable for amalgamation. A. 
comun, common ore suitable for 
amalgamation. A. en caldo, quick- 
silver. A. ordlnario, ordinary ore 
suitable for amalgamation. (Min. 

Azogueria (Sp.). 1. The amalgamat- 
ing works. 2. The process of amal- 
gamation. (Raymond) 
3. A storehouse for quicksilver. 

Azoguero. 1. (Mex.). The amalga- 
mator, or person who superintends 
the process of amalgamation. 2. 
(Sp.) A dealer in quicksilver. 

3. (Mex.). The "mud-chemist" 
(also, the metallurgical foreman) in 
patio-annex. (Dwight) 

Azognes. (Sp.). Common or inferior 
ores. (Raymond) 

Azoic. Formerly, that part of geologic 
time represented by the pre-Cam- 
brian stratified rocks ; also the rocks 
formed during that time. Later re- 
stricted to the period and system 
now generally called Archean. Now 
practically obsolete. (La Forge) 

Azoritc. A synonym for Zircon. 
Azotate. A nitrate. (Standard) 

Azote. A name formerly given to 
nitrogen, because it is unfit for 
respiration. (Century) 

Azoth. Mercury: the name given by 
the alchemists. (Standard) 

Azotine. An explosive consisting of 
sodium nitrate, charcoal, sulphur 
and petroleum. (Webster) 

Azotizc. To nitrogenize. (Webster) 

Aztioar (Colom.). A soft white granu- 
lar rock in which calcite predomi- 
nates, forming a gangue in which 
native gold occurs. (Halse) 

Azucla (Mex.). Adze. (Dwight) 

^Lrafrado. 1. (Colom.) A yellow 
ocher found in veins. (Halse) 
f. In Peru, the general term azu- 
frados is used for sulphide ores. 

Aznfrai (Sp.). Bee Solfatafa. 

Azufre (Sp.). 1, Sulphur. A. native, 
native sluphut. 2. (Colom.). A 
yellow stone of great hardness fre- 
quently found in gold placers, 

Azufr6n (Sp.). Pyritic mineral in a 
pulverulent condition. Azufrone* 
(Mex.) Sulphide ores (Halse). See 
also Azufrado, 2. 

Azulaqne (Sp.). 1. Bitumen. 2. (Zac- 
ualpan, Mex.) Argentite. 3. A. y 
cardenillo, (Guerrero, Mex.) Copper 
ores of blue and green colors rich 
in silver. 4. Azulaques (Zacatecas, 
Mex.), ore derived from the country 
rock, which for some distance from 
the vein is impregnated with, pyrite, 
argentite, silver, and chloride of sil- 
ver (Halse). Finely disseminated 
ore. An impregnation of decom- 
posed sulphides staining the gangue. 

Azulinhas (Braz.). Small and cloudy 
sapphires found with diamonds. 

Azure spar. Lazulite. (Standard) 
Azure stone. 1. A synonym for Lapis 

lazuli. (Power) 

2. Same as Azurite. (Century) 

Asmrite. Blue copper carbonate, 
CuCO,.Cu ( OH ) * Contains 46 per 
cent copper (U. S. Geol. Surv.). 
Sometimes called Azure stone. 

Aznrxnalachite. A mixture of blue and 
green copper carbonates. (U. S. 
Geol. Surv.) 


Baaken (So. Afr.). A boundary mark. 

Babbitt metal. 1. A soft, white, anti- 
friction metal of varying composi- 
tion, as of 4 parts of copper, 8 of 
antimony, and 24 or 96 of tin (the 
alloy with the smaller proportion 
of tin being called " hardening," that 
with the greater " lining "). 2. Any 
of several alloys similarly used. 

Babel quartz (Eng.). A variety of 
rock crystal, which from its fanci- 
ful resemblance to the successive 
tiers of the Tower of Babel, have 
given rise to the name. (Page) 

Baboo; Babn (India). A native clerk 
who writes English. (Webster) 

Baby (Eng.). A balance weight near 
the end of a pit (shaft) rope. 



Bacharach- American gas indicator. A 
pocket device for the rapid deter- 
mination of the percentage of CO 2 in 
the atmosphere of mines, boiler 
rooms, blast furnaces, etc. 

Bacia (Port.). A basin, as of a river; 
B.carbonifera, a coal basin. (Halse) 

Bacile (It.). In ceramics, a T)asin or 
deep dish of or resembling Ital- 
ian enameled and lustered pottery. 

Bacino (It). In ceramics, one of a 
class of dishes of highly colored pot- 
tery, built into the walls of medieval 
Italian buildings. (Standard) 

Back. 1. That part of a lode which is 
nearest the surface in relation to 
any portion of the workings of the 
mine; thus the back of the level or 
stope is that part of the unstoped 
lode which is above. (Whitney) 
2. A joint, usually a strike Joint, 
perpendicular to the direction of 
working. 3. The upper surface of a 
beam. (Webster) 

4. (Eng.) A plane of cleavage in 
coal, having frequently a smooth 
parting and some sooty coal included 
in it. 5. (Eng.) The inner end of 
a heading. 6. (Leic.) To throw 
back into the gob, or waste, the 
slack, dirt, etc., made in holing. 

7. (Leic.) To roll large coal out of 
waste for loading into trams. 
( Gresley ) . Also called Backen. 

8. To drive, force, or cause to move 
or act backward ; to cause to retreat, 
or recede. (Webster-). Also called 

Back and underhand sloping milling 
system. See Combined and under- 
hand stoping. 

Back balance. 1. A kind of self-acting 
incline in a mine. A balance car is 
attached to one end of the rope, and 
a carriage for the mine car is at- 
tached to the other. A loaded car is 
run on the carriage and is lowered 
to the foot of the- incline raising the 
balance car. The balance car in its 
descent raises the carriage when the 
carriage is loaded only with an 
empty car. 2. The means of main- 
taining tension on a rope transmis- 
sion or haulage system, consisting of 
the tension carriage, attached 
weight, and supporting structure. 

Backboard (York). Work, performed 
underground by the deputies, which 
consists of draVing timbers in 
abandoned or worked-out places, re- 
pairing brattices, doors, and keeping 
the roadways in order (Gresley). 
899 alto Backbye work. 

Backbye work. Work done between 
the shaft and the working face, In 
contradistinction to face work, or 
work done at the face. (C. and M. 
M. P.) See also Back work. 

Back casing (Eng.). A temporary 
shaft lining of bricks laid dry, and 
supported at intervals upon curbs. 
When the stonehead has been 
reached, the permanent masonry lin- 
ing is built upon it inside of the 
back casing (Raymond). In the 
North of England the use of timber 
cribs and planking serves the same 

Back coal (Scot.). Coal which miners 
are allowed to carry home. (Bar- 

Back coming (Scot.). Working away 
the pillars which are left when min- 
ing coal inbye (Gresley). Robbing 
pillars ; back working. 

Backen ( So. Staff. ) . See Back, 7 and 8. 

Back end (Newc.). The part of a judd 
remaining after the sump (See 
Sump, 2.) has been removed. (Ray- 

Back entry. The air course parallel 
to and below an entry. See also En- 
try. (Steel) 

Back fill. In engineering, to nil a 
depression wliS matetit* *-*en from 
a cutting. (Century) 

Backfilling. 1. Btagh material form- 
ing the back of * masonry wall. 
2. The filling IB again of a place 
from which the earth has been re- 
moved; the earth so filled in. 

Back-filling system. See Overhand 
stoping; also Square-set stoping. 

Back holes. In shaft sinking, raising 
or drifting, the round of holes which 
is shot last (Du Pont) 

Back howe (So. Staff.). The horse 
that draws the loaded skip from 
the loaders to the place (wagon 
hole) where the tramway ends. 
(Min. Jour.) 

Backing. The timbers fixed across the 
top of a level, supported in notches 
cut in the rock. (Davies) 

Backing deals (Eng.). Planks driven 
vertically behind the timbering in a 
shaft. (Chance) 

Backjoint. 1. A joint plane more or 
less parallel to the strike of the 
cleavage, and frequently vertical. 
(0. and M. M. P.) 
2. In masonry, a rabbet or chase 
left to receive a permanent slab or 
other filling. (Webster) 



Backlash (Eng.) 1. The return or 
counterblast, as the recoil or back- 
ward suction of the air current pro- 
duced after a mine explosion. 

2. The reentry of air into a fan. 

3. The lost motion in gearing due to 
poorly fitting parts. 

Back leads. A term applied to black 
sand "leads" on coast lines which 
are above high-water mark. (Dur- 

Back lye (Scot). A siding or shunt 
on an underground tramway. (Gres- 

Back of a lode. The portion of a lode 
lying between a level driven in a 
lode and the surface (Davies). See 
also Back, 1. 

Back of ore. The ore between two 
levels which has to be worked from 
the lower level (C. and M. M. P.). 
See also Back, 1. 

Back overman (No. of Eng.). A man 
whose duty it is to look after the 
condition of underground workings 
and the safety of the men. (Gres- 

Back plate. The amalgamated plate 
inside and at the back of the mortar 
box of a stamp mill. 

Back pressure. The loss, expressed in 
pounds per square inch, due to fail- 
ure of getting the steam <ut of the 
cylinder after it has done its work. 

Back-pressure valve. A valve similar 
to a low-pressure safety valve but 
capable of being opened independ- 
ently of the pressure, thereby giving 
free exhaust. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Backs. The ore above any horizontal 
opening, such as a tunnel or drift 
(Duryee). See Back, 1. 

Backs and cutters. Jointed rock struc- 
tures, the backs (joints) of which 
run in lines parallel to the strike of 
the stratum, the cutters (cross 
Joints) crossing them about at right 
angles. (Standard) 

Backshift (No. of Eng.). A second 
shift or relay of miners who begin 
cutting coal after another set has 
begun to load it, at the same place. 

Back shot. A shot used for widening 
an entry, placed at some distance 
from the head of an entry. (Steel) 

Back sight. 1. The reading of a level- 
ing staff in its unchanged posi- 
tion when the leveling instrument 
has been taken to a new position. 

2. Any sight or bearing taken in a 
backward direction. (Webster) 

3. An observation made for verifica- 
tion from one station to the one be- 
hind it; the converse of foresight. 

4. The rodman who indicates, by 
means of a range rod, leveling staff, 
or plumb line, the exact location of 
the backsight station. 5. Also the 
station sighted, and in plane-table 
triangulation, the line of the plane- 
table sheet by means of which the 
table is orientated by sighting back 
to the station from which the line 
was drawn as a foresight. 

Back skin (Newc.). A leather cover- 
ing worn by men in wet workings. 

Back-slope. In geology, the less slop- 
ing side of a ridge. Contrasted with 
Escarpment, the steeper slope. 
Called also Structural plain. 
( Standard ) 

Back splinting (Scot.). A system of 

working a seam of coal over the 

goaf and across the packs of a lower 

seam taken out in advance by the 

' long- wall method. (Gresley) 

Backstay. A wrought-iron forked bar 
attached to the back of cars when 
ascending an inclined plane, which 
throws them off the rails if the rope 
or coupling breaks (C. and M. M. 
P.). See also Dragbar; Drag, 1. 

Back stope. To mine a stope from 
working below. (Century) 

Back sloping. See Overhand stuping; 
Shrinkage stoping. 

Back switching. A zigzag arrange- 
ment of railway tracks by means 
of which it is possible for a train 
to reach a higher or lower level 
by a succession of easy grades 
(Bowles) See also Switchback. 

Back-vent (Scot.). An aircourse 
alongside the pillar in wide rooms. 

Back work. 1. (Ark.) Loading coal, 
laying track, and other work of 
driving an entry and not done at the 
extreme face. (Steel) See also 
Backbye work. 

2. (Scot.) See Back -coming, and 
Back splinting. 



Backworking (Scot.). Working a 
coal bed back or toward a shaft. 

Bacon stone. An old name for a va- 
riety of steatite, alluding to its 
greasy appearance. (Chester) 

Bad air. Air vitiated by powder 
fumes, noxious gases or insufficient 
ventilation. (Weed) 

Baddeleyite. Zirconium dioxide, ZrO. 

Badlands. A region nearly devoid of 
vegetation where erosion, instead of 
carving hills and valleys of the or- 
dinary type, has cut the land into 
an intricate maze of narrow ravines 
and sharp crests and pinnacles. 
Travel across such a region is al- 
most impossible, hence the name. 
(U. S. GeoL Surv., Bull. 613, p. 182). 
Specifically, the Badlands of the Da- 

Bad place. Within the meaning of a 
contract between the United Mine 
Workers and an Employers' Associa- 
tion, a place in which the roof can 
not be made reasonably safe by the 
ordinary propping usually done by 
the miner. (Duncan Coal Co. v. 
Thompson, 162 Southwestern, p. 

Baff ends (Eng.). Long wooden 
wedges for adjusting linings in sink- 
Ing shafts. (C. and M. M. P.) 

1. That which defeats or frus- 
trates, hence in the flotation process, 
the projections or wings that divert 
or interrupt the flow of pulp in a 
vessel. (Rickard) 

2. (Mid.) To brush out or mix 
fire damp with air. (Gresley) 

3. See Baffle plate. 

Baffle plate. A metal plate used to 
direct the flames and gas of a fur- 
nace to different parts so that all 
portions of it will be heated; a de- 

flector. (Century) 

Baffler. 1. (No. Staff.) The lever by 
which the throttle-valve of 'a wind- 
ing engine' is worked. ('Gresley) 
2. A partition in a furnace so 
placed as to aid the convection of 
heat; a baffle plate. (Century) 

Baff week (No. of Eng.). The week 
next after the pay week, when wage* 
are paid fortnightly. 

Bag. 1. A paper container 1 to 2 
inches in diameter and 8 to 18 
inches long, used for placing in 
inert material such as sand, clay, 
etc., into a bore hole for stemming 

or tamping. Also called a Tamping 
bag. (Du Pont) 

2. (So. Staff.) A quantity of fire 
damp suddenly given off by. the coal 
seam. (Gresley) 

3. A cavity in a mine containing 
gas or water. (Standard) 

4. (or Baggit) (Scot). To swell 
or bulge. (Barrowman) 

Bagazo (Mex.). Waste from hand-jig- 
ging. Mud from drill hole. 

Bag coal (Eng.). Coal put into coarse 
canvas bags and sold in small quan- 
tities. (Gresley) 

Bag house. A large room or chamber, 
or series of **ooms at metallurgical 
blast-furnace plants in which 3,000 
to 4,500 bags are suspended for 
filtering furnace gases. Also used 
for the recovery of oxides, as arse- 
nic, zinc, etc. 

Bag of foulness (No. of Eng.). A 
cavity in a coal seam filled with 
fire damp under a high pressure, 
which, when cut into, is given off 
with much force. See also Bag. 2. 

Bag of gas (Eng.). A gas-filled cavity 
found in seams of coal. Bee also 
Bag, 2. (G. C. Greenwin 

Bag process. A method of * covering 
fluedust and also sublimed lead 
whereby furnace gases and fumes 
are passed through bags suspended 
in a bag-house. The furnace gases 
are thus filtered and the particles in 
suspension collected. CHofman, p. 

Bag room. A dost chamber in which 
bags are suspended for filtering. the 
furnace gases in the bag process. 
See also Bag house. 

Bagshot sands (Eng.). A series of 
Lower Tertiary beds consisting 
chiefly of siliceous sand, and oc- 
cupying extensive tracts round Bag- 
shot in Surrey, and in the New 
Forest, Hampshire. (Page) 

Bahar (Malay). A nnit of weight 
equal to 4 cwt. (Lock) 

Balkerinlte. A thick tar-like fluid at 
15* C., which constitutes 82.61 per 
cent of baikerite. (Bacon) 

Baikerite. A wax-like mineral from 

the vicinity of Lake Baikal ; it is 

apparently about 60 pet cent 
ozocerite. (Bacon) 


Bail. 1 To dip or tfcrpw out; as,, to 
bajl water. 2. To clear of water 
by dipping or '^hro^rlng It put ; as 
to bail a boat. XStan,dard) 
3. The handle <tf a bucket usjed<for 
hoisting ore, rock, water, etc., from 
a mine. 

Bailer. 1. A long cylindrical sheet- 
iron vessel fitted .with a valve at its 
lp\*er extremity, used for raisiffg 
the oil from the bottom of the ^ell 
to the surface. See also American 
pump^ (Mitzakis) 
2. A person who removes water 
from a mine by dipping it up with 
a bucket. (Steel) 

8. A 'metal tank, or skip, with a 
valve in the bottom, used for un- 
watering a mine. 

Bailer shop. A term used in all Rus- 
sian oil fields, for a shop, .in which 
bailers are made and kept in repair 
for use at oil wells. (Mitzakis) 

Bailiff (Eng.). A name formerly used 
for manager of a mine. (Gresley) 

Bailing. 1. One of the most common 
ways by which the petroleum that 
has collected at the bottom of a well 
is brought to the surface. See 
Baiter, 1. (Mitzakis) 
2. Unwatering a mine. See Bailer, 
2 and 3. 

Bailing: drum. A light winding drum 
from 10 to 18 feet in circumference, 
fixed In the derrick, usually driven 
by belting from a motor, around 
which the bailer rope is coiled. 

Bailing tub. A wooden tank about 6 
feet in diameter by 6 feet in height 
placed on trestles over the mouth of 
an oil well, and into which the bailer 
is emptied. (Mitzakis) 

Bain (Scot.) Old form of Ben, 1, 
which see. (Barrowman) 

Bait (No. of Eng.). Food taken by 
a miner during his shift. (Gresley) 

Bait-poke (No. of Eng.). A bag foi 
carrying a miner's lunch. (Gresley) 

Bait time (Eng.). Meal time under- 
ground. A term in use In Northum- 
berland and Durham; in other dis- 
tricts "snap" or "whiff." (Red- 
may ne) 

Baixada (Braz.). Low country, as 
the valley of a river. (Halse) 

Ba jada ( Sp. ) . A ladder-way. ( Lucas ) 

Baja de me tales (Peru.). Lowering of 
ores from mine to mill. (Dwight) 

Bajo. I. (Mex.j. Foot-wall. Seetto- 
spaldo. 2; (dolom.). Low-tying 
alluvial mines which have to be un- 
watered by artificial means' gen- 
erally deposits in present river betf 

Bake. To dry, harden, or vitrify by 
exposure to heat, as In a furnace 
or kiln; as, to bake pottery or 
bricks. (Standard) 

Batte (Scot). A sled, sllpe, sleigh 
or sledge. (Barrowman) 

fiakuin. A Russian machine Oil, pre- 
pared from Baku petroleum; it has 
high viscosity and great power of 
resisting cold. (Bacon) 

Bal. A Cornish name for a mine ; a 
cluster of mines. < Century) 

Bate limestone. In Wales, a Mmestone 
belonging to the Cambrian system 
and equivalent to the Trenton in 
New York, or at least in part 
(Emmons, 1880) 

Balance. 1. (Eng.), The counter- 
poise or weight attached by cable to 
the drum of a winding engine to 
balance the weight of the cage and 
hoisting cable and thus assist the 
engine in lifting the load out of the 

fc An instrument for weighing. See 
Assay balance. 3. To weigh; to 
counterbalance or counterpoise. To 
settle as an account (Webster) 
4. (jfova Scotia). See Balance pit 

Balance bob. A heavy lever ballasted 
at one end, and attached at the 
other to the pump rod, the weight 
of which it thus helps to carry. 
When the shaft is deep, and the 
pump rods are consequently very 
heavy, balance bobs are put in at 
intervals of 200 or 300 feet, thus 
relieving the strain on the rods 
themselves and on the engine (Ray- 
mond). (See also Bob. 

Balance box. A large box placed on 
end of a balance bob and filled with 
old iron, rock, etc., to counterbal- 
ance the weight of pump rods. (C. 
and M. M. P.) 

Balance brow. (No. Staff.). A self- 
acting inclined plane down which 
the cars of coal are lowered and 
the empties elevated upon a carriage 
or platform (Gresley). Also call- 
ed Balance plane ; Back balance. 

Balance car. 1. In quarrying, a car 
loaded with iron or stone and con- 
nected by means of a steel cable 
with a channeling machine operat- 



tag on an inclined track. Its par- 
pose is to counteract the force of 
gravity and thns enable the chan- 
neling machine to operate with equal 
ease up and down hill. (Bowles) 
2. A small weighted truck mounted 
upon a short inclined track, and 
carrying a sheave around which the 
rope of an endless haulage system 
passes as it winds off the drum. 
(C. and M. M. P.) 

Balanced shot. In coal mining, a shot 
for which the drill hole is parallel 
to the face of the coal that is to 
be broken by it (Steel) 

Balance gate. A gate hung in -the 
middle on a horizontal or vertical 
axis, as a flood gate, to facilitate 
turning in a current. 

Balance pit (Eng.). The pit or shaft 
in which a balance (counter weight) 
rises and falls. (Gresley) 

Balance plane. An inclined plane up 
which empty cars are hoisted by 
the weight of descending loaded 
cars. Also called Balance brow. 

Balance rope (Scot). A. rope hung 
under the cage in a shaft to coun- 
terbalance the winding rope. (Bar- 

Balatfza (Mex.). A balance; small 
scales. (Halse) 

Balanz6n (Mex.). Main beam or bal- 
ance bob of a Cornish pumping en- 
gine. (Dwight) 

Bal&s; Balas-ruby. A rose-red variety 
of spinel. Corruption of Badakh- 
shan, a locality in Afghanistan, 
where it is found. (Power) 

Bald. Without framing. Said of a 
mine timber which has a flat end. 
(Sanders, p. 142) 

Balde (Chile). A kibble. (Halse) 

Balistite. See Ballistite. 

Balk. 1. (Eng.) A more or less sud- 
den thinning out, for a certain dis- 
tance, of a bed of coal; a nip or 
want. Also spelled Baulk (Cen- 
tury). Also failure of coal in a 
coal stratum. (Tennessee Copper 
Co. v. Gadley, 207 Federal, p. 297) 
2. A timber for supporting the roof 
of a mine, or for carrying any heavy 
load. (Gresley) 

Balk - ground foreman. A foreman 
whose duties are to inspect and to 
see that the coal is properly mined 
where there are balks in the mine 
(Tennessee Copper Co. v. Gadley, 
207 Federal, p. 297). See Balk, i 

Balkstone (Eng.). A provincial name 
given to an impure stratified lime- 
stone. (Humble) 

BalL A pasty mass of puddled iron ; 
a loup. (Standard) 

Balland (No. of Eng.). Pulverized 
lead ore after separation from the 
gangue (Century). Lead concen- 

Ballast Broken stone, gravel, sand, 
etc., used for keeping railroad ties 
in place. (C. and M, M. P.) 

Ballast car. A car used for carrying 
ballast, which may be unloaded 
'from the side or bottom. (Webster) 

Ballast engine. A steam engine used 
in excavating and for digging and 
raising stones and gravel for bal- 
last (Webster) 

Ballast hammer. A hammer with a 
long handle and two faces, used to 
break stone ballast (Webster) 

Ballasting. 1. The act of furnishing 
with ballast 2. Material for bal- 
last (Standard). See also Ballast 

Ballast-shovel A spoon-pointed shovel 
having a thick body. (Standard) 

BaU breaker. A steel or iron ball 
that is hoisted by a derrick and 
allowed to fall on blocks of waste 
stone for the purpose of breaking 
them. (Bowles) 

Ball vlay. A plastic white-burning 
clay used as a bond in china ware 
(Ries). Called also Pipe clay. 

Ball grinder. A pulverizer or disinte- 
grator formed by balls of metal in- 
closed in a rotating cylinder. The 
material to be crushed is broken by 
the attrition of the rolling balls 

Balling. The aggregation of iron, in 
the puddling or the bloomery 
process, into balls or loup s. (Ray- 

Balling furnace. 1. A kind of rever- 
beratory furnace used in alkali 
works. 2. A furnace in which piles 
or fagots of wrought iron are placed 
to be heated preparatory to rolling. 

Balling head. An attachment at the 
end of a carding machine for re- 
ceiving and balling the wool silver. 

Balling tool. A tool used in collecting 
into a mass the iron in a puddling 
furnace preparatory to taking it to 
the hammer or squeezer; a rabble. 



Ball Ironstone. 1. (So. Staff.) Strata 
containing large argillaceous no- 
dules of ironstone. (Gresley) 
2. Nodular iron ore. (Webster) 

Ballistite; Baligtite. A smokeless pow- 
der consisting essentially of soluble 
cellulose nitrates and nitroglycerin. 
It is dark colored and rubbery. 

Ball Joint. A flexible pipe joint made 
in the shape of a ball or sphere. 
(Nat. Tube Co.) 

Ball miU. A short tube mill (which 
see) of relatively large diameter in 
which grinding is done by steel 
balls instead of pebbles. The dis- 
charge is usually through a screen. 

Ball mine. Same as Ball ironstone, 1. 

Ball-Norton magnetic separator. An 
apparatus consisting of two revolv- 
ing drums within each of which is a 
series of stationary electromagnets 
extending the working length of 
the drum, but corresponding only 
to a portion of the periphery. The 
ore is fed on the top of the first 
drum, and as the drum revolves, 
the magnetic particles adhere to it, 
while the nonmagnetic fall into a 
tailings bin below. The magnetic 
particles, beyond the magnet?, are 
thrown off by centrifugal force 
against the second drum. This 
either rotates faster or has a weaker 
magnetic field than the first drum, 
so that those particles least sfrongly 
attracted by the first drum fall 
from the second, making a middling 
product. (Liddell) 

Ballon (Fr.). 1. A form of geological 
upheaval resulting in mountains, and 
characterized by rounded domes. 

2. The metal prolong fixed to a zinc 

Ball porphyry. A variety of quartz 
prophyry in which balls, of felsite 
are developed. (Power) 

Ball soda. Crude soda. (Century) 

Ball stamp (Lake Sup.). A stamp for 
crushing rock, operated directly by 
steam power, the stem of the stamp 
being at the same time the piston 
rod of a steam cylinder. (Ray- 

Ballstone. (Eng.). 1. A concretion- 
ary mass of crystalline limestone 
occurring in the form of balls, vary- 
ing greatly in size, in the Wenlock 
limestone. Called also Woolpack. 

S. (No. Staff.) An ancient term 
for ironstone. (Gresley) 

Ball-tiff. See Tiff, 2. 

Ball vein. A vein in which nodular 
iron ore occurs; also, the ore itself 
(Standard). See also "Ball iron- 
stone, 1. 

Balmaiden (Corn.). A girl employed 
in the mines. (Standard) 

Balnstone (No. of Eng.). Stone or 
rock forming the roof. (Gresley) 

Balsa (Mex.). 1. A movable plat- 
form suspended from a cable, used 
in timbering shafts. 2. A pool of 
stagnant water in a mine. (Dwight) 

Baltimorite. A grayish-green, silky, 
fibrous, splintery serpentine: pos- 
sibly an altered asbestos. (Stand- 

Bamboo. In ceramics, caiie-colored 
porcelain biscuit (unglazed porce- 
lain) used in making domestic 
utensils. (Standard) 

Bamboo ware. In ceramics, a yellow 
variety of Wedgwood ware named 
from its color. (Standard) 

Banakite. A general name given by 
Iddings to a group of igneous rocks 
in the eastern portion of the Yellow- 
stone Park, and chiefly in dikes. 
They are porphyritic and richly 
feldspathic. The phenocrysts are 
labradorite and the groundmass 
consists of alkali-feldspars. A little 
biotite and subordinate augite may 
be present. The group should be 
considered in connection with ab- 
sarokite and shoshonite. (Kemp) 

Banatite. A name coined by B. v. 
Cotta in 1865 to describe the diori- 
tic rocks that are connected with a 
series of ore deposits in the 
Austrian province of the Banat. 
Accurate microscopical study has 
shown them to be of such varying 
mineralogy that the name has now 
slight definite significance. The 
rocks are largely quartz-diorites. 

Banco (Sp.). 1. A carpenter's bench. 
2. A solid bed of mineral having 
two faces exposed. 3. B. de piedra, 
any one bed or stratum of stone in 
a quarry. 4. B. de tierra, a ground 
sill, a mud sill. 5. (Mex.) Hard 
rock which narrows a vein, or 
makes it change its course. A 
horse. (Halse) 

6. (Mex.). The crucible of a blast- 
furnace. 7. B. de herrar, a horse 
shoeing shop. (Dwight) 

Banco de avios (Sp.). A bank which 
advances funds for the working of 
mines. (Halse) 



Band. 1. Slate or other rock inter- 
stratified with coaL Commonly 
called Middle band In Arkansas; 
also Dirt band, Sulphur band, or 
other band, as the case may be. 

2. (Corn.) A bed or seam of coal. 

3. (So. Staff.) A winding rope or 
chain. (Gresley) 

Banda (Mex.). 1. Bolt (D wight) 
2. Bank* of a river. (Halse) 

Band brake. A hand or power-actu- 
ated brake of a hoisting engine, con- 
sisting of a broad steel band lined 
with blocks of wood or other ma- 
terial, and which operates against 
the surface of the winding drum. 

Bandeada (Mex.). Banded structure 
of veins. (D wight) 

Banded structure. A term applied to 
veins having distinct layers or 
bands. This may be due to succes- 
sive periods of deposition, or replace- 
ment of some earlier rock. (Far- 

Banded vein. A vein made up of lay- 
ers of different minerals parallel 
with the walls (Power). Also 
tailed Ribbon vein. 

Bandera (Mex.). A flag used in sur- 
veying to mark points. (Dwight) 

Banderilla (Sp.). A paper cone kept 
in position by a piece of clay, used 
to mark the position of drill holes. 

Bandfnl (So. Staff.). A cage or, strict- 
ly speaking, a rope load; e. g., a 
handful of men (Gresley). Compare 

Bandsman (Eng.). 1. A miner who 
operates the hoisting rope or band 
( Webster ) . A hoistman. 
2. A loader or filler of coal, etc., un- 
derground. ( Gresley ) 

Sandstone (White Cliff, N. S. W.). 
Flat bands of a usually harder na- 
ture than the adjoining strata, con- 
taining more or less opal, but found 
either just above or below the work- 
able seams of opal. (Power) 

Band wheel. The belt wheel on the 
axis of the drum which drives the 
walking beam of a well drill. 

Bangerts. (Eng.). A coarse stopping 
for holding earth in place. (Hunt) 

Banging-pieces ( Eng. ) . See Catches, 1. 

Banjo (Scot.). An iron frame for 
carrying a false clack, or valve. 

Bank. 1. (Derb.) The face of the 
coal at which miners are working. 

2. An ore deposit or coal bed worked 
by surface excavations or drifts 
above water-level. (Raymond) 

3. In English districts the area im- 
mediately surrounding the mouth of 
a shaft; the landing at the top. 

4. (Cumb.) A large heap or stack 
of mineral on the surface of the 
ground. 5. To manipulate coal, etc., 
on the bank. (Gresley) 

Bank boss. Inside foreman of a mine ; 
a mine boss ; a mine captain. (Roy) 

Bank claim. A mining claim on the 
bank of a stream. (Skinner) 

Bank-engine (Eng.). An engine at 
the mouth of a mine shaft. (Stand- 

Banker-off (Aust.). The man who at- 
tends to taking skips off the cage. 

Banket (Trans.). 1. A conglomerate 
containing sufficient gold, or any 
other valuable metal, to be exploited 
as an ore deposit. 
2. (Eng.) A stone-masons' or 
bricklayers' bench, on which to trim 
stone or brick. (Standard) 

Bank head. The nearly level upper 
end of an inclined plane, next to 
the engine or drum. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Bank-head machinery (Eng.). The 
hoisting, dumping and screening 
equipment at a coal-mining shaft 

Bank hook (Mid.). An iron hook 
with which the banksman pulls the 
full cars off the cage. (Gresley) 

Banking. 1. (Mid.) Sorting and 
loading coal at the bank. 2. (Cumb.) 
Heaping up minerals on the surface 
for future sale. (Gresley) 

Bank-level (York.). The level head- 
ing from which the bank is worked 
(Century). See alto Bank, 1. 

Bank of ovens. A row of ovens for 
converting coal into coke. (Power) 

Bank-ont (No. of Eng.). To store coal 
at the surface when short of wagons, 
or cars. (Gresley) 

Bank plates (Eng.). Cast-iron sheets 
with which a landing is floored for 
the more expeditious manipulation 
of cars (Gresley). A turn-sheet 

Bank right (Aust). The right to 
divert water . to a bank claim. 
(Da vies) 



Banksman. 1. (Eng.). The man in 
attendance at the mouth of a shaft 
who superintends the work of sort- 
ing and loading the coal (Gresley). 
Sometimes called Lander. 
2. (Aust.). 'See Banker-off. 

Banks woman (Eng.). A woman em- 
ployed at the mine, to pick rock 
from, and clean the coal for the 
market. (Gresley) 

Bank to Bank. A shift The period 
included between the time a miner 
arrives at the working face and the 
time he leaves it. 

Bank-work (York.). A system of 
working coal in South Yorkshire. 

Bannock. 1. (So. Staff.) To hole on 
the top of a seam. 2. (Shrop.). 
Brownish-gray clay suitable for 
making into fire brick. (Gresley) 

Bano (Mex.). Excess of mercury 
added to the torta to collect amal- 
gam. (D wight) 

Bafios (Mex.). Water collected in 
old mine workings. (Halse) 

Banque (Sp.). Underhand stoping. 

Banquear (Colom.). To level ground; 
to grade for building purposes, or 
for depositing ore. (Halse) 

Banqueo (Colom.). Ground leveled 
for building purposes, or for deposit- 
ing ore. (Halse) 

Banqueria (Bol.). In alluvial mining, 
a thick bed of blocks of granite, 
schists, and quartz. (Halse) 

Banquillos (Sp.). Stools on which 
the marquetas are placed. (Min. 
Jour. ) 

Bant (Derb.). A certain number of 
men, usually three or four, who, 
prior to the introduction of cages, 
used to ride up and down a shaft 
sitting in short loose pieces of chain 
attached to a hemp rope, with their 
knees pointing inward toward the 
center of the shaft. There were 
usually two bants, the lower or 
bottom bant which was composed 
of men, and the upper or foaley 
bant which was made up of lads a 
few feet above the heads of the men 
(Gresley). Compare Bont, 1; also 

Bar. 1. A drilling or tamping rod. 

2. a vein or dike crossing a lode. 

3. A bank of sand, gravel, or other 
material, especially at the mouth of 
a river or harbor. 4. A placer de- 

posit, generally submerged, in the 
slack portion of a stream (Web- 
ster). Accumulations of gravel 
along the banks of a stream, and, 
which, when worked by the miners 
for gold, are called Bar diggings 

5. A length of timber placed hori- 
zontally for supporting the roof. 
(Gresley). Synonym for Cap-piece 
in Australia. 6. See Sinker bar. 

Baraboo. A Monadnock which has 
been buried by a series of strata 
and subsequently reexposed by the 
partial erosion of these younger 
strata. (Lahee, p. 322) 

Barba (Mex.). Fire-bridge. (Dwight) 

Barbados earth. A deposit consisting 
of fossil radiolarians. See Tripoli. 
(Chamberlin, vol. 1, p. 630) 

Barbados tar. The dark green or black 
petroleum of Barbados, which was 
formerly widely used in medicine. 

Barbotine. A thin clay paste used in 
low relief ornamentation of pottery. 

Bar diggings (Pac.). Gold- washing 
claims located on the bars (shallows) 
of a stream, and worked when the 
water is low. or otherwise, with the 
aid of cofferdams (Raymond). 
See also Bar, 4, and Diggings. 

Bardiglio marble. An Italian stone 
obtained on Montalto, on the south- 
ern borders of Tuscany. (Merrill) 

Bar drill. A drill similar to the tripod 
drill, but mounted on a bar sup- 
ported by four legs. (Bowles) 

Bare (Eng.). To strip or cut by the 
side of a fault, boundary, etc- 
(Gresley). To make bare. 

Barequ ear ( Colom. ) . In placer mining, 
to extract as much of the pay gravel 
as possible, without method, .leaving 
the overburden untouchecl. (Halse) 

Barequeo (Colom.). Extracting the 
rich ore by crude means. (Halse) 

Barequero (Colom.). A placer miner 
who uses crude methods of alluvial 
washing (Halse). A spoiler. (Lu- 

Barfe Saturday (N. of Eng.). The 
Saturday upon which wages are 
not paid. (Gresley) 

Barff's process. A method of protect 
ing iron from rusting by oxidizing 
it with superheated steam. (Web- 



Bargain. Portion of mine worked by 

a gang on contract. (G. and M. M. 

Bargain-men (Newc.). Men who work 

by the bargain or contract. (Min. 


Bargain-work (No. of Eng.). Under- 
ground work done by contract, e.g. 
driving headings, road laying, etc. 

Barges (Scot). Sheets of iron, zinc, 
or wood, used in wet shafts or work- 
ings for diverting the water to one 
side. ( Barrowman ) 

Barilla. An impure sodium carbonate 
and sulphate obtained by burning 
various species of land or marine 
plants; soda-ash. Used in making 
glass, soap, etc. (Standard) 

Baring. 1. A making bare ; an uncov- 
ering (Webster). See Stripping, 2. 

2. The surface soil and useless 
strata overlying a seam of coal, 
clay, iron-stone, etc., which has to 
be removed preparatory to working 
the mineral. (Gresley) 

3. The small coal made in under- 
cutting a coal seam. (Webster) 

Barite. Sulphate of barium, BaSO 4 ; 
also called Heavy-spar, from its high 
specific gravity. When finely ground 
it is used as an ingredient in certain 
paints, especially in place of white 
lead. Also called Parytes. 

Bario (Mex.). Barium. (Dwight) 

Baritina (Sp.). Heavy spar; barite 

Barium. A chemical element belong- 
ing to the group of metals whose 
oxides are the alkaline earths. It 
is yellowish white, somewhat mal- 
leable, fusible at high temperature, 
burning easily when heated in air. 
Sp. gr. 3.6 ; atomic weight, 137.37 ; 
symbol, Ba. (Century). The com- 
mercial minerals are barite and 

Barium sulphate. Barite, BaSO*. 

Barkevikite. A variety of amphibole 
close to arfvedsonite in composition. 

Barley; Barley coal. A steam size of 
anthracite known also as buckwheat 
No. 3, sized on a round punched 
plate. It passes through -inch 
holes. At some mines it has to pass 
over ^-inch holes and at others over 
A-inch holes. The American Soci- 
ety of Mechanical Engineers has rec- 
ommended that with a screen with 
circular holes, barley shall pass 
through tVincB holes and pass over 
A -inch holes. 

Bannaster (Derb.). A mining official 
who collects the dues or royalties, 
presides over the barmote, etc. 
(From Germ. Bergmeizter) . (Ray- 

Bar mining. The mining of river bars, 
usually between low and high 
waters, although the stream is 
sometimes deflected and the bar 
worked below water level (C. and 
M. M. P.). See also Bar diggings. 

Barmote (Derb.). A hall or court in 
which trials relative to lead mines 
are held. (Min. Jour.) 

Barney. A small car, or truck, at- 
tached to a rope and used to push 
cars up a slope or inclined plane 
(Raymond). Also called Bullfrog, 
Donkey, Ground hog, Larry, Ram, 
Mule, and Truck. 

Barney-pit. A pit at the bottom of a 
slope or plane, into which the barney 
is lowered to allow the mine car to 
run over it to the foot of the plane. 

Barnhardtite. A massive orange-yel- 
low copper and iron sulphide. 

Bar of ground (Eng.). An intersecting 
vein of different mineral substances 
(Bainbridge). A horse. 

Barolite. Wadsworth's name for rocks 
composed of barite or celestite. 

Barometer. An Instrument f9r deter- 
mining the weight or pressure of the 
atmosphere, and hence for judging 
of probable changes of weather, or 
for ascertaining the height of any 
ascent, etc. (Webster) 

Barometer holiday (Derb.). .Any day 
on which no work is carried on 
underground, owing to the very low 
state of the barometer (for instance, 
when it drops below say 29 inches), 
as much fire damp may be expected 
ta be given off in the mine. (Gres- 

Bar6metro (Mex. ) . Barometer. 

Barquin (Sp.). A large bellows used 
in iron works. (Halse) 

Barquina ( Sp. Am. ) . A large furnace. 

Barra (Mex.). 1. Bar or ingot. 2. A 
share in a mine. (The ancient 
Spanish laws considered a mine as 
divided into- 24 parts, each of which 
was called a barra.) B. viudas or 
are non-assessable shares, 



which participate In the profits, but 
not in the expenses of mining. 
8. B. azuela, a bar with a chisel bit. 
4. B. de plata, silver in bars. 5. B. 
pica, or B. de punta, a bar with a 
diamond-shaped point. 6. B. de 
una, a claw bar for drawing spikes. 

Barracks shale. One of the principal 
oil-shale seams of Scotland. (Ba- 

Barradnra (Sp. Am.). 
the sluice; scraping. 

Raking into 

Barranca (Sp.). A ravine; a washout 
made by a heavy fall of rain. 

Barrandite. A bluish, reddish, green- 
ish, or yellowish-gray hydrous fer- 
ric aluminum phosphate, (Al Fe)- 
PO*+2H 2 O, found in spheroidal con- 
centration. ( Standard ) 

Barrel. 1. The water-cylinder of a 
pump. 2. A piece of small pipe in- 
serted in the end of a cartridge to 
carry the squib to the powder. 3. A 
vessel used in amalgamation. (Ray- 

4. The body of a windlass or a cap- 
stan about which the cable winds. 

Barrel amalgamation. See Barrel 

Barrel chlorination. See Barrel proc- 

Barrel copper. Native copper occur- 
ring in small masses, separated 
easily from the matrix and shipped 
in barrels to the smelter (Webster). 
See also Barrel work; Barrilla, 1 
and 2. 

Barrel process. A process of extract- 
ing gold or silver by treating the 
ore in a revolving barrel, or drum, 
with mercury, chlorine, cyanide so- 
lution or other reagent. (Webster) 

Barrel quartz. A term applied to cer- 
tain corrugated veinlets of gold- 
bearing quartz found in Nova. Sco- 
tia. (Ore Dep., p. 399) 

Barrel-work (Lake Sup.). Native cop- 
per occurring in pieces of a size to 
be sorted out by hand in sufficient 
purity for smelting without me- 
chanical concentration (Raymond). 
Also called Barrel copper. 

Barren. Not containing mineral of 
value (Duryee). Not productive. 

Barrena (Mex.). A Hand drill, for 
blasting. B. viva, a sharp drilt; B. 
muerta, a dull drill. (Dwight) 

Barrenar (Mex.). To drill; to fire a 
round of holes. (Dwight) 

Barrenarse (Mex.). To connect with 
each other (as two mines or work- 
ings). (Dwight) 

Barren contact. A contact vein, or 
a place in the contact vein, which 
has no mineral. (Crofutt) 

Barrenero (Sp.). 1. A driller. 2. A 
boy who attends the boring tools. 

Barren ground. Strata containing 
seams of coal that are not of a 
workable thickness. In metal min- 
ing, ground that does not contain 
ore. < 

Barren measures. Coal measures with- 
out workable seams. (Standard) 

Barreno (Mex.). 1. A drill hole. 2. 
A communication between two mine 
workings. 3. B. en agua, a down- 
ward hole. 4. B. en seco, an up- 
ward hole. (Dwight) 
5. B. d techo, a drill hole in the 
roof. 6. B. tenido, a drill hole in 
the floor. 7. B. de viento, a jumper 
or churn drill. (JEalse) 

Barren solution. A working cyanide 
solution that contains little or no 
precious metal. The term refers to 
solution after precipitation of gold 
or silver, as distinct from pregnant 

Barrer (Sp.). To sweep. B. por 
pena (Colom.). To rake the gold- 
bearing gravel from bed rock with 
hoes. B. un hoyo, a similar opera- 
tion applied to more limited areas. 
B. el canaldn, an analogous opera- 
tion in a ground sluice. B. por 
planes, to work in the upper part of 
the gold-bearing gravel, when it is 
not possible to clean up the bed 
rock. (Halse) 

Barreta. J. (Mex.). A crowbar. 2. 
B. perdida (Peru). Dead work in 
unprofitable prospecting. (Dwight) 

Barretero. 1. (Sp.). A borer; a 
driller. 2. (Peru). A miner who 
works with pick, crowbar, and 
wedges. (Halse) 

3. (Mex.). A first-class miner, able 
to locate, direct, drill, and blast 
holes. (Dwight) 

Barricade. An artificial mound of 
earth, usually as high as the eaves 
of a magazine roof, erected to de- 
flect the force of an explosion up- 
ward and to protect the inclosed 
building from flying objects. (Du 



Barrier. 1. A solid block or rib of 
coal, left unworked between two col- 
lieries or mines for security against 
accidents (Gresley). See also Bar- 
rier pillar. 

2. A low ridge built by wave action 
near shore. (Chamberlin) 

Barrier pillar. A large pillar of coal 
4eft at intervals to localize the dam- 
age resulting from a crush or 
squeeze, inrush of water, or a mine 

Barrier system (No. of Eng.). An ap- 
proved method of working a colliery 
by pillar and stall, where solid 
ribs or barriers of coal are left in 
between working places. (Gresley) 

Barril (Sp.). 1. A cask or barrel. 
2. B. de amalgamation, amalgama- 
tion barrel. (Halse) 

Barrilla (Bol.). 1. Native copper dis- 
seminated in copper ore. 2. Copper- 
ore concentrate. 3. Tin-ore concen- 
trate containing 60 to 70 per cent 
metallic tin. 4. (Colom.) In gold 
mining, wooden divisions in blanket 
strakes, copper plates, etc. (Halse) 

Barring. 1. (Eug.). The timbers in 
the workings for keeping up the 
roof. 2. (Scot). The timber wall- 
ing or casing of shafts. 3. (York). 
Using an iron bar to remove loose 
rocks after blasting. (Gresley) 

Barring-down. 1. Removing loose 
rocks in the roof of a mine by 
means of a bar. 2. Loosening ore 
in a bin by means of a bar, so it 
will flow through the chute. 

Barring scrap. Prying adhering scrap 
metal from runners, ladles, or 
skimmers. (Willcox) 

Barrio (Mex.). A settlement (Luqas) 

Barro (Sp.). 1. Clay, loam, mud, 
earth. 2. B. de olleros, potters' clay. 
3. Argillaceous marl. 4. (Colom.) 
Overburden of auriferous alluvial 
deposits. 5. (Braz.) A layer of 
fine sand mixed with clay. (Halse) 

Barrow. 1. A vehicle in which ore, 
coal, etc., is wheeled. 2. (Corn.) 
A heap of attle or rubbish ; a dump. 
(Raymond) 3. A wicker basket in 
which salt is put to drain. 4. 
(Eng.) A mountain or hill. (Web- 

Barrow man (Eng.). One who con- 
veys coal underground in a wheel- 
barrow from the working places to 
the haulage ways (Gresley). Also 
called Putter. I 

744010 047 5 

Barrow tram. A shaft or handle of a 
wheelbarrow. (Webster) 

Bars (Eng.). Strong timbers placed 
horizontally for supporting boards 
by which the faces of the excava- 
tion for a tunnel are supported. 
The "crown-bars" support the up- 
per part of the excavation; the 
" side bars " the lateral portions. 

Barrow-way (Newc.). A level through 
which coal or ore is wheeled. 

Bar screen. A device for separating 
different sizes of coal. It consists 
of a number of parallel inclined 
bars at regular distances apart 
along which the coal slides by grav- 
ity. See also Grizzly. (Steel) 

Bar- timbering. A system of support- 
ing a tunnel roof by long top bars 
while the entire lower tunnel-core 
is taken out, leaving an open space 
for the masons to run up the arch- 
ing. Under certain conditions the 
bars are withdrawn after the ma- 
sonry is completed, otherwise they 
are bricked in and not drawn. 

Bartlett table. A three-shelf table 
driven by an eccentric that gives it 
a vanning motion. Ore and water 
are fed on the upper shelf giving 
two products, heads and tailings. 
The latter are retreated on the sec- 
ond shelf, and the tailings go to the 
third or lower shelf for retreatment. 

Bartolina (Mex.). A watchman's 
house at the mine-entrance. 

Barybiotite. A variety of biotite con- 
taining barium oxide. (Standard) 

Barysphere. The central or deep in- 
terior portions of the earth, pre- 
sumably composed of heavy metals 
or minerals. It is contrasted with 
Lithosphere, the outer stony shell 
(Kemp). Also called Pyrosphere. 

Baryta. Barium oxide. 

Baryta green. A pigment, essentially 
barium manganate. (Webster) 

Baryta white. A pigment made of 
barite, BaSO. 

Barytes. See Barite. 

Baryto. A combining form denoting 
the presence of barium, as in 
&an/foealcite, and ftan/focelestite, 



Barytocalcite. A carbonate of barium 
and calcium, BaCOs.CaCOg. (Dana) 

Basal cleavage. Same as pinacoidal; 
cleavage parallel to the basal pina- 
coid, i. e., perpendicular to the direc- 
tion of elongation. (Butler) 

Basal conglomerate. A conglomerate 
or coarse sandstone forming the 
lowest member of a series of re- 
lated strata which lie unconform- 
ably on older rocks. It records 
the progressive encroachment of the 
seabeach on the former dry land. 

Basal plane. A plane parallel to the 
lateral or horizontal axes of a crys- 
tal. (Webster) 

Basalt. A word of ancient but un- 
certain etymology. It is employed 
as a rock name in its restricted 
sense for porphyritic and felsitic 
rocks consisting of augite, olivine 
and plagioclase with varying 
amounts of a glassy base which may 
entirely disappear. In a broader 
sense the basalt or basaltic group 
is used to include all the dark, basic, 
volcanic rocks, such as the true 
basalts ; the nepheline-, leucite-, and 
melilite-basalts ; the augitites and 
limburgites; the diabases, and me- 
laphyres. (Kemp) 

Basalt glass. A black glassy form of 
basalt. (Webster) 

Basaltic. Pertaining to, formed of, or 
containing basalt; as basaltic lava. 

Basaltic hornblende. A variety of 
hornblende found in volcanic rocks. 
(A. F. Rogers) 

Basaltiform. In the form of basalt; 
columnar. ( Webster ) 

Basaltine. 1. Same as Basaltic. 2. 
Same as Augite. (Standard) 

Basalting. 1. A pavement made of 
blast furnace slag. 2. The process 
or operation of covering, as a road, 
with slag. (Standard) 

Basalto (Sp.). Basalt. (Min. Jour.) 

Basalt ware. In ceramics, a variety 
of wedgwood ware with a black 
body. (Standard) 

Basanite. A very old term, first used 
as a synonym for Basalt; also 
formerly applied to the black, finely 
crystalline quartzite, used by old- 
time workers in the precious metals 
as a touchstone or test-stone by 
which to distinguish gold from brass 
by the streak. This variety was 
often called Lydian stone or Lydite. 

Basanite is now universally em- 
polyed for those volcanic rocks that 
possess a porphyritic of felsitic tex- 
ture and that contain plagioclase, 
augite, olivine and nepheline or leu- 
cite, one or both, each variety being 
distinguished by the prefix of one or 
the other, or of both of the last 
named minerals. (Kemp) 

Basanitoid. A term suggested by 
Bucking for basaltic rocks, without 
definite nepheline, but with a glassy 
base. (Kemp) 

B&scula (Mex.). A scale for weighing 
ore charges. (Dwight) 

Base. 1. A compound capable of re- 
acting with acids to form salts. 
2. The basal plane of a crystal. 3. 
The ground mass of a> fused magma, 
especially if glassy or not visibly 
crystalline. See also Basis. 4. A line 
in a survey which, being accurately 
determined, in length and position 
serves as the origin for computing 
the distances and relative positions 
of remote points and objects by tri- 
angulation. 5. The point or line 
from which a start is made in any 
action or operation ; as, a price used 
as a unit from which to calculate 
other prices is often called Base 
price. 6. Of little comparative 
value, as metals inferior to silver 
and gold, which are precious metals. 
Alloyed with an inferior metal. 

7. The artificial foundation of a 
pavement. (Bacon) 

Base bullion. The commercial name 
for argentiferous lead, as distin- 
guished from silver or gold bullion. 
Compare Bullion, 1. (Hofinan, p. 

Base course. The first or lowest 
course of a wall, as of a foundation. 
Also called Foundation course. 

Base goods. A term generally used to 
denote a material made by treating 
phosphate rock and some nitroge- 
nous substance with sulphuric acid. 
Hair, leather, scrap fur, wool waste, 
feathers, shoddy, etc., are the ni- 
trogenous materials most often used. 
Base is made with the same ma- 
chinery that is used for making acid 
phosphate, and methods of oper- 
ation are about the same. (Amer. 
Fert. Hand Book, 1917, p. 41) 

Base level. 1. The level below which 
a land surface can not be reduced 
by running water. (Webster) 
2. To reduce by erosion to or to- 
ward a base level. (Standard) 



Base line. A line taken as the founda- 
tion of operations in trigonometrical 
and geological surveys (Emmons). 
See also Base, 4. 

Basement complex. A series of rocks 
of great obscurity and complexity 
beneath the dominantly sediment- 
ary rocks. They are at the bottom 
of the known series, but since they 
are not the true base or foundation, 
they are properly termed the Ar- 
chean complex (Chamberlin). The 
rocks of the Archean system. 

Base metal. Any metal as iron, lead, 
etc., which is altered by exposure to 
the air, etc., in contrast with the 
noble or precious metals. (Web- 

Baseness. 1. Liability to rust. 2. 
Inferiority due to alloy. (Stand- 

Bash (So. Wales). To fill with rub- 
bish the spaces from which the 
coal has been mined. (Gresley) 

Basic. 1. In chemistry, performing 
the office of a base in a salt; hav- 
ing the base in excess. 2. Having 
more than one equivalent of the 
base for each equivalent of acid. 

2. In geology, a general descriptive 
term for those igneous rocks that 
are comparatively low in silica. 
About 55 or 50 per cent is the su- 
perior limit. Compare Acidic. 

3. In furnace practice, a slag in 
which the earthy bases are in excess 
of the amount required to form a 
neutral slag with the silica present. 

Basic lining. A lining for furnaces, 
converters, etc., formed of non- 
siliceous material, usually limestone, 
dolomite, lime, magnesia, or iron 
oxide. ( Ra y mond ) 

Basic-lining process. An improvement 
of the Bessemer process, in which, 
by the use of a basic lining in the 
converter and by the addition of 
basic materials during the blow, it 
is possible to eliminate phosphorus 
from the pig iron, and keep it out 
of the steel. (Raymond) 

Basic price. As applied to the price 
of metals, it is that figure at which 
the price is a minimum. See Nor- 
mal price. (H. C. Hoover, p. 36) 

Basic process. See Bn sic-lining process. 

Basic rock. A term rather loosely 
used in lithotomy generally to mean 
one of the following: (a) An igneous 

rock containing less than 55 per cent 
of silica, free or combined, (b) An 
igneous reck in which minerals com- 
paratively low In silica and rich in 
the metallic bases, such as the amphi- 
boles. the pyroxenes, biotite, and 
olivine, are dominant. (c) Very 
loosely, an igneous rock composed 
dominantly of dark-colored minerals. 
In all three senses contrasted with 

The term is misleading and unde- 
sirable and is going out of use. As 
used in the first sense above it is be- 
ing replaced by subsilicic and as 
used in the second sense it should be 
replaced by mafic or by some term 
denoting the dominant mineral or 
minerals. (La Forge) See Basic, 2. 

Basic salt. A salt In which the acid 
part of the compound is not suffi- 
cient to satisfy all the bonds of the 
base. (Dana) 

Basic slag. The slag produced in steel 
making in the Thomas furnace, in 
which a basic calcareous or mag- 
nesian lining is used in the con- 
verter, and lime, either alone or 
with oxide of iron, is added to the 
charge of metal. Phosphorus is re- 
tained In the slag and carried off. 

Basic steel Steel made by the basic 
process. (Standard) 

Basin. 1. A large or small depression 
in the surface of the land, the low- 
est part of which may be occupied 
by a lake or pond. 2. An area or 
tract having certain common feat- 
ures throughout, particularly a 
tract where the strata dip from all 
sides toward a. center. (Webster) 
3. A natural depression of strata 
containing a coal bed or other 
stratified deposit. 4. The deposit 
itself. (Raymond) 

Basining. In geology, a settlement of 
the ground in the form of basins, 
in many cases, at least, due to the 
solution and transportation of un- 
derground deposits of salt and 
gypsum. Such basining produces 
numerous depressions, from those of 
a few square yards to those 50 
square miles in area, in the high- 
plains region east of the Rocky 
Mountains. (Standard) 

Basis; Base. A term employed to de- 
scribe that part of a fused rock mag- 
ma that in cooling fails to crystallize 
as recognizable minerals, but chills 
as a glass, or related amorphous 
aggregate. It differs thus from 
groundmass, which is the relatively 



fine portion of a porphyritic rock as 
distinguished from the phenocrysts. 

Basker (Eng.). Old cloth use to cover 
wet holes to prevent splashing while 
drilling. (Bainbridge) 

Basket (So. Staff.). 1. A shallow pan 
Into which small coal is raked for 
loading into cars. 2. (Leic.) A 
measure of weight (2 cwt]^ occa- 
sionally used in East Lancashire. 

3. A group of several wooden stakes 
placed in the form of a small circle 
to mark and protect a point used in 

Basonomelan. A variety of hematite 
containing titanium oxide. (Stand- 

Basque. A lining for crucibles or fur- 
naces; generally a mixture of clay, 
etc., with charcoal dust (Ray- 

Bass; Batt. Same as Bind. See also 
Bat, 3. 

Basset. (Derb.) 1. An outcrop; the 
edge of a stratum. (Raymond) 

2. The shallow or rise side of a work- 
ing. (Gresley) 

3. To incline upward so as to ap- 
pear at the surface; to crop out. 

Basset edge (Eng.). The actual out- 
crop of a seam or bed, where it ap- 
pears at the surface. (Gresley) 

Basseting. 1. Outcropping. 2. The 
cropping out or appearance of rock 
on the surface of a stratum, or 
series of strata. (Century) 

Bastard. 1. Of unusual make or pro- 
portion; of abnormal shape. (Web- 
2. A hard massive bowlder or rock. 

Bastard granite. A quarry term for 
gneissic granites. (Ries) 

Bastard quartz. A miner's term for a 
white, glassy quartz without other 

Bastard whin (Eng.). Very hard 
rock, but not so flinty as to be called 
whin. (G. C. Greenwell) 

Bastimehto (Mex.). Miner's lunch- 
eon. (D wight) 

Bastite. Schiller spar. An altered 
enstatite or bronzite having approxi- 
mately the composition of serpen- 
tine. (Dana) 

Bastnasite. A greasy, wax-yellow, fluo- 
carbonate of cerium melals, crystal- 
lizing in the monoclinic system. 

Bast o nit e. A greenish-brown mica that 
is closely related to phlogopite. 

Basura de plomo (Mex.). Lead dross. 
(D wight) 

Bat. 1. A plate of gelatin used in 
printing on pottery or porcelain 
over the glaze. (Webster) 

2. (Leic., So. Staff.) See Baffle, 2. 
Batting out gas was formerly a 
regular though unsafe thing to do. 
(Gresley, 1883) 

3. (Eng.) A compact black bitumi- 
nous shale which splits into fine 
laminae. Is often interstratified in 
layers with coal. Also spelled Batt, 
or Bass. (Redmayne) 

Batan de piedra (Peru). A stone 
plate on which ore samples are 
ground. (Pfordte) 

Batch. 1. A quantity of material des- 
tined for one operation. 2. A quan- 
tity of material produced at one 
operation. 3, The mixture of raw 
materials which by fusion is con- 
verted into glass. (Webster) 

4. (Corn.) The quantity of ore sent 
to the surface by a pair of men 
(Raymond). Also called Batch of 

Bate. 1. (So. Staff.) To excavate or 
lower the floor of a mine (Gresley). 
Compare Brush, 8. 

Batea (Mex.). A wide and shallow 
vessel, usually of wood, used for 
panning ore. {D wight) 

Bate barrel (Leic.). After drawing a 
number of barrels of water out of 
a sump, the first barrel for which 
there is not sufficient water to fill it. 

Bateque (Lower Cal.)- Deposits 
formed by spring water, as in a 
ravine or at the foot of a hill. 

Bateria (Mex.). Battery. (D wight) 

Batework ( Newc. ) . Short work. ( Mln. 
Jour. ) 

Bath. 1. A medium as sand, oil, wa- 
ter, or air for regulating the tem- 
perature of anything placed in or 
upon it; also the vessel containing 
such a medium. (Webster) 
2. A mass of molten material in a 
furnace, or of solution in a tank. 



Bath brick (Eng.). A fine calcareous 
and siliceous material used for 
polishing and cleansing metal ob- 
jects: originally found near Bath, 
and usually pressed into brick. 

Bath metal. Any one of several varie- 
ties of brass. (Webster) 

Batholite. See Batholith. 

Batholith. A name suggested by Suess 
for the huge irregular masses of 
plutonic rocks that have crystallized 
in depth and that have only been 
exposed by erosion. The word is 
also spelled batholite, bathylite, and 
batholith. The last named is now 
generally preferred. (Kemp) 

Batholithic. Pertaining to, originating 
In, or derived from a batholith. 

Bath oolite. A subgroup of the Low 
Oolite (Jurassic) of England 
(Standard). See also Bath stone. 

Bath stone. A creamy limestone from 
the Bath oolite, soft and easily 
worked. It was used for building 
in England as early as the 12th 
century. ( Standard ) 

Bathvillite. An amorphous, fawn- 
brown, opaque, very friable oxygen- 
ated hydrocarbon from Torbane Hill, 
Scotland; it is insoluble in benzol 
and is related to Torbane Hill 
mineral. See also Torbanite. (Ba- 

Bathylite. See Batholith. 

Bathymetric. Relating- to mea^ure- 
ment of depths; usually applied to 
the ocean. (Sloan) 

Batlbolto (Mex.). A company of 
miners working a stope of high-grade 
ore. (Dwight) 

Batice. An inclination or bevel given 
to the upper timbers of a shaft; as 
the shaft has a downward and out- 
ward batice of 1 inch to the foot 
(Standard). See also Batter, 1. 

Bating (Eng.). Lowering a drift or 
road (Bainbridge). See also Bate. 

Batir (Colom.). 1. To break up and 
carry away auriferous gravels by 
water. 2. B. el monte, to explore 
the mountains. (Halse) 

Bat-printing. The act or process of 
decorating glazed porcelain by 
means of a gelatin pad. The lines 
of the pattern are transferred in 
linseed oil from an incised plate to 
the pad, and thence to the porcelain, 

and this oil impression is then 
dusted with metallic pigment, which 
is fixed by firing. (Standard) 

Batt (Eng.). Shale; hardened clay, 
but not fire clay. Same as Bend 
and Bind (Chance). See also Bat, 3. 

Battage (Fr.) The operation of pul- 
verizing or incorporating the in- 
gredients of gunpowder by the old 
'method of stamping with pestles. 

Batten. A strip of wood used for 
nailing across two other pieces to 
hold them together or for covering a 
crack. (Webster) 

Batter. 1. The inclination of a face 
of masonry or of an inclined por- 
tion of a frame or metal structure. 
C. and M. M. P.) Also called Bat- 

2. A paste of clay or loam. 3. A 
mallet for flattening wet clay on the 
batting block. (Webster) 

Battered set. A set of mine timbers 
in which the posts are inclined. 
(Sanders, p. 164.) 

Battery. 1. A set of stamps in a 
stamp mill. See also Machine, 4. 2. 
A bulkhead of timber. 3. The plank 
closing the bottom of a coal chute, 

4. A platform on which the miners 
stand in thin steep-pitching beds of 
coal. (Chance) 

5. See Blasting machine. 6. See 
Storage battery. 

Battery - amalgamation. Amalgama- 
tion by means of mercury placed in 
the mortar of a stamp battery. 

Battery assay. See Pulp assay. 

Battery of holes. A number of 
charges, in drill holes, fired simul- 
taneously with an electric current 
(Bowles). Also called Multiple 

Battery of ovens. See Bank f ovens. 

Battery solution. A cyanide, or plain 
alkaline solution added to the ore 
when being crushed in a stamp mill. 
(Fulton, p. 34) 

Batting block. In ceramics, a plaster 
slab on which plastic clay is beaten 
before going to the whirling table. 

Battu-uji (Malay). Touchstone. 

Batn Zawi (Sumatra). A red stone 
supposed to be an infallible sign of 
gold. (Lock) 



Bauleao (Sp. Am.). Pyrite with cubic 
crystallization. (Lucas) 

Baulite. See Krablite. 
Baulk. See Balk, 1. 

Baum-pots (York.). Calcareous no- 
dules found in the shale forming the 
roof of the " Halifax hard " coal 
seam. (Gresley) 

Bauxite. Hydrated alumina. Essen- 
tially A1 2 O S .2H 2 O (Dana). The 
principal ore of aluminum. 

Baveno twin. A twin crystal of a 
kind shown by orthoclase, in which 
the twining plane is the clinodome, 
resulting in a nearly square form. 

Bavin (Eng.). Impure limestone. 

Bawke (Eng.). A bucket fos raising 
coal (Standard). See also Bowk, 1 
and 2. 

Bay. 1. An open space for waste be- 
tween two packs in a longwall work- 
Ing. See also Bord. (C. and M. M. 

2.. An inlet of the sea usually 
smaller than a gulf, but of the 
same general character. (Webster) 

Bayou. 1. A sluggish or stagnant in- 
let or outlet from a lake or bay, or 
one connecting two bodies of water. 
2. See Oxbow. 

Bay salt. The large crystalline salt 
of commerce, especially that ob- 
tained from sea water by evapora- 
tion in shallow pits or basins by 
the heat of the sun. (Webster) 

Bayshon (Som.). An air stopping. 

.Bazofia (Peru). Waste rock. (Dwight) 

Beach. The washed shore of a sea or 
lake. (Hitchcock) 

Beach combing. Working the sands on 
a beach for gold, tin, or platinum. 
(C. and M. M. P.) 

Beach placers. Placer deposits either 
on a present or ancient sea beach. 
There are a series of these at Nome, 
Alaska, known there as first, sec- 
ond, or third beach, etc., due to 
change of shore line. 

Bead. 1. The globule of precious 
metal obtained by the cupellation 
process. 2. A glassy drop of flux, 
as borax, used as a solvent for a 
color test for several mineral earths 
and oxides before the blowpipe. 

Bead furnace. A furnace In which 
small cylinders of glass are rounded 
into beads. The cylinders are heated 
to softening and revolved in a drum. 

Beam compass. An instrument consist- 
ing of a wooden or brass beam hav- 
ing sliding sockets that carry steel 
or pencil points, used for describing 
large circles and for laying off dis- 
tances. (Century) 

Bean ore. A name for limonite, when 
found in lenticular aggregations. 
Called also Pea ore, when found in 
small, rounded masses (Chester) 
A coarse-grained pisolitic iron ore. 

Beans (No. of Eng.). All coal which 
will pass through a half -inch screen 
or mesh. (Gresley) 

Bean-shot. Copper granulated by pour- 
ing into hot water. (Raymond) 

Bear. 1. See Salamander; also Sow. 
2. To bear in. Underholing or un- 
dermining; driving in at the top or 
at the side of a working. (Chance) 

Bearer bar. One of the bars which 
support the gratebars in a furnace. 

Bearers. 1. (So. Staff.) Women for- 
merly employed to carry coal out 
of the mines. (Gresley) 
2. Heavy timbers placed in a shaft 
at intervals of 30 to 100 ft. to sup- 
port the shaft sets. They are 
usually put beneath the end plates 
and dividers, fc and rest in hitches 
cut in the wan. Also used to sup- 
port pumping gear. 

Bearers' way (Scot). An underground 
road or passage along which the 
bearers carry coal. (Barrowman) 

Bearing. 1. The course or direction in- 
dicated by a compass. 2. The strike 
or course of a vein. 3. The points of 
support of a beam, shaft, or axle. 

Bearing door. A door placed for the 
purpose of directing and regulating 
the amount of ventilation passing 
through a portion of the mine. 

Bearing-in. The depth of an under- 
cut, or holing, from the face of the 
coal to the end of the under-cut. 

Bearing pit (Scot.)- A shaft up which 
coal was (in former 3'ears) carried 
by bearers. (Barrowman) 

Bearing road (Scot.). See Bearer's 



Bearing system (Eng.). The employ- 
ment of women to carry coal out of 
the mine. (Gresley) 

Bearing-iip pulley. A pulley wheel 
fixed in a frame and arranged to 
tighten or take up the slack rope 
in endless haulage. (Gresley) 

Bearing-up stop. A partition or brat- 
tice of plank that serves to conduct 
air to a face. (Ihlseng) 

Bears (Derb.). Calcareous nodules of 
clay-ironstone. (Gresley) 

Beat (Eng.). 1. The surface outcrop 
of a load or bed. (Da vies) 
2. (Corn.) To stope. (Pryce) 

Beat away. A process of working 
hard ground by wedges and sledge 
hammers. ( Skinner ) 

Beater. 1. (No. of Eng.) An Iron 
rod for packing the stemming on a 
charge of powder in a drill hole. 

2. (Mid.) A wooden mallet for con- 
solidating, or packing, the clay In 
building a wall or dam to make it 
air-tight. (Gresley) 

Beat-hand (Eng.). A hand which, 
from being vesicated or blistered 
with hard work, has festered. (G. 
C. Greenwell) 

Beaumontite. A variety of heulandite. 

Beauxite. Sec Bauxite. 

Beaverite. A hydrous sulphate of 
copper, lead, and ferric iron CuO.- 
PbO.FeO.2SO.4H a O. (U. S. GeoL 

Bche; Biche (Eng.). A deep conical 
instrument about 25 inches long, and 
weighing 6 pounds. The hollow part 
extends 16 inches up Into the tool, 
and is 1} inches in diameter at the 
lower end, and tapers to f inch -at 
the upper end. It is used for ex- 
tracting the bottom portion of .a 
broken set of rods from a bore hole. 
(G. C. Greenwell) 

Bechilite. An incrustation of hydrous 
calcium borate, HCaBOu, found as 
a deposit at the boric acid lagoons 
of Tuscany. (Standard) 

Becke test. In optical mineralogy, a 
test for relative indices of refrac- 
tion. (A. F. Rogers) 

Bccquerel rays. Radiations from ura- 
nium compounds. (Webster) 

Bed. 1. The smallest division of a 
stratified series, 'and marked by a 
more or less well defined divisional 

plane from its neighbors above and 
below. (Kemp) 

2. A seam or deposit of mineral, 
later in origin than the rock below, 
and older than the rock above; that 
is to say, a regular member of the* 
series of formations, and not an in- 
trusion (Raymond). A deposit, as 
of ore (or coal), parallel to the 
stratification. (Standard) 
8. That portion of an outcrop or 
face of a quarry which occurs be- 
tween two bedding planes. (Buck- 

4. The level surface of rock upon 
which a curb or crib is laid, (Gres- 

5. The bottom of a water course, or 
of any body of water. 8. A mass 
or heap of anything (as ore), ar- 
ranged in the form of a bed. (Web- 

Bed claim (Aust). A mining claim 
lying on the bed of a stream. (Da- 

Bedded. Applied to rocks resulting 
from consolidated sediments, and 
accordingly exhibiting planes of 
separation designated bedding 
planes. (Sloan) 

Bedded deposit. See Bedded forma- 

Bedded formation. A formation which 
shows successive beds, layers, or 
strata, due to the manner in which 
it was formed (Farrell). A bedded 

Bedded vein. Properly "bed vein" 
(Lager gang of the Germans) ; a 
lode occupying the position of a bed, 
that is, parallel with the stratifica- 
tion of the inclosing rocks. (Ray- 
morid) See also Bed, 2. 

Bedded volcano. A volcano whose 
crater consists of layers of tuffs 
and lava sheets. (Century) 

Bedding. 1. The exact equivalent of 
stratification, or occurrence In 
strata or beds (Century). See 
also Bed, 1 and 2. 

2. The arrangement of coke, ore, 
flux, etc., in layers for storage or 

Bedding fault. In geology, a disloca- 
tion which follows planes of strati- 
fication. (Standard) 

Bedding planes. The planes or sur- 
faces separating the individual la- 
minae or beds of a sedimentary rock. 
(La Forge) See also Stratification 

Bede. A miner's pickaxe. ( Raymond ) 



Bedford limestone. A light-colored 
ofllitic limestone from Bedford, Indi- 
ana (Webster). Much used as a 
building stone. 

Bed joint. A horizontal joint (Web- 
ster). See also Bedding p*lane. 
Originally horizontal, but may be 
found inclined due to later upliftiLg. 

Bedplate. 1. An iron plate forming 
the bottom for a furnace. 2. A 
heavy plate for supporting an engine 
or other heavy machinery. (Web- 

Bedrock. The solid rock underlying 
auriferous gravel, sand, clay, etc., 
and upon which the alluvial gold 
rests (Roy. Com.). Any solid rock 
underlying soil, sand, clay, etc. 

Beds of passage. Beds in which the 
fossils or rocks, from their resem- 
blance to those contained either in 
the bed above or the bed below, in- 
dicate the transition . character of 
the deposit. (Standard) 

Bedstone. In milling, tLc lower or sta- 
tionary millstone. (Century) 

Bed vein. See Bedded vein. 

Bedway. An appearance of stratifica- 
cation, or parallel marking, in 
granite. (Raymond) 

Beech coal. Charcoal made from beech 
wood. (Century) 

Beeches (Scot). Strips of hardwood 
fastened to pump rods to save them 
xtfrom wear at the collars. (Barrow- 

Beehive coke. Coke made in a beehive 
oven. (Webster) 

Beehive oven. An oven for the manu- 
facture of coke, shaped like the old- 
fashioned beehive (Raymond). 
The volatile products as tar, gas, 
and ammonia are not saved. 

Beekite. A crytocrystalline variety 
of quartz, resembling chalcedony, 
formed by the replacement of lime- 
stone, as coral, or shells, with silica. 

Beele (Prov. Eng.). A mining pickax 
with both ends sharp. (Standard) 

Beerbachite. A name given by Chelius 
to certain small dikes, asociated 
with and penetrating large, gabbro 
masses, and having themselves the 
composition and texture of gabbro. 
The name was coined in the attempt 
to carry out the questionable sepa- 
ration of the dike rocks from large, 
Plutonic or volcanic masses of the 
same mineralogy and structure. 

Beer stone (Eng.). An argillaceous 
and siliceous freestone dug from 
quarries at Beer, ten miles west of 
Lyme Regis, at the passing of the 
chalk into the greensand. (Roberts) 

Beetle (Eng.). A small compressed- 
air locomotive employed on the 
haulage-ways at Newbottle Collier- 
ies. (G. C. Greenwell) 

Beetle-stone. A nodule of coprolitic 
ironstone, so named from the re- 
semblance of the inclosed coprolite 
to the body and limbs of a beetle. 

Before breast. Rock or vein material, 
which still lies ahead. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Behead. In geology, to cut off and 
capture by erosion the upper portion 
of a watercourse: said of the en- 
croachment of a stronger stream 
upon a weaker one. (Standard) 

Bekko ware. A yellow-brown splashed 
pottery made in Japan. It resem- 
bles tortoise shell. (Century) 

Belgian oven. A rectangular oven 
with end doors and side flues for 
the manufacture of coke. (Ray- 

Belgian process. A process most com 
monly employed in the smelting of 
zinc. Roasted zince ore, mixed with 
a reducing material, as coal or coke, 
is placed in retorts which consist 
of cylindrical' pipes of refractory 
material closed at one end, of a 
length and diameter convenient for 
charging and cleaning them. A 
number of these retorts are placed 
slightly inclined in a properly con- 
structed furnace. The open ends of 
the retorts are covered with a sheet- 
iron hood to which are connected 
short conical sheet-iron pipes dis- 
charging the molten zinc downward. 

Belgian zinc-furnace. A furnace in 
which zinc is reduced and distilled 
from calcined ores in tubular re- 
torts (Raymond). These furnaces 
may be classified as direct-fired and 
gas-fired, but there is no sharp 
division between these systems, 
which merge into one another by dif- 
ficulty definable gradations. Each 
class of furnace may be subdivided 
into recuperative and nonrecupera- 
tive, but heat recuperation in con- 
nection with direct firing is rare. 
(Ingalls, p. 428). 



BelL 1. Overhanging rock of bell-like 
form, not securely attached to the 
mine roof. " Pot " is the common 
Arkansas term. (Steel) 
2. A gong used as a signal at mine 
shafts. 3. To signal by ringing a 

Belland. 1. (Eng.) Dusty lead ore. 

2. A form of lead poisoning to 
which lead miners are subject (G. 
and M. M. P.) 

Bell-and-hopper. See Cup-and-cone. 

Bcll-and-spigot Joint. The usual term 
for the Joint in cast iron pipe. Each 
piece is made with an enlarged di- 
ameter or bell at one end into which 
the plain or spigot end of another 
piece is inserted when laying. The 
Joint is then made tight by cemeot, 
oakum, lead, rubber, ' or other suit- 
able substance which is driven in 
or calked into the bell and around 
the spigot (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Bell crank (Scot), A triangular iron 
frame used to change the direction 
of .reciprocating motion. (Barrow- 

Belled (Eng.) Widened. Said of the 
enlarged portion of a shaft at the 
landing for running the cars past 
the shaft, and for caging. (Gres- 

Belleek porcelain. An extremely thin 
ware, decorated with a nacreous 
luster suggesting the interior of 
shells, made originally in Belleek, 
Ireland, and since successfully imi- 
tated in Trenton, N. J., and else- 
where. (Standard) 

Bell holes. 1. Holes dug or excava- 
tions made at the section Joints of 
a pipe line for the purpose of re- 
pairs. (Moore v. Hole Natural Gas 
Co., 66 Southeastern, p. 565) 
2. A conical cavity in a coal-mine 
roof caused by the falling of a large 
concretion ; or, as of a bell-mold. 

Bellies. Widenings in a vein (Power). 
See also Belly. 

Bellite. An explosive consisting of 
five parts of ammonium nitrate to 
one of metadinitrobenzene, usually 
with some potassium nitrate. (Web- 

Bell metal. A hard bronze, contain- 
ing sometimes small proportions of 
iron, zinc, or lead, but ordinarily 
consisting of 78 parts Copper to 22 
tin, (Raymond) 

Bell-metal ore. (Corn.) An early 
name for tin pyrites, so called on 
account of its bronze color. (Ches- 

Bell-mold; Bell-mould; Bellmouth 
(Som.). A conical shaped patch of 
a mine roof, probably originating 
with the fossils called siffittaria, or 
the roots -of trees (Gresley). See 
also Bell, 1. 

Bellows. An instrument or machine 
for blowing fires or for ventilating 
purposes. (Webster) 

Bell-pit (Derb.). A mine working 
argillaceous ironstone by a system 
called Bell- work (Gresley). See 
also Bell-work. 

Bell process. S4e Bell's dephosphoriz- 
ing process. 

Bells. Signals for lowering and hoist- 
ing the bucket, skip, or cage in a 
shaft Usually given by bells, the 
number of strokes indicating the 
nature of. the load, the place for 
stopping, etc. (Weed) 

Bell screw; Screw bell. An internally 
threaded bell-shaped iron bar, for 
recovering broken or lost rods in a 
deep bore hole. See also Biche. 

Bell's dephosphorizing process. The 
removal of phosphorus from molten 
pig iron in a puddling furnace, lined 
with iron oxide and fitted with a 
mechanical rabble to agitate the 
bath. Red-hot Iron ore is added. 
See also Krupp's washing process. 

Beil-sneave (Aust). A sheave in the 
shape of a truncated cone, used in 
connection with the main-and-tail 
system of rope haulage at curves, 
so as to keep the rope close to the 
ground. (Power) 

Bell-work. L (Derb.). A system of 
working an iron-stone measure by 
upward underground excavations, 
around the shafts (raises) in the 
form of a bell or cone (Gresley). 
Compare Milling. 

2. A method also used in working 
salt deposits. (Standard) 

Belly. A bulge, or mass of ore in a 
lode. (Skinner) 

Belly-helve (Eng.). A forge hammer, 
lifted by a cam which acts about 
midway between the fulcrum and 
the head. (Raymond) 

Belly-pipe. A flaring mouthed blast 
pipe in an iron furnace. (Stand- 



Be lone site. A white transparent mag- 
nesium molybdate, MgMoO*, crystal- 
lizing in the tetragonal system. 

Belonite. A rod-shaped or club-shaped 
microscopic embryonic crystal in a 
glassy rock. (Kemp) 

Belt. 1. A zone or band of a particu- 
lar kind of rock strata exposed on 
the surface (Roy. Com.). Compare 

2. A continuous strap or band for 
transmitting power from one wheel 
to another, or (rarely) to a shaft, 
by friction. (Standard) 

Belugite. A name based upon the 
Beluga River, Alaska, and suggested 
by J. E. Spurr for a transition 
group of plagioclase rocks between 
his diorites and diabases. Spurr re- 
stricts the name diorite to those 
plagioclase rocks (without regard 
to the dark silicate) whose plagio- 
clase belongs in the andesine-oligo- 
clase series. The diabase group, on 
the other hand, contains those whose 
plagioclase belongs in the labrado- 
rite-anorthite series. Belugites with 
a porphyritic texture and a fine- 
grained or aphanitic groundmass 
are called Aleutites. (Kemp) 

Ben. 1. (Scot). Inward ; toward the 
workings; the workman's right to 
enter the, pit. 2. The day's work of a 
youth, indicating the proportion of a 
man's task which he is able or al- 
lowed to put out, is termed quarter- 
ben, half-ben, three-quarter-ben. 

3. A mountain peak: a word occur- 
ring chiefly in the names of many 
of the highest summits of thj moun- 
tains of Scotland, as Ben Nevis. 

Bench. 1. One of two or more divi- 
sions of a coal seam, separated by 
slate, etc., or simply separated by 
the process of cutting the coal, one 
bench or layer being cut before the 
adjacent one. 2. To cut the coal 
in benches. ( Raymond ) 

3. A terrace on the side of a river 
or lake, having at one time formed 
Its bank. (Power) See also 

4. A small tram or car of about 7 
cubic feet capacity used for carry- 
ing coal from the face to the chute 
down which it is dumped to the 
gangway platform for reloading 
Into larger cars. S. (Leic.). To 
wedge the bottoms up below the 
holing. (Gresley) 

. A level layer worked separately 
' a mine. 7. A group of retorts in 

an oven or furnace; also the com- 
plete oven or furnace containing a 
set or group of retorts for generat- 
ing illuminating gas. (Webster) 

8. (Eng.). A ledge left, in tunnel 
construction work, on the edge of a 
cutting in earth or in rock. 

9. (Scot). A landing place. (Bar- 

"Bench-and-bench (Ark.). .That plan 
of mining coal in a room, which re- 
quires the blasting of the two 
benches of coal alternately, each a 
little beyond the other (Steel). 
Also called Bench working. 

Bench diggings. River placers n^t 
subject to overflows (C.and M. MuE;) 
See also Bench placers. 

Benchers (Eng.), Men employed; fa 
the mine at the bottom of inclined 
planes. (Gresley) 

Benches. A name applied to ledges of 
all kinds of rock that are shaped 
like steps or terraces. They may be 
developed either naturally in the 
ordinary processes of land degrada- 
tion, faulting, and the like; or by 
artificial excavation in mines and 
quarries. (Kemp) 

Bench gravel (Yukon and Alaska). 
Gravel beds which occur on the sides 
of the valleys above the present 
stream bottoms, representing parts 
of the bed of the stream when it was 
at a higher level. Regarded by Ty- 
rell as the terminal moraines of 
small glaciers. (Ore Dep., p. 393) 

Benching. 1. (Eng.) See holing. To 
break the bottom coal with wedges 
when the holing is done in the 
middle of the seam. 2. (Ches.). 
The lower portion of the rock-salt^ 
bed worked in one operation. (Gres- 

3. See Bench, 8. (Simms) 

4. (Eng.). Benches collectively as 
in a mine (Webster). See also 
Bench, 6. 

Benching shot (Scot.) A shot placed 
in a hole bored vertically downward 
in an open face of work. (Barrow- 

Benching-up (Newc.). Working on 
the top of coal. (Raymond) 

Bench mark. A mark, the elevation of 
which is known or assumed and used 
as a reference point by a surveyor. 

Bench placers. Placers in ancient 
stream deposits from 50 to 300 feet 
above present streams. (U. S. Geol. 
Surv., Bull. 259, p. 33) 



Beneh stone. A rectangular stone 
measuring from 4 to 8 or 9 inches 
.long by approximately 2 Inches wide 
and varying in thicknesses. In use 
it generally rests on the artisan's 
bench, whence " its name. Some 
bench stones are made circular for 
those who .prefer the rotary motion 
in sharpening chisels and similar in- 
struments. (Pike) 

Bench working. The system of work- 
ing one or more seams or beds of 
mineral by open, working or strip- 
ping, in stages or steps (C. and 
M. M. P.). Also called Bench-and- 

Benchy. Forming frequent benches: 
said of a lode. 'Standard) 

Bend (Corn.). Indurated clay ; a term 
applied by the miner 'to any hard- 
ened argillaceous substance. See 
also Bind, 1. (Whitney) 

Bend away; or, Away (No. of Eng.). 
An exclamation meaning to. raise the 
cage in the shaft (Gresley) 

Bender (Eng.) An iron loop on pump 
cylinders for attaching a hoisting 
rope. (Bainbridge) 

Bending stress. The stress produced 
in the outer fibers of a rope by bend- 
ing over a sheave or drum. (C. 
M. P.) 

Bends. See Caisson disease. 

Bend up; Bend up a bit (Eng.) An 
order to raise the cage 'slowly, so 
that it may be instantly stopped 
on the order "Hold" beinp given. 
(Q. O. Greenwell) 

Beneficiacidn (Sp.). As used in, English 
usually means the reduction of ores. 

Beneficiar (Sp.). 1. To work or im- 
prove a mine. 2. To derive profit 
from working a mine. (Halse) 
3: (Mex.) To treat ores for ex- 
traction of metallic contents; to 
beneficiate. (D wight) 

Beneficiate. 1. To work or improve, 
as a mine. 2. To reduce, as ores. 

Beneficiation. The reduction of ores. 

Beneficio (Sp.). 1. The working of 
mines. 2. Profit derived from work- 
ing a mine. 3. Metallurgical proc- 
esses. B. de casfo, the caldron or 
hot amalgamation process. B. de 
hierro, amalgamation reduction with 
the addition of fragments of iron. 

B. de 4olpa> the patio process with 
colpa in lieu of mopialral. B. de 
pella de plata, amalgamation reduc- 
tion with the addition of silver amal- 
gam. B. de . patio, '. the patio or cold 
amalgamation process. B. de tone' 
les, the IVeiberg or barrel amalga- 1 
mation process; B. por danuracion, 
the cyanide process. B. por ctorb- 
raeion, the chlorination process. B. 
por fneyo, reduction by smelting. 

4. B. de metale*, mechanical prepa- 
ration of ores ; ore dressing. (Halse) 

Ben-Heyl (Corn.). A stream, where 
tin ore is found. (Da vies) 

Benltolte. A blue barium-titanium 
silicate, BaTiSi.O,, so far found only 
in California. Used as a gem. (U. 

5. Geol. Sunr,) 

Bank (Bng.). The working face of ft 
coal bed (Bainbridge). A variation 
of Bench. 

Bent. 1. ( Scot ) . The robsidence of 
roof near- working face, e. g. a bent 
roof. (Gresley) - ,?- 

2. A framed section placed together 
on the ground, and afterwards 
raised to a vertical position. (Web- 

3. (Derb.). An offshoot from a vein. 

Bentonite. A bedded plastic clay 
which, swells very greatly upon wet- 
ting. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Benzine. A colorless, inflammable and 
volatile liquid obtained from petro- 
leum by fractional distillation and 
consisting of various hydrocarbons. 
CaUed also Petroleum spirit (Stand- 

Benzinnm. A distillate from American 
petroleum consisting of hydrocar- 
bons chiefly of the marsh-gas series. 

Benzoline. 1. The more volatile por- 
tion obtained on redistilling Ben- 
zine; boiling point about 70-S5 O. 
Often used as synonymous with Ben- 
zine. (Bacon) 

2. A mixture containing hexane, 
heptane, octane, and other paraffins, 
petroleum spirit or legroin. (Stand- 

BcnzoyL Th* commercial name ap- 
plied to a mixture of substances, 
including benzene and its homo- 
lognes. (Mitzakis) 

Berannite. A foliated and columnar 
red to reddish-brown hydrous ferric 
phosphate. (Dana) 



Berdan pan. Essentially a revolving 
circular trough, set at an inclination 
of about 45 deg. carrying a large 
ball or drag, and used to amalga- 
mate the gold or silver. 

Berea sandstone. Berea grit. A rock 
formation consisting of fine-grained 
sandstone and grit, generally con- 
sidered as the base of the Carbonif- 
erous system In Ohio. It is much 
used as a building stone and for 
grindstones, and Is one of the prin- 
cipal oil-bearing formations of the 
State. (La Forge) 

Berengelite. A dark brown, resinous, 
asphalt-like mineral, soluble in cold 
alcohol but nearly insoluble in po- 
tassium hydroxide. Found near 
Arica, Peru. (Bacon) 

Bereslte. A name coined by Rose for 
a muscovite-granite that forms dikes 
In the gold district of Beresovsk 
In the Urals. It is, therefore, prac- 
tically a synonym for aplite, as 
earlier defined, but some of the bere- 
sites have since been shown to be 
practically without feldspar and to 
form a very exceptional aggregate 
of quartz and muscovlte. (Kemp) 

Bergmehl; Bergmeal. 1. An Infusorial 
earth, sometimes eaten mixed with 
meal or bark. Called air - Mountain- 
meal. 2. A white efflorescence of 
calcfte, resembling cotton. -Called 
also Rock-meal and Fossil-farina. 

Bergmelstpr (Pr.) An inspector of 
mines. (Gresley) 

BBJrtfschmnd (Ger.). In geology, a 
rifting and faulting in a solid mass 
of rock or glacial ice. (Standard) 

Betf-tffl. 84e Till. 

Berllo (Sp.). Beryl; B. verdwnar, 
aquamarine. (Halse) 

Berlin blue. In optical mineralogy, 
an anomalous interference color of 
the first order. (A. F. Rogers) 

Berlin iron. A soft iron, containing 
phosphorous, making very fine 
smooth castings, and used for orna- 
ments and jewelry. (Standard) 

Beraelloa (Sp.). Vermilion; an 
earthy variety of cinnabar. (Halse) 

Bernardo's process. A method for the 
electric welding of Iron. (Goesel) 

BertWerlte. A sulphide of antimony 
and iron, of a dark steel-gray color, 
FeS.Sb*S* (Dana) 

Bertrandite. A brilliant, transparent, 
colorless, hydrous glucinum silicate, 
HiGUSiiO., crystallizing in the 
orthorhombic system. (Standard) 

Bertrand lens. In optical mineralogy, 
a small lens inserted in the micro- 
scope tube to magnify the inter- 
ference figure. (A. F. Rogers) 

Beryl. A glucinum-aluminum silicate, 
3GlO.Al s O..6SiO2. Used as a gem 
when clear and well colored. The 
grass-green variety is known as 
emerald; light-green, beryl; blue- 
green, aquamarine. Contains 14 per 
cent glucina (glucinum oxide). 
(U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Beryllium. See Glucinum. 

Berylloid. In crystallography, a 
solid included under twenty-four 
similar scalene triangular faces. 

Berzelianite. A copper selenide, 
Cu 2 Se, having a silver white color 
when freshly broken. (Webster) 

Berzeliite. A massive bright, yellow, 
brittle calcium-magnesium-manga- 
nese arsenate, (Ca^l&MnJiAsaO.. 

Bessemer. A product of the Bessemer 
.process, as Bessemer steel: named 
from Henry Bessemer, who patented 
the process in 1855 : used also attrib- 
utively; as, Bessemer converter, 
flame or process. (Standard) 

Bessemer ir,on. Pig Iron suitable for 
the Bessemer process. (Raymond) 

Bessemer ore. Iron ore containing 
little or no phosphorus hence espe- 
cially suited for use in the Bessemer 
process. (Standard) 

Bessemer process. The process of de- 
carburizing a bath of molten cast 
Iron by blowing air through it, in 
a vessel called a converter (Ray- 
mond). Other impurities, in small 
amounts, are also eliminated. Also, 
by analogy, the enrichment of cop- 
per matte by blowing air through 
it when molten, thus oxidizing the 
sulphur which escapes as SO* The 
iron combines with silica, forming 
a slag. See also Converting. 

Bessemer steel. Steel made by the 
Bessemer process. (C. and M. M. 

Beta-Jaulingite. A brownish yellow 
resin, obtained from the residue of 
Jaulingite, by the action of ethyl 
ether, after treatment with carbon 
disulphide. ( Bacon ) 



Bethen process. A process of timber 
preservation tn which a heavy coal- 
tar oil is used. See also Gallatln. 

Betiif (Malay) A quartzose-gold 
matrix. (Lock) 

Beton (Fr.). Concrete made after the 
French faahlon by mixing gravel or 
other material with a mortar of 
cement and sand. (Webster) 

Betriebsfuhrcr (Pr.). The mining 
engineer or manager of a coal mine, 
who is personally responsible for 
the safety of the workings. (Gres- 

Betriebsplan (Pr.). A sketcn or rough 
plan of underground workings, to be 
developed during the next 12 months. 

Bctmnked. Deprived of its trunk or 
main body; .said of certain river 
systems, whose tributaries in the 
dry season, for lack of sufficient 
water, fail to unite in a main trunk, 
but are dissipated in the arid 
ground. ( Standard ) 

Betterness. Fineness of gold and sil- 
ver above the standard. ( Standard ) 

Betts lead-refining proces* An elec- 
trolytic process using PbSiF. acidu- 
lated with hydrofluoric acid as the 
electrolyte. (Llddell) 

Betfcn (Sp.) Bitumen; asphaltum. 
B. marga, bituminous marL ( Halse ) 

Bcudantite, A ferric lead sulphate or 
araenate occurring in green to black 
rhombohedral crystals. (Shaller, 
Wash. Ac. Sci., voL 1, p. 112 ; 1911) 

Beuheyl (Cora.) A live stream (vein), 
that is, one rich in tin (Pryce). 
Also spelled Ben-Heyl. 

BeveL 1. The angle which one sur- 
face or line makes with another 
when they are not at right angles. 
2. An instrument consisting of two 
arms joined together and opening to 
any angle, for drawing angles or ad- 
justing the surfaces of work to a 
given angle. 8. To slope or slant 

Bevel gear. A gear wheel whose 
teeth are Inclined to the axis of the 
wheel. (Steel) 

Berelment The replacement of an 
edge of a crystal by two planes 
equally inclined to the adjacent 
faces. (Standard) 

Bevel wheel. See Bevel gear. 

Bewfcarplaatsen (South Afr.). A site 
for depositing ore. ( Skinner) 

Betel. A facet of a gem. (Standard) 

Biard. See Bearers, 2. 

Biat; Byat (Eng.). A timber stay or 
beam in a shaft (Gresley). See alto 
Bearers, 2. 

Biaxial. Having two optic axes or 
lines of no double refraction. (Web- 

Bibbles (Derb.). A soft water-bear- 
ing stratum encountered during 
shaft sinking. (Hooson) 

Bibbley rock (So. Staff.). A conglom- 
erate or pebbly rock (Gresley) 

Bibliolite. A laminated schistose 
rock; a bookstone. (Standard) 

Biea (Br&z.). An inclined portion of 
a sluice. (Halse) 

Bicarbonate. A salt of carbonic acid 
in which but one of the hydrogen 
atoms is replaced by a base; as bi- 
carbonate of soda NaHCO, called 
also Monocarbonate, Primary car- 
bonate, Supercarbonate. ( Standard ) 

Bicharra (Peru). A small furnace 
with an inclined stack. (Dwight) 

Biche (No. of Eng.). A hollow coni- 
cal-headed tool for extricating 
broken rods from bore holes (Gres- 
ley). See also Beche. 

Bichloride. A salt in which there are 
two atoms of chlorine, as bichlo- 
ride of mercury, HgCl 2 . (Standard) 

Bichromate. Same as dicromate. 

Bichromate cell. A zinc-carbon cell 
having as the exciting fluid an acid 
bichromate solution and provided 
with the means of raising the zinc, 
or both zinc and carbon, from the 
fluid when not in use. E. M. F. 
about 2 volts. (Webster) 

Biddix (Corn.). A double pick, with 
spoonbill points, used for excavating 
alluvial or. surface earth. (Stand- 

Bidri. 1. (Anglo-Ind.) A process of 
damaskeening with silver on a 
ground consisting of an alloy of 
copper, lead, and tin, blackened by 
the application of a solution of sal 
ammoniac, saltpeter, salt, and cop- 
per sulphate. 2. Articles made by 
the foregoing process; bidriware. 
Called also Biddery; Biddery-ware ; 
Bidery ; Bidri-work ; Bidry. ( Stand- 

Bieberite. A vitreous, flesh-red to 
rose-red hydrous cobalt sulphate, 
HuCoSOu, crystallizing in the mono- 
clinic system. (Dana) 



Bielzlte. A brittle, resinous, brownish 
black hydrocarbon mineral from 
Transylvania; it has a specific grav- 
ity of 1.249, and dissolves In consid- 
erable part in carbon disulphide and 
chloroform. ( Bacon ) 

Bifurcaci6n (Sp.). 1. The branching 
of a vein. 2. A branch road. 

Bifurcate. To divide into two branches 
(Webster). Said of an ore vein. 

(No. of Eng.). A built-up 
pillar of stone or other debris In a 
working place or heading to sup- 
port the roof, e. g. "Digging the 
gob" means, building a pack in a 
worked-out place. (Gresley) 

Bigorneta (Sp.). A small anvil. (Min. 
Jour. ) 

Bigornia (Mex.). Anvil. See also 
Yunque. <DwIght) 

Bigote (Sp.). A semicircular taphole 
in a furnace. (Halse) 

Bilca (Peru). A rawhide receptacle 
In which filtered mercury collects. 

Biji timah (Malay). Small nodules in 
clay deposits. 

Bildar (Hind.). A digger; an exca- 
vator. (Webster) 

Bildas (or Buildhouse) (So. Staff.). 
The shift working from 6 A. M. till 
0, and sometimes 10 o'clock, is 
termed a bildas. This was originally 
denominated Buildhouse, from the 
fact of the butty (contract miner) 
making so much money that he was 
able to build many houses from the 
exactions thus made upon the poor 
men, who received inadequate re- 
muneration. (Min. Jour., 1871) 

Bildstein (Ger.). A soft stone; agal- 
matolite. (Standard) 

BiHtrones (Sp. Am.). *A communica- 
tion between washing troughs. (Lu- 

Bill day (No. of Eng.). That day 
on which colliery accounts are ex- 
amined. (Gresley) 

Billet. 1. Iron or steel, drawn from 
a pile, bloom, or ingot Into a small 
bar for further manufacture. 2. 
A small bloom. (Raymond) 
8. (Som.). A short timber prop. 

Billeting roll. A set of rollers having 
flattening and edging grooves, used 
in rolling iron into merchantable 
bars. (Century) 

Billon (Fr.). 1. In coinage, in attoy 
Of gold or silver with soine baser 
metal, generally copper or tin; spe- 
cifically, a low alloy of jrilver wjta a 
large proportion of copper, usefl In 
making token and medals, and, in 
some countrie^, especially Austria, 
coins. 2. Coin struck from such an 
alloy. (Standard) 

Billot (Fr.). Gold or silver In the 
mass or Ingot 'ntended for coinage. 

Billy. 1. (Forest of Dean). A box 
for holding ironstone, carried by a 
boy in the mine. 2. See Billy play- 
fair. (Gresley) 

8. (Aust.) A name used in the Cler- 
mont district of Queensland for a 
bed of quartzite that caps the coal 
measures. ( Power ) 

Billy boy. A boy who attends a Billy 
playfair. (C. and M. M. P.) 

playfair; Pair-play (Wales). 
A mechanical contrivance for weigh- 
ing small coal which passes through 
the screen. (Gresley) 

Bimbalete (Peru). A crude ore-mill 
operated^ by two men. The grinder 
is a large stone with a transverse 
bar by which a rocking motion is 
given. Also called Quimbalete. 

Bimetalism. The concurrent use Of 
both gold and silver as money at a 
fixed relative value, established by 
law; also, the doctrine advocating 
such use. (Standard) 

Bin' A box, frame, crib, or inclosed 
place used as a receptacle f 01 any 
commodity as coal, ore, etc. 

Bina (Eng.): Hard clayey substance 
(Balnbridge). A variety of bind. 

Binary granite. A term more or less 
used in older geological writings for 
those varieties of granite that are 
chiefly quartz and feldspar. It has 
recently been applied to granites 
containing two micas. (Kemp) 

Binches (Arg.). Crystals. of pyrite 
occurring in a gold-bearing con- 
glomerate. (Halse) 

Binching. 1. (Som.). The stone upon 
which a bed of coal rests. (Gres- 

Bind; Binds; Bend (Derb.)* 1. Indu- 
rated argillaceous shale or clay, 
very commonly iprming the xoof .f 
a coal seam and frequently contain- 
ing clay ironstone. S. (No. 6t Kng.) 
To hire. (Gresley) 



Binder. 1. (Corn.). Beds of grit In 
shale, slate, or clay. See also Bind, 
1 (Power). A streak of impurity 
in a coal seam, usually difficult to 

2. (Corn.). An underground carpen- 
ter. (Da vies) 

3. Anything which causes cohesion 
in loosely assembled substances, as 
cement in a wall, crushed stone In 
a macadam road, fire 'clay in a 
graphite crucible, etc. (Webster) 

4. The course, in a sheet-asphalt 
pavement, frequently used between 
the concrete foundation and the 
sheet-asphalt mixture of graded 
sand and asphalt cement. (Bacon) 

Bindheimite. A hydrous antimonate 
of lead; an oxidation product of 
jamesonite. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Binding. 1. (No. of Eng.). Hiring of 
men for pit work. (Gresley) 

2. A band of masonry so laid as to 
fasten together or strengthen ad- 
joining parts. (Webster) 

Binding bolts (Scot). Bolts used to 
secure machinery to the foundations. 

Binding coal. Coal which cakes on 

burning. (Bacon) 
Bin feeder. A man who rods or bars 

ore that sticks as it passes through 

the bin door. (Willcox) 

Bing. 1. (No. of Eng.). A pile or 
heap of anything. Specifically: A 
heap of nfetallic ore, etc. 2. The 
kiln of a furnace for making char- 
coal used in metal smelting (obso- 
lete). (Standard) 

3. Eight hundred weight of ore. 

4. (Eng.). The best quality of lead 
ore. (Webster) 

5. (Scot.). A place where coal is 
stocked, or debris is piled at the sur- 
face. 6. To put coal in wagons or 
in stacks at the surface. (Gresley) 

Sing-hole (Defb.). A hole or chute 
through which ore is thrown. (Ray- 

Bing ore (Derb.). The largest and 
best kind of lead ore. (Hunt) 

Bingplace (Derb.). The place where 
ore is stored for smelting. (Min. 

Bingstead (Eng.). 1. The place where 
lead ore is dressed. (Hunt) 
2. A place for storing ore, coal, etc. 
Compare Bing, 1 and 5. 

Bing-tale (No. of Eng.). A synonym 
for Tribute. 

Bin man. One who pokes down ore 
in bins to keep it feeding through 
the chutes. (Willcox) 

Binnite. A dark steel-gray metallic 
copper sulpharsenite, ChieAstS*, that 
crystallizes in the isometric-tetrahe- 
dral system. (Dana) 

Biotite. A magnesium-iron mica. The 
common black mica. Often used as 
a prefix to many names of rocks that 
contain this mica; such as biotite- 
andesite, biotite-gneiss, biotite-gran- 
ite, etc. (Kemp) 

Bipyramid. In crystallography, a 
double-ended pyramid. (A. P. 

BIqnartz. A quartz plate of two sec- 
tions which turn the plane of polar- 
ization in opposite directions. It is 
used with a polariscope. (Webster) 

Bird's eye marble. A local name 
given to several varieties of marble 
in which the markings assume the 
appearance of a bird's eye. (Mer- 

Bi-ref ringence. The property possessed 
by crystals belonging to other than 
the isometric system of splitting a 
beam of ordinary light into two 
beams which traverse the crystal at 
different speeds, and as they pass 
oiit of it produce characteristic op- 
tical effects that are recognizable 
with the proper instruments or, in 
some cases, by the eye alone. Bi- 
refringence is also known as Double 
'efraction. ( Ransome ) 

Birmite. See Burmite. 

Bischofite. A crystalline-granular and 
foliated, colorless to white hydrous 
magnesium chloride, HuMgChO* 

Biscuit. In ceramics, ware baked 
once, but not glazed; bisque. 

Bisectrix. A line bisecting the angle 
between the optic axes of a biaxial 
crystal. See Acute bisectrix; also 
Obtuse bisectrix. ( Webster ) 

Bismlte. Bismuth trioxide, Bi,O. oc- 
curring as a straw-yellow earth, 
and as pearly white scales. (Dana) 

Bismuth. One of the elements. A 
brittle, redd! white metal. Sym- 
bol, Bi, atomic weight, 208.0. Spe- 
cific gravity, 9.8 (Webster). The 
reddish-color is possibly due to ox- 

Bismuth blende. Same as Eulytite. 



Bismuth bronze. An alloy of bismuth 
with tin. (Standard) 

Bismuth flux. A mixture of one part 
potassium iodide, one part acid po- 
tassium sulphate, and two parts of 
sulphur. Also made by mixing 
equal parts of potassium iodide and 

Bismuth glance. See Bismuthinite. 

Bismuthinite. Bismuth trisulphide, 
BI 2 Ss. Contains 81.2 per cent bis- 
muth. (Dana) 

Bismuthite. See Bismutite. 
Bismuth ocher. See Bismite. 

Bismuth silver. 1. Same as Chilenite. 
2. Same as Schapbachite. (Stand- 

Bismutite. A basic bismuth carbonate 
of doubtful composition. Perhaps 
BiaOg-COsHaO. Contains 80 per cent 
Bismuth. (Dana) 

Bismuto (Mex.). Bismuth. (Dwight) 

Bismutospharite. A yellow, spherical, 
fibrous bismuth carbonate, Bi 2 COs, 
usually found as an alteration prod- 
uct of bismuthinite. (Dana) 

Bisphenoid. In crystallography, a 
forfli apparently consisting of two 
sphenoids placed together symmetri- 
cally. (A. F. Rogers) 

Bisque. In ceramics, biscuit; biscuit- 
ware, as in statuettes, dolls, etc. 

Bit. 1. A drilling .chisel. Compare 
Auger-stem. (Chance) 

2. The cutting end of a boring im- 
plement. (Raymond) 

3. A pointed hammer for dressing 
hard stone, as granite. 4. The blade 
of an ax. 5. The copper head of a 
soldering iron. (Webster) 

Bitches (Scot). A set of three chains 
for slinging pipes in a mine shaft. 

Bites (Colom.). Slime produced by 
grinding or stamping ore. (Halse) 

Bitter. Applied to minerals having 
the taste of Epsom salts. (Dana) 
Bitter earth. Magnesia. 

Bittern. The bitter mother liquor 
that remains in salt works after the 
salt has crystallized out. ( Webster ) 

Bitter spar. A pure, crystalline dolo- 
mite. It consists of one part or 
equivalent of calcium carbonate and 
one part of magnesium carbonate. 
Also called Pearl spar. (Roy. Com.) 

Bitulithic. A kind of paving consist- 
ing of broken stone cemented with 
bitumen or asphalt (Webster) 

Bitumastic. A kind of bituminous 
paint or cement (Webster) 

Bitumen. See Asphalt A general 
name for various solid and semisolid 
hydrocarbons. In 1912 the term 
was used by the American Society 
for Testing Materials to include all 
those hydrocarbons which are solu- 
ble in carbon bisulphide, whether 
gases, easily mobile liquids, viscous 
liquids, or solids. (U. S. Oeol. 

Bitumenized. Converted into bitumen. 

Bituminate. 1. To cement or cover 
with bitumen. 2. To charge or mix 
with- bitumen. ( Standard ) 

Bituminiferous. Yielding or contain- 
ing bitumen. ( Standard ) 

Bituminoso (Mex.). Bituminous. 

Bituminous. 1. Containing much or- 
ganic, or at least carbonaceous mat- 
ter, mostly in the form of the tarry 
hydrocarbons which are usually de- 
scribed as bitumen. (Kemp) 
2. Having the odor of bitumen. 
Often applied to minerals. (Dana) 

Bituminous cement. A bituminous 
material suitable for use as a binder, 
having cementing qualities which 
are dependent mainly on its bitumi- 
nous character. (Bacon) 

Bituminous coal. Ordinary soft coal. 
See Coal. 

Bituminous limestone. A limestone 
impregnated with bituminous mat- 
ter and emitting a fetid odor when 
rubbed. Called also Stinkstone and 
Swinestone. (Standard) 

Bituminous pavement. A pavement 
composed of stone, gravel, sand, 
shell or slag, or combinations there- 
of, and bituminous, materials, thor- 
oughly incorporated. (Bacon) 

Bituminous sandstone. See Sandstone. 

Bituminous shale. A shale contain- 
ing hydrocarbons or bituminous ma- 
terial : when rich in such substances 
it yields oil or gas on distillation. 
Called also Pyroschist or Oil shale. 

Bituminous surface. In paving, a 
superficial coat of bituminous mate- 
rial, with or without the addition 
of stone or slag chips; gravel, sand, 
or material of similar character. 



Bituminous Wood. A variety of brown 
coal much resembling wood. (Ches- 

BitusoL Trinidad asphalt It is said 

to be a .true bitusol that is to say, 
dispersed . solid colloids in solution 
in bitumen. (Bacon) 

Bivalent Having a valence of two. 
See also Valence. (Webster) 

Bizen ware. Fine, hard, unglazed 
pottery, usually grayish* white; 
made in Bizen, Japan. (Webster) 

Bizet. In gem cutting, the part of a 
brilliant (diamond) between the 
table and the girdle, occupying one- 
third of its depth and having 32 
facets. (Standard) 

alta. An argillaceous schist, 
found in the New Almaden quick- 
silver mine, Santa Clara County, 
California. (Hanks) 

Black amber. A name given by amber- 
diggers to jet which is founa with 
amber. It becomes faintly electric 
when rubbed. (Oldham) 

Black and gold marble, See Porto 

Black ash. A solid black mixture of 
sodium carbonate and calcium sul- 
phide produced by fusing sodium 
sulphate, limestone, and coal to- 
gether in soda-ash manufacture. 
Called also Soda-ball and British 
barilla. (Standard) 

Blackband. An earthy carbonate of 
iron, accompanying coal beds. Ex- 
tensively worked as ari iron ore in 
Great Britain, and somewhat in 
Ohio. (Raymond) 

Black bat A piece of bituminous 
shale embedded in the rock imme- 
diately over the coal measure and 
liable to fall of its own weight 
when the coal beneath it has been 
removed (Cinkovitch v. Thistle 
Coal Co., 143 Iowa, p. 597, 121 
Northwestern, 1036). Compare Ket- 
tle bottom ; Bell-mold. 

Black butts. Discolored and imperfect 
coke, usually found at the bottom or 
side of the oven because of excessive 
moisture existing there; may also 
result from improper manipulation 
of the oven. Also called Black ends. 

Black chalk. 1. A variety of bluelsh- 
black olay containing carbon. ( Skin- 

8. A slate sufficiently colored by car- 
bonaceous particles to answer the 
purpose of black lead in pencils for 

744010 O 47 - 6 

coarse work, such as marking stone. 
(Century > 

Black coal (Scot). Coal slightly 
burned by igneous rock (Barrow- 
man). See Natural coke; Blind 
coal, 1. 

Black copper. A name given to the 
more or less impure metallic copper 
produced in blast-furnaces when 
running on oxide ores or roasted 
sulphide material. It is always an 
alloy of copper with one or mere 
other metals generally containing 
several per cent of iron, often lead, 
and many other Impurities. It also 
contains from 1 to 3 per cent sul- 
phur. (Peters, p. 227) 

Black copper ore. See Melaconite; 

Black coring. The development of 
black or bluish-black cores in bricks, 
due to improper burning. (Rles> 

Black cotton (India). Soil from 6 to 
10 feet in thickness overlying the 
coal measures, which in dry weather 
shrinks and produces mud cracks. 

Black damp. A term generally applied 
to carbpn dioxide. Strictly speak- 
ing, a mixture of nitrogen, and car- 
bon dioxide. The average black 
damp contains 10 .to 15 per cent car- 
bon dioxide, and 85 to 90 per cent 
nitrogen. It is formed by mine 
fires and the explosion of .fire damp 
in mines, and hence forms a part of 
the afterdamp. An atmosphere de^ 
pleted of oxygen rather than con- 
taining an excess of carbon dioxide. 

Black diamond. 1. A variety of dia- 
mond, opaque, dark colored, and 
without cleavage. (Moses) 
2. A term frequently applied to coal. 

Black earth. A kind of coal which is 
pounded fine and used by painters 
in fresco. (Century) 

Black-ends (Eng.). See Black butts. 

Blackening. In founding, the process 
of coating the faces of a mold with 
charcoal or similar fine powder, or 
with a mixture thereof with water ; 
facing. (Standard) 

Black flux. A flux obtained as a dark 
colored mass (consisting of potas- 
sium carbonate and finely divided 
carbon) by the deflegration of tar- 
tar with about half its weight of 
saltpetre. (Webster) 



Black heat. A heat just below a dull 
red heat, at which iron or steel 
turns black (Webster). Compare 
Black-red heat. 

Black hematite. A synonym for Psil- 
omelane. (Chester) 

Black horse. A term used by quarry- 
men in Rhode Island to denote a 
dark biotite-gnelss in contact with 
the granite. (Dale) 

Blacking. Finely powdered charcoal, 
graphite, or a mixture thereof with 
water, or other form of powdered 
carbon, used in coating a mold, as 
In iron casting; blackwash; facing. 

Black iron. Malleable iron untinned: 
distinguished from Tinned or White 
iron. (Standard) 

Black iron ore. A synonym for Mag- 
netite. (Chester) 

Blackjack. 1. A dark variety of zinc- 
blende or sulphide of zinc. It has 
a resinous luster and yields a light 
colored streak or powder. See also 
Blende; Sphalerite. (Dana) 
2. Crude black oil used to lubricate 
mine-car wheels. 8. (Ark.) Soft 
black, carbonaceous clay or earth 
associated with coal. (Steel) 

4. (Derb.) A kind of cannel coal. 

5. (111.) A thin stratum of coal 
interbeflded with layers of slate. A 
poor, bony coal. 

Black latten. Milled sheet brass as 
used by braziers and wiredrawers. 

Blacklead. The common name for 
graphite, because it gives a mark 
on wood or paper like that of me- 
tallic lead. Also called Plumbago. 
(Roy. Com.) 

Blacklead ore. An early name for the 
black variety of cerussite. (Chester) 

Blackleg. 1. A strike breaker. 2. A, 
swindler; a dishonest gambler. 

Black lignite. A coal Intermediate 
between lignite and bituminous coal 
and not always distinguishable from 
one or the other on sight. Called 
also Subbituminous coal. (Wat- 

Black list. Any list of persons who 
are for any reason deemed ob- 
jectionable by the makers or users 
of the list, as for political or social 
misconduct, for joining in or assist- 
ing a strike, etc. (Century) 

Black litharge. See Abstrich. 

Blacklnng. See Anthracosts. 

Black-mob (Eng.). Slang "for work- 
men who refuse to join a trades 
union. (Standard) 

Black muck; Black mould (Lane.). A 
dark-brown powdery substance, con- 
sisting of silica, alumina, and iron; 
found in iron mines. (Gresley) 

Black ocher. Wad; bog manganese 

Black oil. A residue from petroleum 
or from its distillates. It varies 
widely in character and is used as 
a cheap lubricant. (Bacon) 

Black ore (Eng.). Partly decomposed 
pyrite containing copper. (C. and 
M. M. P.) . 

Black oxide of manganese. See Pyro- 

Black pigment. Lampblack obtained 
by burning common coal tar. (Cen- 

Black plate. Sheet iron before tin- 
ning. (Raymond) 

Blaokpot (Eng.). A variety of coarse 
unglazed pottery. (Standard) 

Black powder. A granular explosive 
containing approximately 74 per 
cent potassium nitrate, 16 per cent 
wood charcoal, and 10 per cent sul- 
phur. For sporting powders the per 
cent of potassium nitrate is usually 
a little higher. Compare Blasting 
powder. (Brunswig, p. 238) 

Black-red heat. The temperature of 
a metal at which it begins to be 
luminous by daylight (Standard). 
Compare Black heat 

Black-ring (So. Staff.). A thin bed 
of coal as seen in the shaft sides, 
having the appearance of a black 
circle or ring. (Gresley) 

Blacks (Som.). Soft dark-colored 
shale. (Gresley) 

Black sand. Heavy grains of various 
minerals which have a dark color, 
and are usually found accompany- 
ing gold in alluvial deposits, e. ff. t 
magnetite, chromite, ilmeflite. cas- 
siterite, tourmaline, etc.. (Power) 

Black-sand beach. A beach where 
black sand occurs. 

Black silver; Brittle silver ore. Same 
as Stephanite. (Standard) 

Black solder. An alloy of copper, zinc, 
and a little tin. (Webster) 

Blackstone (No. of Eng.). Highly 
carbonaceous shale. (Gresley) 


Blackstrap. A dark, heavy oU used 
for lubricating mine-car wheels. 
See alto Black Jack, 2. 

Black taggers. Thin sheet iron on- 
coated with tin. Black iron. (Stand- 

Black telluride. See Nagyagite. 

Black tin (Corn.). Dressed tin ore 
ready to be smelted. ( Standard ) 

Black track (Aust). A box-shaped 
truck or car with end door, so called 
because it is made black with tar. 

TitrloL An impure copper, sul- 
phate. (Standard) 

Black wad. An early name 'for sev- 
eral minerals, including graphite 
and the softer manganese oxides. 

Blackwork. 1. Iron wrought by black- 
smiths. 2. Forgings, rolled work, 
etc., which have not undergone a 
process that gives a bright finish. 

Bladed. Decidedly elongated and flat- 
tened (Butler). Said of some min- 

Bladed structure. Consisting of parts 
resembling knife blades. (George) 

Blae. 1. (Scot.) A hard sandstone, 
free from joints; also an underclay 
with balls of ironstone. See Bind. 
Called Blaes or Blaize (Gresley). 
2. A soft shale or slate of bluish 
color (Webster). See Kingle. 

Blagden's law. The law (of limited 
application) that the lowering of 
the freezing point is proportional- to 
the amount of the dissolved sub- 
stance. (Webster) 

Blair process. An improved form of 
the Chenot process. (Raymond) 

Blaisdell reclaiming apparatus. An 
apparatus for automatically dis- 
charging a sand tank having a cen- 
tral bottom opening. It consists of 
a central vertical shaft carrying 
four arms fitted with round plow 
disks. Sand is plowed toward a 
central opening and discharged on a 
conveyor belt (Liddell). Also called 
Blaisdell vat excavator. 

Blaisdell sand distributer. An appara- 
tus for loading sand tanks. It con- 
sists of a rapidly revolving disk 
with curved radial vanes. The disk 
is hung on a shaft in the center of 
the tank, and as sand is dropped on 
the disk it is distributed over the 
entire area. (Liddell) 

(Scot,). Bee Blae. 

Blake eruthe*. The original 
of jaw type. A crusher with one 
fixed jaw plate and one pivoted at 
the top so ai to give the greatest 
movement on the smallest lump 
(Richards, p. 1200). Motion is im- 
parted to the lower end of the 
crushing jaw by toggle joint op- 
erated by eccentric. 

Blake furnace. A furnace, the hearth 
of which consists of terraces rising 
from the outer edge to the centef. 
The hearth is circular and revolves 
when in operation. ( Ingalls, p. 116) 

Blanc. In ceramics, an ujodecorated 
piece of pottery. (Standard) 

Blanc fixe. A barium sulphate formed 
artificially as a heavy, ' white, in- 
soluble precipitate. Used a a a pig- 
ment Also called Baryta white; 
Permanent white. (Webster) 

Blanch. 1. (Bng.) Lead ore, mixed 
with other minerals. (Raymond) 
2. To cover sheet iron with a coat- 
ing of tin. (Webster) 

Blanched copper.' An alloy of copper 
and arsenic. (Raymond) 

Blandura ( Sp, ). Soft, crumbly ground. 

Blanket 1. A piece of cloth used In 
blanket sluices. (Webster) 
2. See Blanket deposit; Blanket 

8. A bituminous surface of apprecia- 
ble thickness generally formed on 
top of a roadway by. the applica- 
tion of one or more coats of bitumi- 
nous material and sand (Bacon). 
Also called Carpet 

Blanket deposit A flat deposit of pr* 
of which the length and breadth are 
relatively great as compared with 
the thickness. The term is current 
among miners* but it has no very 
exact scientific meaning, More or 
less synonymous terms ace fiat 
sheets, bedded veins, beds or flat 
masses. Such deposits are, fre- 
quently intercalated between rocks 
of different llthological character and 
origin, and may have been .deposited 
in a regular sedimentary series, or 
subsequently introduced between the 
beds or impregnating them (Cen- 
tury) See also Blanket vein. 

Blanketing. 1. Material caught upon 
the blankets used in concentrating 
gold-bearing sands or slimes. (Web- 

2. The process involved in defini- 
tion 1. 



Blanket shooting. Also termed Buffer 
hooting or Shooting against the 
bank. A term applied to a method 
of blasting on a face not exceeding 
30 or 35 feet in height It involves 
leaving at the quarry face a mass 
of shattered rock several feet in 
thickness that serves as a buffer, 
preventing the rock from being 
thrown far from its source, and also 
rendering the shot more effective. 

Blanket sluice. A sluice in which 
coarse blankets are laid, to catch 
the fine but heavy particles of gold, 
amalgam, etc., in the slime passing 
over them. The blankets are re- 
moved and washed from time to 
time, to obtain the precious metal. 

Blanket table, or strake (Aust). A 
sloping board or table covered with 
baize for catching gold. (Da vies) 

Blanket vein. A horizontal vein or 
deposit Sheet ground. A sheet de- 
posit "A vein in which the ore 
body covers the entire area within 
the limits of the surface lines of a 
mining location. The apex of a 
blanket vein is coextensive with the 
space between the side lines of a 
mining location." (Homestake Min. 
Co., In re, 2& Land Decisions, p. 689 ; 
Belligerent, etc., Mining Claims, In 
re, 35 Land Decision, p. 22.) (U. 

5. Min. Stat, p. 106). See also 
Blanket deposit 

Blanton cam. A device used for lock- 
ing the cam on the camshaft in a 
stamp-mill. A wedging action is in- 
sured by means of a brass taper 

Blaal 1. The operation of blasting, 
Or rending rock or earth by means 
of explosives. 2. The air forced 
into a furnace to accelerate com- 
bustion 3. The period during which 
a blast furnace is in blast, that is, 
in operation. (Raymond) 
4. An explosion of gas (or dust) in 
a mine. (Webster) 

6. (Scot). A fall of water in the 
down-cast shaft to produce or 
quicken ventilation. (Barrowman ) 
6. To give (a kiln) a specially hot 
firing at the last (Standard) 

Blast box. A chamber Into or through 
which the air of a blowing engine 
passes; ( Century \ 

Blast 4raft The draft produced by 
a" blower, as by blowing in air be- 
neath a fire, or drawing out the 
gases from above "'IK' A, forced 
draft. (Webster) 

Blasted. 1. A term applied to a miner 
who has been injured by an ex- 
plosion of dynamite or gunpowder. 
2. Rent by an explosive. (Webster) 

Blast furnace. A furnace in which 
.combustion is forced by a current 
of air under pressure, especially for 
smelting ores. A blast furnace is 
designated as hot-blast or cold-blast 
according to the temperature of the 
air used for the blast. The furnace 
is usually vertical, 'but varies greatly 
In size and shape (Webster) 

Blast hearth. A hearth in connection 
with which a blast is used, as in re- 
ducing lead ore. (Webster) 

Blast-hole (Eng.). 1. The holes 
through which the water enters the 
bottom of a pump (Ure). See also 
Snore hole. 

2. A hole for a blasting-charge. 

Blast-hole machine. A drilling ma- 
chine of the Keystone type, used to 
drill holes 6 in. diameter and 35 to 
40 ft. deep for the purpose of blast- 
ing down a large amount of ore or 
waste in advance of the steam- 
shovels. It is used in all of the 
great excavations of the dissemi- 
nated copper deposits. (Min. and 
Sci. Press, vol. 113, p. 946.) 

Blasting. 1. The operation of splitting 
rocks by gunpowder or other ex- 
plosives (Century) : as in mining 
and quarrying operations, 
2. A method of loosening or shat- 
tering masses of solid matter, en- 
countered during boring, by means 
of explosive compounds. Where 
petroleum occurs in a dense hard 
rock, recourse must sometimes be 
had to the use of explosives, the 
effect of these being to set up a sub- 
terranean disturbance, which may 
thus be the means of giving freer 
movement to the oil. (M'tzakis) 

Blasting barrel. A piece of iron pipe, 
usually about i inch in diameter, 
used to provide a smooth passage- 
way through the stemming for the 
miner's squib. It is recovered after 
each blast and used until destroyed. 
(Du Pont) 

Blasting cap. A copper shell closed at 
one end and containing a charge of 
detonating compound, which is ig- 
nited from the spark of the fuse. 
Used for detonating nigh explosives. 
(Du Pont) 



Blasting cartridge. A cartridge con- 
taining an explosive to be used in 
blasting. (Webster) 

Blasting circuit. The leading wires, 
connecting wires and connected elec- 
tric blasting caps, when prepared 
for the firing of a blast (Du Pont) 

Blasting compounds. Explosive sub- 
stances used ?n blasting. (Century) 

Blasting fuse. A slow burning fuse 
used for igniting blasting charges. 

Blasting gelatin. A high explosive, 
consisting of nitroglycerin and nitro- 
cotton. It is a strong explosive, and 
is a rubber-like, elastic substance, 
unaffected by water. (Du Pont) 

Blasting machine. A portable dynamo, 
in which the armature is rotated by 
the downward thrust of the rack- 
bar or handle, used for firing blasts 
electrically (Du Pont). Also called 

Blasting mat A tightly woven cover- 
ing of heavy manila rope or wire 
rope, or chain, made in various 
sizes, for covering the material to 
be blasted and preventing the flying 
of small fragments of rock. (Du 

Blasting r.eedle. A needle-like instru- 
ment for making an opening for a 
fuse (or squib). (Webster) 

Blasting oil. Same as Nitroglycerin. 

Blasting powder. A powder contain- 
ing less nitrate, and in its place 
more charcoal than black powder. 
Its composition is 65 to 75 per cent 
potassium nitrate, 10 to 15 per cent 
sulphur and 15 to 20 per cent char- 
coal. In the United States sodium 
nitrate is largely used in place of 
the potassium salt Compare Black 
powder. (Brunswig, p. 302) 

Blasting stick. A simple form of fuse. 

Blasting supplies. A term used to in- 
clude electric blasting caps, ordi- 
nary blasting caps, fuse, blasting 
machines, galvanometers, rheostats, 
etc., in fact, everything used in 
blasting, except explosives. (Du 

Blasting tube. An India rubber tubing 
used for holding nitroglycerin, (Web- 

Blast liquor. A liquid for bleaching, 
as a solution of chloride of lime. 

Blast meter. An anemometer for 
measuring the force of a blast 

Blast nozzle. A fixed or variable out- 
let of a blast pipe. (Webster) 

Blast pipe. A pipe for supplying air 
to furnaces. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Blast-roasting. A generic term given 
by A. S. Dwight to a process of 
forcing air through finely divided 
metallic sulphides with the object 
of roasting and agglomerating in 
a single operation. The process 
which originated with Huntington 
and Heberlein in 1889 was confined 
to a galena concentrate, limestone 
being added to serve both as a di- 
luent to keep separate the particles 
of galena that they might be thor- 
oughly oxidized, and as a flux that 
the partly roasted ore might be ag- 
glomerated by the formation of a 
sinter. In the original Huntington 
and Heberlein process the galena 
concentrate, mixed with limestone, 
is given a preliminary rough-roast, 
in order to oxidize some of the sul- 
phide and thus reduce its calorific 
power, before it is moistened and 
charged into the converting pot. 
In the later Savelsberg process 
the moistened galena-limestone mix- 
ture is blown direct without having 
been subjected to a rough-roast 
In the third modification, the Car- 
michael-Bradford process, the mode 
of operating is the same as with the 
Savelsberg, only limestone is re- 
placed by dehydrated gypsum. These 
three established processes, as well 
as some other modifications, are 
characterized as the up-draft opera- 
tions and are usually intermittent; 
the Dwight-Lloyd process is the lead- 
ing representative of the down-draft 
operation which is usually continu- 
ous. (Hofman, General Metallurgy, 
pp. 411-112) 

Blatt (Ger.). A flaw or fault 

Bleacher. A settling tub used in re- 
fining petroleum. (Standard) 

Bleaching clay (Corn.). Kaolin, used 
with size, to whiten and give weight 
and susbtance to cotton goods. 

Bleaching powder. A powder for 
bleaching, as chloride of lime, or 
calcium oxy chloride CaOClj. (Web- 

Bleb. A vesicle or bulla containing 
a serous fluid ; a bubble as in water, 
glass, etc. (Webster) 


Bleek. 1. (No. of Bug.) Pitch or tar 
upon ropes. (Gresley) 
2. A black, fluid or semifluid sub- 
stance, as blacking for leather, 
grease on an axle, etc. (Standard) 

Bleed (Eng.) To give off water, or 
gas, as from coal or other stratum. 

Bleeder. 1. An escape valve .for gas 
at the top pf a furnace or along 
the gas line, to relieve excess pres- 
sure or flow of gas. (Willcox) 
2. A small cock or valve to draw 
off water of condensation from a 
range of piping. (Nat Tube Co.) 

Bleeding. The exudation of bitumi- 
nous material on the roadway sur- 
face after construction. (Bacon) 

Bleeding valve. A cock, as in an air 
brake mechanism, the opening of 
which releases air (Standard). 
See also Bleeder. 

Bleiberg furnace. Bee Carinthian fur- 

Blenda (Mex.). Zincblende. (Dwight) 

Blende. Without any qualification 
means zincblende or the sulphide of 
zinc, which has the luster and often 
the color of common resin, and' 
yields a white streak and powder. 
The darker varieties are ^Ued 
blackjack by the English miners. 
Other minerals' having this luster 
are also called blendes, as antimony 
blende, ruby blende, pitchblende, 
hornblende (Hoy. Com.). It is 
often found in brown shining crys- 
tals, hence its name among the Ger- 
man miners, from the word btenden 
to dazzle. 

Bliok (Ger.). The brightening or iri- 
descence appearing on silver or gold 
at the end of the cupelling or refin- 
ing process. (Raymond) 

Blikhuls (So. Afr.). A small house of 
galvanized iron - erected on a gold 
field or* in a diamond compound. 

Blind, i. Not appearing in an out- 
crop at the surface ; applied to min- 
eral veins. (Webster) 
S. (Forest of Dean.) See After- 
damp. 8. (Scot). To erect a stop- 
ping in a crosscut or other under- 
ground roadway. (Gresley) 

Blind coal (Bng.). 1. Goal altered by 
the heat of a trap dike so as to re- 
semble anthracite. (Gresley) 
ft. Anthracite and other kinds of 
coal that burn without flame. 

Blind creek (Aust). A creek that te 
dry, except Ur wet .weather. (Da- 

Blind drift A horizontal passage, in 
a mine* not yet ; connected witfe the 
other workings (Ihlseng). Bee oko 
Blind level. 

Bli*4e. Same as Blende. (Standard) 

Blinded (Scot ) . Not opposite. Two 
ends (drifts or entries) driven. from 
opposite sides of a plane and not 
opposite each 'other, but nearly so, 
are said to be blinded. (Barrow- 

Blind flange. A flange used to close 
the end of a' pipe, Y it .produces a 
blind end wljich is also called a dead 
end7 TNat/Tube Co.) 

Blind joint An obscure bedding 
plane. (C. and H. **.#..) 

BUa* lead; Blind lode. A vein hairing 
no outcrop. (Ihlseng) 

Blind level 1. A level not yet con- 
nected with other working, fc A 
level for drainage, having a shaft 
at either end, and acting as an in- 
verted siphon. (Raymond) 

Blind led*. A lode showing no sur- 
face outcrop, and one that can not 
be found by any surface indications. 
See also Blind lead. ( Skinner ^ 

Blind-pit (Lane.). See Drop-staple. 

Blind road; Blind way (Mid.). Any 
underground roadway not in use, 
having stoppings placed across it 

Blind roaster. A muffle furnace, 

Blind seams. Incipient joints, (R!e) 

Blind ijurft A ahaft which does not 
open to daylight A. winze., See, gbo 
Underground -shaft 

Blind shearing (Scot). A side cot- 
ting without under cutting. (.Bar- 

Blind stope (Local, U. $.). A secret 
working to remove pre, (Standard) 

Blind vein. A vein that does not 
continue to the surface (Power). 
See 0,1*0 Blind, 1; Blind lode, Blind 

Blister. See Blister copper. 

Blister copper. A high-grade crude, 
copper in which nearly all the 
oxidizable impurities have been re- 
moved by slagging and volatiliza- 
tion. It contains from 97 to 99 per 
cent copper and only .25 to .75 per 
cent sulphur (Peters, p. 226). 



Blistered copper ore. A reniform 
variety of chalcopyrite. (Power) 

Blistering. See Secondary blasting.; 

also Mudcap. 

Blister steel. Crude steel formed from 
wrought iron by cementation. So 
called from its blistered surfaces 
(Webster). See also Cement steel. 

Bloat. A hammer swelled at the eye. 

Block. 1. A division of a mine, usu- 
ally bounded by workings but some- 
times by survey lines or other arbi- 
trary limits. (Webster) 

Block-bond. A style of bricklaying in 
which the bricks are laid crosswise 
and lengthwise alternately. (Stand- 

Block caving. A method of mining ore 
from the top down in successive lay- 
ers of much greater thickness than 
characteristic of top slicing. Each 
block is undercut over the greater 
part of its bottom area and the sup- 
porting pillars blasted out. As the 
block caves and settles, the cover 
follows. The method might be con- 
sidered as involving many of the 
features of top slicing combined with 
ore caving, but applied on u larger 
scale (Young). Also called " Caving 
system " and " Cumberland method 
of mining." 

Block caving into chutes. See Chute 

Block claim (Aust). A square mining 
claim whose boundaries are marked 
out by posts. (Skinner) 

Block coal. A peculiar kind of coal 
that breaks into large cubical 
blocks. It is used raw, or without 
coking, in the smelting of iron. 
Found in the Indiana coal field. 

Block furnace. Same as Bloomery. 

Block hole. 1. A small hole drilled in 
a block of rock either by hand drill 
or a portable air drill, to contain 
a small charge of explosive. 2. A 
relief hole, designed to remove part 
of the burden from a subsequent 
shot, used in coal mining. (Du 

8. A quarryman's term for a method 
of breaking undesirably large blocks 
of stone by the discharge of dyna- 
mite in shallow holes. (Bowles) 

Blockholer. A person whose duty it 
la to break up and reduce to safe 
convenient size, by blasting or 

otherwise, any large blocks or pieces 
of rock that have been blown down 
by the miners. (Mesich v. Tama- 
rack Mining Co., 184 Michigan, p. 
366; 151 Northwestern, p. 563) 

Blocking-out. 1. (Aust). Laying or 
staking out gold-bearing gravel de- 
posits in square blocks in order to 
facilitate systematic washing. 2. Ex- 
posing an ore body on three sides. 

Block ore. A local term in Wisconsin 
for large cubical crystals of galena. 

Block-reef (Aust.). A reef that shows 
frequent contractions and bulges. 
A wavy vein. (Power) 

Block system of stoping and filling. 
See Overhand stoping. 

Block tin. Commercial tin, cast into 
blocks, and partly refined. Solid 
tin as distinguished from tin plate. 
Also called Bar tin. (Webster) 

Blocky. Breaking down in thick 
blocks. Applied to the roof of a 
mine working. (Steel) 

Blond-metal (Staff.). A variety of 
clay ironstone of the coal-measures 
occurring near Wednesbury. (Cen- 

Blood poisoning. A morbid state of 
the blood caused by the introduction 
of poisonous or infective matter 
from without, or the absorption or 
retention of such as is produced in 
the body itself. (Webster) 

Bloodstone. A variety of chalcedony 
or jaspar, dark green in color, inter- 
spersed with small red spots. Used 
as a gem. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Blood wipe (Derb.). To draw blood* 
at a mine, by any act of violence 
that one man can inflict upon an- 
other. (Hooson) 

Bloom. 1. A large steel bar, drawn 
from an ingot for further manufac- 
ture. 2. A rough bar of iron, drawn 
from a Catalan or bloomery ball, 
for further manufacture. See also 
Billet. (Raymond) 
3. A mass of iron or steel formed 
by consolidating scrap at a high 
temperature by hammering or roll- 
ing. 4. A lump or mass of molten 
glass. 5. An earthy mineral that is 
frequently found as an efflorescence, 
as cobalt bloom. Also called Blos- 
som. 6. To form an efflorescence, as 
salts with which alkali soils are im- 
pregnated bloom out on the surface 
of the earth in dry weather, after a 
rain or irrigation. 7. The fluores- 
cence of petroleum. (Webster) 


Bloomery; Bloomary. 1. A forge for 
making wrought-tron, usually direct 
from the ore. The sides are iron 
plates; the hair plate at the 'back, 
the cinder plate at the frent, the 
tuyere plate (through which the 
tuyere passes) at one side (its 
tipper part being called in some 
bloomeries the merrit plate) the 
fdre-spar plate opposite the tuyfcre 
plate (its upper part being the 
skew plate) and the bottom plate 
at the bottom. (Raymond) 
2. A machine for making blooms 
out of puddle-balls; an establish- 
ment containing such machines. 

Bloom hook. A tool for handling metal 
blooms. Also called bloom tongs. 

Blooming. The process of manufac- 
turing blooms of iron from the ore 
or from puddle balls. (Standard) 

Blooming mill. 1. The first set of 
rolls in a rolling mill. 2. A bloom- 
cry. (Standard) 

Blossom. The oxidized or decomposed 
outcrop of a vein or coal bed, more 
frequently the latter. Also called 
Bloom, Smut, and Tailing. See also 
Gossan. (Raymond) 

Blossom of coal. See Goal smut, 1. 

Blossom rook. The rock detached from 
a vein but which has not been trans- 
ported. (Ihlseng) 

Blont. A mass of quartz, often miner- 
alized, that is frequently isolated 
and not connected with a vien. A 
contraction of Blow-out, 2. 

Blow. 1. A single heat or operation 
of the Bessemer converter, also the 
quantity of metal operated upon. 

2. (Aust.). A large mass of quartz 
or other gangue, isolated or forming 
a sudden enlargement on a lode. 

3. (Eng.). To blast with powder. 

4. The escape of gas through a dam 
or stopping. 5. (York.). The break- 
ing or falling of a mine roof. (Ores- 

. (Aust). The outcrop of the 
top of a vein (Standard). See 
Ironstone blow. 

Slowdown (Eng.). To bring down 
coal or stone with explosives. (G. 
C. Green well) 

Slowdown fan. A force fan. (C. and 
M. M. P.> 

Blower. 1. A fan or other apparatus 
for forcing air into a r furnace or 
mine. See Blowing engine. (Hanks) 

2. A blowing out or forcible dis- 
charge of gas from a hole or fissure 
in a mine. (Webster) 

3. (Eng.). A man who blasts or 
fires shots in a mine, or who drills 
the holes and charges them, ready 
for firing. (Gresley) 

4. A foreman in charge of the opera- 
tion of a blast furnace and stoves. 
At small plants in charge of trestle, 
stock house, and pig machine as welt. 

Blow- George (Eng.). A small cen- 
trifugal fan worked by hand, for 
mine ventilation. (Gresler) 

Blowholes. 1. Minute craters formed 
on the surface of thick lava flows. 

2. A hole for the escape of gas or 
air. 3. A spot in a casting weak- 
ened by a bubble 1 of air ; an air hole. 

Blow-in. To put a blast furnace In 
operation. (Raymond) See alto 
Blowing-ln. , 

Blowing (Eng.). Blasting. (Bain- 

Blowing engine. An engine for forc- 

, ing air into blast furnaces under 

pressure, often about one pound 

avoirdupois per square inch. ( Weed ) 

Blowing fan. A rotary fan used to 
produce a blast. (Webster) 

Blowing furnace. A furnace in which 
glassware is held to soften it when 
it becomes stiff in working. (Web- 

Blowing house (Eng.). An establish- 
ment in which blast furnaces are 
operated ( tire ); Specifically for 
smelting tin ore. 

Blowtng-in. -The starting of a furnace- 
which consists of warming the cru- 
cible, filling the furnace and heating 
the charge to the smelting point. 
(Hofman, p. 319) 

Blowing on tap hole. Blowing air 
through the hole at casting, to clean 
the hearth of iron and cinder. 

Blowing on the monkey. A flame 
blowing from the cinder notch of a 
blast furnace. (Willcox) 

Blowing-out. See Blow-out, 1. 

Blowing pipe. A glass-blower's pipe. 



Blowing-pot In pottery works, an. ap- 
paratus for distributing color over 
the ware before burning. (Cen- 

Blowing road (So. Staff.). An intake, 
or fresh-air road in a mine. (Ores- 

Blowing tools. A small set of blast- 
ing implements (Standard). Com- 
pare Blasting supplies. 

Blowing-up furnace. A furnace' used 
for sintering ore and the volatiliza- 
tion of lead and zinc. (Herman, p. 

Blown-out shot. A shot that has blown 
out the stemming without breaking 
any of the coal except that around 
the auger hole (Steel). See also 
Blow-out, 3. 

Blow-off. 1. To let off excess of steam 
from a boiler. (C. and M. M. P.) ' 
2. To blow out, by means of a special 
valve, the suspended and precipi- 
tated impurities collected in a steam 

Blow-out 1. To put a blast furnace 
out of blast, by ceasing to charge 
fresh materials, and continuing the 
blast until the contents of the fur- 
nace have been smelted. 2. A large 
outcrop, beneath which the vein, is 
smaller, is called a blow-out 3. A 
shot or blast is said to blow out 
when it goes off like a gun and does 
not shatter the rock (Raymond). A 
blown-out or windy shot 
4. A sudden or violent escape of gas, 
or air. 5. The cleaning of boiler 
flues, by a blast of steam. (Web- 

6. The rupture of a boiler tube, 
steam pipe, pneumatic tire or other 
container through faulty construc- 
tion, excessive pressure or other 

Blow-over. The excess of glass in 
making blown objects, projecting be- 
yond the mold and afterward broken 
off. (Standard) 

Blowpipe. A tube through which air. 
is forced into a flame, to direct it 
and increase its intensity. ' In the 
compound blowpipe, two jets of gas 
(one of which may be ait) are 
united at the point of combustion. 

Blowpipe reaction. A 'decomposition 
of a compound when heated before 
the blowpipe, resulting in some 
characteristic reaction, as a color- 
ing of the flame pr a colored crust 
on a piece of charcoal (Standard). 
A useful method of analysis in min- 

Blows (Leic.). Frequent, and sudden 
risings of quicksand in sinking 
through water-bearing ground. 

Blowtorch. A small autqmatic , blast 
lamp, or torch. (Webster) 

Blowtube. A long wrought-irori tube, 
on the end bf ! which the workman 
gathers a quantity of molten glass, 
and through which he blows to ex- 
pand or shape it ' (Webster) 

Blowup. 1. (Eng.) An explosion of 
.fire damp, ; in a. mine.' 3, To allots 
atmospheric air access to cer- 
tain places in coal mines, so as to 
generate heat, and -^ultimately w 
cause gob fires. 

Blow wells (EBg-.). A local term for 
Artesian wells, in the eastern coast 
of Lincolnshire, so called be^a,us$ 
the water often rushes up violently." 

Blue. An<assayer's term for a solu- 
tion of copper sulphate. (Ricketts) 

Blue asbestos. See Crocldolite. 

Blue .band. A bluish band of ' slate 
from one to four inches thick occur- 
ring 18 to 24 Indies from the bottom 
of the No. 6 coal seam in Illinois. 

Blnc-'billy (Eng.). The residuum" otf 
cupreous pyrites after roasting with 
salt (Raymond) 

Bhie bind; Saifce as Bind, 1. 

Bluecap, The characteristic blue halo 
or tip, of the flame of a safety lamp 
when flre damp is present in the 
air (Barrowman). See also Cap. 2. 

Blue carbonate of copper. Samp as 

Blue earth; Blue ground. See KimNr- 

Blue elvan (Corn.). A synonym $& 

BJuje ground. 1. ( So. Af*. ) . = A, - 
name for the decomposed peridotite 
or kimberlite that carries the dia- 
monds in the South African mines. 

2. (So; Staff.) Stratfc of the coal 
measures, consisting principally 1 6f 
beds of hard clay or shale. 'See 
Bind; also Bluestone, '2 Presley) 

Blue iron earth. See Yivianite. 

Blue ironstone. A synonym for Groci- 
dolite (Chester). Blue asbestos. 

Blue jack. Blue vitriol; copper sql- 
. phate (Webster). See alto Chal- 


Blue- join. A beautiful fibrous or eol- 
umnar variety of fluorspar found in 
Derbyshire, England. Used for 
making ornaments. (Webster) 

lead. (Pronounced like the vert) 
to lead.) The bluish auriferous 
gr#vej and cement deposit found .ijk 
the ancient river-channels of Cali- 
fornia, (Raymond) 

Blue lead- ore. An old name for a 
compact variety of galenlte of a 
bliiih-gray, color. ( Chester ) 

Blue malachite. Same as Azurlte. 
( Standard > 

Blue metal; I. & copper matte con- 
taining about 60 per cent copper. 

2. (No. of Eng.). See Bind. 1; also 
Bluestone, 2. 

Blue ocher. Same as Vlvianite. 

Blue oil. 1. A mixture of heavy oils 
and paraffin, obtained in the distil* 
lation of ozocerite. (Webster) 
2. The oil produced from the heavy 
oil and paraffin of the Sedtlsh shales 
by cooling and pressing for .sepa- 
ration of hard paraffin scale; it is 
refined and fractionated into lubri- 
cating oils. (Bacon) 

Blue opal A synonym for Lazulite, 

Blue peach (Corn.). A slate-bine, 
very fine grained tpurmaline. (Ray- 

Blue powder. That portion of vapo- 
rized zinc which does not condense as 
a liquid, but passes directly to the 
solid state in finely divided bluish 
powder. (Ingalls, ]). 205; Hofman, 
p. 500) 

Blue flrint. A blue photograph. See 
also Cyanotype. (Webster) 

Blue room. The first room In a bag 
house. (Hofman, p. 131) 

Blue schorl. 1. The earliest name for 
octahedriter (Chester) 
2. Blue tourmaline. 

Blue-sky law. A law enacted, to pro- 
vide for the regulation and super- 
vision of investment companies, in 
order to protect the public against 
companies that do not intend to do 
a fair and honest business. 

Blue spar. Lazulite ; azure-spar. (Cen- 

Bluestone. 1. The commercial name 
for a dark bluish-gray feldspathlc 
sandstone or arkose. The color is 
due to the presence of fine black 

dark-green minerals, chlefly 
hornblende and chlorite. The rock 
Is extensively quarried in New 
York. Its toughness, due to slight 
metamorphism, and the ease with; 
which it may be spUt iato thin slabs 
especially adapt it for use as flag- 
stone. the term has been locally 
applied to other rocks, among which 
ate' dark4>lue slate and blue lime- 
stone. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

2. (So. Wales). Hard day or abate, 
See also Bind. (GresJey) 

3. Copper r vitrol ; copper - sulphate. 

Blue talc. A synonym for Cyanite. 

Blue verditer. See Verditer, 2 and 3. 

Blue vitro! Copper sulphate; chal- 
canthite. Also called Copper vitriol. 

Bluff. 1. A high bank, presenting a 
precipitous front to the sea or a 
river. 2. Blunt. 3. A fictitious 
show of strength. (Webster) 
4. Altered country .rock filling a 
lode. Analogous to mullock of 
Australia. (Halse) 

Bluft (Leic.). To extinguish, or put 
out of sight, a candle or other light. 

Bluing, or Blueing. The act or opera- 
tion of giving a blue tint to iron or 
steel, as by heating, by the use of 
solutions, or by a. combination of 
both processes; also, the tint so 
given. (Standard) 

Blunge. In ceramics, to mix (clay) 
with water by means of a blunger 
or in a pug mill. (Standard) 

Blunger. A wooden implement shaped 
like a. spatula, but larger than a 
shovel, used in mixing clay with 
water. (Standard) 

Bluntin (Derb.). A dark tough vein 
filling which dulls the drills readily. 

Boam (Scot). See Boom, 1 
Board. See Bord. 

Board-and-pillar. Same as Pillar-and- 

Board-and-wali. Same as Bord-and- 
pillar, and Fillar-and-^breast 

Board coal (Eng.). Coal having a 
fibrous or woody appearance. (Ores- 

Board run; The amount of undercut- 
ting that can be done at one setting 
of a coal-mining machine, usually 
about 5 feet, without moving for- 



ward the board upon which the ma- 
chine works. (Consolidated Goal 
Co. v. Gruber, 188 Illinois, p. 589) 

Boart. Same as bort. (Century) 

Boasting. The rough dressing of stone 
with a boasting chisel. (Standard) 

Boasting-chisel. A flat chisel with an 
edge 2 inches wide, used in dress- 
ing stone. (Standard) 

Boat. A gold dredge. 

Boat coal (Penn.). Coal which is 
loaded into boats on canals, rivers, 
etc. (Gresley) 

Boat level (Wales). A navigable adit. 

Bob; Balance bob; Pump bob; Rocking 
bob. 1. A triangular or four-sided 
frame of heavy timber or of iron 
by which the horizontal motion com- 
municated by the engine (connect- 
ing rod) is altered to the inclined 
or vertical motion of pump rods or 
of a man-engine (Chance). Used 
in connection with a Cornish pump. 

Bobbin. 1. (Aust) A catch placed 
between the rails of the up-line of 
an incline to stop any runaway 
trucks. It consists of a bent iron 
bar, pivoted in such a manner so 
that the down-hill end is slightly 
heavier than the up-hill end, which 
is capable of being depressed by an 
up-coming truck, but rises above the 
level of the truck axle as soon as 
the truck is past (Power). Also 
called Monkey-chock. 
2. A spool or reel. (Webster) 

Bobbing John (Scot). An appliance 
formerly used in pumping, the mo- 
tive power being water run into a 
box at the end of a beam working 
on a center, the pump rods being 
attached to the other end. (Bar- 

Bob-pit. An excavation in which the 
balance box, attached to the pump- 
rods, works. (Duryee) 

Boca (Mex.). Mouth of mine or tun- 
nel, especially the place generally 
used as an entrance; head of a 
stull or post; heavy horizontal 
brace; B. de barrena, the bit of a 
drill. (D wight) 

Bocarte (Mex.). A stamp battery. 
(D wight) 

Bocartear (Sp.). To crush, stamp or 
grind ore. (Halse) 

Bocazo (Sp.). A blown-out shot 

Bocca. 1. The round hole in a glass 
furnace by which the fused glass is 
taken out (Duryee) 
2. A volcanic crater or vent. 

Boccarella (It). A small mouth in a 
glass furnace on either side of the 
bocca; a nose hole. (Standard) 

Bochorno (Mex.). Excessive heat 
with lack of ventilation. (Dwight) 

Bodies seven. In alchemy, the metals 
corresponding to the planets, being 
gold, silver, iron, quicksilver, lead, 
tin, and copper, answering respec- 
tively to the sun, the moon, Mars. 
Mercury, Saturn, Jupiter, and 
Venus. (Standard) 

Body. 1. A kind or form of matter; a 
material substance: (Webster) 2. 
An orebody, or pocket of mineral de- 
posit 3. The thickness of a lubri- 
cating oil or other liquid; also the 
measure of that thickness expressed 
in the number of seconds in which a 
given quantity of the oil at a given 
temperature flows through an aper- 
ture. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Body of coal. A term frequently used 
to indicate the "fatty," inflammable 
property in coal, which is the basis 
of the phenomenon called combus- 
tion. (Nicolls) 

Boetins furnace. An early gas-fired 
Belgian furnace with Boetius re- 
generators. (Ingalls, p. 448) 

Boetius producer. A furnace used for 
the manufacture of producer gas. 
(Ingalls, p. 304.) 

Bog (Celtic for soft). A wet spongy 
morass, chiefly composed of decayed 
vegetal matter. (Power) 

Bogar (Chile). In metallurgy, to skim. 

Bog butter. A fatty substance simi- 
lar to adipocire found in the peat 
bogs of Ireland (Webster). also 

Bog earth. A soil composed for the 
most part of the fine siliceous mat- 
ter and partially decomposed vege- 
tal fiber. (Webster) 

Boghead cannel. See Torbanite. 

Boghead coal (Scot). A dark brown 
variety of cannel coal valuable as a 
source of paraffin oils and gas 
(Webster). See also Torbanite. 

Boghead mineral. See Bftghead coal; 



Bogie; Bogey; Bogy. 1. (York.) A 
small truck or trolley upon which 
a bucket is carried from the shaft 
to the spoil bank. 2. A weighted 
truck run foremost or next to the 
rope in a train or trip. (Gresley) 

Bogie engine. A switching engine, the 
running gear and driving gear of 
which are on a bogie or truck. 

Bog iron ore. A spongy variety of 
hydrated oxide of iron or limonite. 
Found in layerfe and lumps on level 
sandy soils which have been covered 
with swamp or bog (Roy. Com.). 
See also Brown iron ore. 

Bog lime. A white powdery, cal- 
careous deposit, precipitated through 
plant action on the bottom of many 
ponds and used in Portland cement 
manufacture. It is often errone- 
ously called marl, a term which prop- 
erly belongs to a calcareous clay. 

Bog manganese. A synonym for Wad. 

Bog ore. 1. An iron hydroxide ore, 
as limonite, from marshy places. 
2. Bog manganese. (Standard) 

Bogwood (Eng.). The trunks and 
larger branches of trees dug up from 
peat bogs. (Page) 

Bohemian garnet. See Pyrope. 

Bohemian glass. An ornamental glass 
from Bohemia, noted for its rich 
colors and incised or engraved 
patterns. (Webster) 

Bohemian ruby. A jeweler's name for 
rose quartz when cut as a gem. 

Bohemian topaz. A jeweler's name for 
yellow quartz when cut as a gem. 

Boil. The sudden generation of steam 
when molten iron runs over a cold or 
damp spot or object in runner. It 
often causes an explosion, whereby 
molten : iron is scattered about. 

Boiler. A closed vessel, usually cylin- 
drical, used in generating steam, 
as for motive power: ordinarily 
made of riveted iron or steel plates, 
arranged to give an enlarged heat- 
ing surface, with a space below for 
the fire, and often with internal 
flues for the smoke, etc. (Stand- 

Boiler iron. Rolled sheet iron, such as 
is used in making steam boilers, 
varying in thickness from a quarter 
to half an inch, and in tensile 
strength from 40,000 pounds per 
square inch upward. (Standard) 

Boiler sealer. A man who cleans 
scales from boiler tubing. (Willcox) 

Boiler tube. One of the tubes by 
which heat from the furnace is dif- 
fused through the water in a steam 
boiler. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Boilery; Boilary. In law, water pro- 
ceeding from a salt well belonging to 
one not the owner of the land, 

Boiling. 1. Heated to the point of 
bubbling; heaving with bubbles. 2. 
In metallurgy, See Puddling. (Web- 

Boiling furnace. A water-jacket re- 
verberatory furnace for decarboniz- 
ing iron by a process in which the 
carbonic oxide escapes with an ap- 
pearance of boiling. (Standard) 

Boiling heat. See Boiling point 

Boiling point. 1. The temperature at 
which a liquid begins to boil, or to 
be converted into vapor by bubbles 
forming within its mass. It varies 
with the pressure. In water, under 
ordinary conditions, it is 212 F. or 
100 C., but it becomes less with 
lessened atmospheric pressure, as in 
ascending a mountain being lowered 
about 1 F. for every 550 feet of 
ascent (Standard) 
2. The temperature at which crude 
oil on being heated begins to give 
forth its different distillates. The 
boiling point of crude oils and the 
amounts of distillates obtained at 
specified temperatures differ con.sid- 
erably. (Mitzakis) 

Boiling spring. A spring or fountain 
which gives out water at the boiling 
point, or at a high temperature. 

Boina (Mex.). A miner's cap. (Dwight) 

Bojite. A name given by B. Wein- 
schenk to a variety of gabbro, which 
occurs in association with the graph- 
ite of northern Bavaria. It differs 
from normal gabbro in containing 
hornblende, in addition to augite, 
and the name is intended to indi- 
cate a group of hornblendic gabbros 
just as norite implies those with 
hypersthene. The original . bojite 
contained brown hornblende, color- 
less pyroxene, and reddish brown 
biotite. (Kemp) 



Boke. 1. (Derb.)- A small stringer 
.of ore which soon dwindles out 

8- Derb.). A break or split in a 
vein. Mander) 

loin (Sp.). A ball; B. de grata, a 
slag-ball. (Halse) 

Bojas. 1. (M^x.). More or less 
rounded masses of silver-gold ore. 
8. (Sp.). Fine mercury ore- molded 
into bricks. 3. Spherulites. 4. Balls 
of day used in tamping, (Halse) 

Bolderberg beds (Belg.). The sands 
and gravels of the Bolderberg hill, 
representatives of the Middle or 
Eocene Tertiaries, and often re- 
ferred to by geologists. (Page) 

Bole. 1. (Derb.). An old lead works. 
A place on high ground and ex- 
posed to the wind, where smelting 
has been carried on. (Hunt) 

2. A friable earthy clay highly 
colored by iron oxide. 3. An old 
Scotch measure of about 4 bushels. 
See aUo Boll. (Webster) 

Boleite. A deep blue pseudo-Isometric 
hydrous oxy chloride of lead, copper, 
and silver from Boleo, Lower Cali- 
fornia. A tetragonal form of nercy- 
lite. (Dana) 

Boleo (Mex.). 1. A dump for waste 
rock. 2. Float-miner: L 3. A kid- 
ney of ore. (D wight) 

Boleta (Sp.). 1. A schedule. 1 A 
ticket for, the sale of ore. 3. A 
voucher. 4. A tax receipt (Halse) 

Bolicaar (Mex.). To treat ore in a 
bimbalete. (Halse) 

Boliche. 1. (Peru). A dolly-tub. 2. 
(Mex,). A small ore mill like a 

bimbalete. (D wight) 

3. In Spain, a small reveiberatory 
furnace for smelting lead ores. 

Bolivar (Venezuela). A silver coin 
equal to 1 franc, did., or 19.3 cents. 

BolL 1. (No. of Eng.). An ancient 
measure for coal, containing 9676.8 
cubic inches. (Gresley) 
S. See Bole, 3. 

Bollito (It). The frit or calcined in- 
gredients from which glass is made. 

Bollo (Peru). 1. A pocket or ore. 2. A 
triangular block of amalgam. 

Bologna spar. See Bolognian stone. 

BolognUn stone. A sulphate of barium 
occurring in roundish masses and 
which is phosphorescent after cal- 
cination (Ure.) Also called 
Bologna stone, Bologna spar. 

Bolsa (Peru). A rich body of ore; 
literally a purse. (Pfordte) 

Bolsada (Sp.). A rich pocket of ore. 
In a general sense, an irregular de- 
posit (Halse) 

Bolsilla (Sp.). A small pocket of ore. 

Bok6a. 1. (Sp.). A flat-floored desert 
valley that drains to a central 
evaporation pan or play a. (Ban- 

2. (Mex.). A pocket of ore. 

Bolsonada (Peru). A pockety vein. 

Bolt 1, A nearly horizontal cylinder 
or prismoidal frame, usually, rotat- 
ing, covered with silk or other 
fabric with very regular meshes, 
for sifting and separating flour of 
wheat from the hull or . bran. 
Usually different sections of its 
length are covered with gradually 
decreasing sizes of mesh. Used in 
the talc and fuller's earth industries, 
etc. 2. To sift or separate by pass- 
ing through a bolt (Standard) 

3. (So. Staff.). A short, narrow 
heading, connecting two others. 
Also called Bolt hole. (Gresley) 

4. In glass-blowing, a cylindrical 
mass; as a bolt of melted glass. 

Bolt hole (So. Staff.). A short nar- 
row opening made to connect the 
main workings with the air head or 
ventilating drift of a coal mine 
(Century). Also called Bolt 

Bolt oil A viscous neutral oil hav- 
ing a gravity of 30 Be", and a Say- 
bolt viscosity of ,220. Used in cut- 
ting nut and bolt threads. (Bacon) 

Boltonite. A colored variety of for- 
sterite, MgsSiO* crystallizing in the 
orthorhombic system. (Dana) 

Bomb. l. In geology, a more or less 
rounded mass of lava, anywhere 
from a few inches to several feet in 
diameter, generally vesicular, at 
least inside, thrown from the throat 
of a volcano during an explosive 
eruption. (La Forge) 
2. The combustion chamber of a 
calorimeter fitted for use in making 
explosive 'combustions. 3. A missile 
containing an explosive, as dyna- 
mite. (Webster) 


Bomba (Sp.). 1. A pump. 8. (Yenez.). 
A patch or pocket .of ore. 3. A vol- 
canic bomb. (Halse) 

Bombear. 1. (Colom.) To bring a 
large volume of water to the chan- 
jftel or ground sluice, 2. To dis- 
charge a miner or pe6n. (Halse) 

Bombiccite. A transparent, colorless 
mineral, found in lignite in Tus- 
cany; it fuses at 75 O., volatilizes 
at a higher temperature, and is solu- 
ble in carbon dl sulphide, alcohol ant? 
ether. (Bacon) 

BombiUo (Mex.). Cartridge (as of 
dynamite). (Dwight) 

Bonanza ( Sp. ) . Literally; fair weather . 
In miners' phrase, good luck, of a 
body of rich ore. A mine is in bo- 
nanza when it is .profitably pro- 
ducing ore (Raymond). Compare 

Bond. 1. (No. of Eng.) Agreement 
for hiring workmen. 2. (Forest Of 
Dean.) A turn made by a winding 
engine. 3. (No. Staff.). A bed, 
band, or seam of ironstone. (Gres- 

4. The arrangement of blocks of 
stone or brickwork to form a firm 
structure by a judicious overlapping 
of each other so as to break joint. 
(0. and M. M. P.) 

5. Ah electrical connection between 
any two consecutive rails of an elec- 
iHc railway using the rails as a part 
of the return circuit 6. A tmit of 
chemical attraction. See Valence. 

7. To give or secure an option upon 
'a mine or other property by a bond 
tying up the property until the op: 
tion has expired. (Webster) 

8. The material which holds or 
binds together the crystals which 
make up a sharpening stone or 
grinding wheel, more commonly 
spoken of in connection with artifi- 
cial abrasives. (Pike) 

9. A certificate of ownership in a 
definite portion of a debt due from 
a government, a city, a business cor- 
poration, or an individual. In its 
simplest form it is a. promise to pay 
a stipulated sum on or after a given 
date, and to pay interest or divi- 
dends at a specified rate and. at 
definite intervals. (E. B. Skinner, 
P. 127) 

Bonder. In masonry, a stone or brick 
extending through a wall and bind- 
ing it together; a binding-stone. 
Also called Bondstone. (Standard) 

Bondminder; Bolleyman; Roadman 
(Eng.). A man in charge of the 
rolley way, or main gangway. 

Bondstone. Same as Bonder* 

Bone; Bone coal; Bony. Slaty or ar- 

gillaceous coal, or carbonaceous 

shale occurring in coal seams 

Bone aih. The white* porous residue 
from . calcined bones, composed 
chiefly of calcium phosphate, used 
for making cupels and for cleaning 
jewelry (Webster) . Galled also Bone 

Bone bed (Eng.). A term applied to 
several thin strata or layers, from 
their containing innumerable frag- 
ments of fossil bones, scales, teeth, 
coprolites, and other organic remains 
(Page). Bee also Fish bed, 

Bone black. The black, carbonace- 
ous substance, into which bones are 
converted by calcination in closed 
vessels ; also called Animal black or 
Charcoal. (Webster) 

Bone breccia. A deposit of bones, 
earth, sand, etc. (Webster) 

Bone coal. See Bone. 

Bone earth (Eng.). The earthy 01 
mineral part of bones, which con- 
sists chiefly of calcium phosphate. 

Bone phosphate. The calcium phos- 
phate obtained from bones; also, IP 
commerce, applied to calcium phos- 
phate obtained from phosphatic 
rocks, as of North .Carolina. (Stantf- 

Bone tforcelftlnt A ceramic ware hav- 
ing bone dust as one of Its constitu- 
ents. (Standard) 

Bonete (Mex.). A hat used to catch 
very rich ore as* it is picked down 
with a sharp bar. (Dwight) 

Bomgkal (Straits Set). A gold weight 
equals 832.84 gr. ; 20 bongkals eqnals 
1 catty. (Lock) 

Bongo (Colom.). A wooden bor in 
which the sand from the mill is 
deposited for subsequent treatment. 

Doninite. A glassy. phase of andeslte 
with broneite, augite, and a little oli- 
vine, from the Bonin Islands, Japan. 

Bonito (Mex.), First-class silver ore, 
t. e. t assaying over 1,000 oz. per, ton. 

Bonnet. 1. A covering over a mine 
cage to shield it from objects fall- 
ing down the shaft. (Raymond) 
9w A cover for ti* gauze of a safety 
lamp. (Steel) 



9. A cap-piece for an upright tim- 
ber. (C. and M. M. P.) 
4. (Corn.). The cover of the steam 
chest of an engine. (Crofutt) 

1. See Bell mold. (Gresley ) 

& (Scot). Gas coal or shale over- 
lying and worked along with a coal 
seam. 7. (Scot). A portion of a 
coal seam left for a roof. (Barrow- 

Bonnet roller; Bonnet pulley; Bonnet 
sheaf (Eng.). See Hat roller. 

Bonney (Corn.). An isolated body of 
ore (Raymond). See also Bonny. 

Bonny; Bonney; Bunny (Corn.). A 
mass of ore adjacent to a vein, but 
not distinctly connected with it; a 
great collection of ore without any 
vein coming into or going from it 

Bont (Eng.). 1. The cage and wind- 
ing rope with attachments. (Gres- 

2. (DerbO. A narrowing of a min- 
eral vein. (Hooson) 

Bontle (Mid.). A hoisting cage full of 
men. (Gresley) 

Bony coal. See Bone. 

Boobey (Som.). A box holding 6 to 
8 cwt. of coal in which waste rock 
Is sent to the surface. (Gresley) 

Book clay; Leaf clay. Clay deposited 
in thin leaf -like laminae. (Power) 

Bookstone. See Bibliolite. 

Book structure. A peculiar rock struc- 
ture resulting from numerous paral- 
lel sheets of slate alternating with 
quartz. (Lindgren, p. 154 * 

Book tiles. Flat, hollow shapes, hav- 
ing two segmental edges and re- 
sembling a book in section. (Ries) 

Boolies (No. of Eng.). A collier's 
term for brothers. (Gresley) 

Boom. 1. A long spar or beam pro- 
jecting from the lower end of the 
mast of a derrick, to support or 
guide the body to be lifted or swung. 
2. To develop rapidly in resource and 
population. 3. To cause a rapid in- 
crease in favor or price, as to boom 
a stock. (Webster) 

Boom ditch. 1. The ditch from the 
dam used in booming. 2. A slight 
channel cut down a declivity into 
which is let a sudden head of water 
to cut to bed-rock and prospect from 
the apex of any underlying lode. 

Boomer. See Flop gate. 

Booming. The accumulation and sud- 
den discharge of a quantity of wa- 
ter (in placer mining, where water 
is scarce). See Hushing (Ray- 
mond). In California the contri- 
vances for collecting and discharg- 
ing water are termed "self -shoot- 
ers," an idea suggested by the sud- 
den and violent manner in which 
the water makes its escape. 

Boose (Derb.). Gangue rock mixed 
with ore. See also Bouse. 

Booster. A small amount of high ex- 
plosive attached to a detonator for 
the purpose of increasing the rate 
of detonation of a charge. ( Bowles ) 

Booster-fan. An additional fan placed 
at some point in a mine to assist in 
the ventilation. 

Boot. 1. A leather or tin joint con- 
necting the blast-main with the 
tuyfcre or nozzle in a bloomery. 

2. (Eng.) A short pipe of leather 
through which the water is drawn 
from a sump into a sinking pump. 

8. The casing at the lower end of a 
bucket elevator into which the ma- 
terial to be elevated is fed. 

Bootlt (Derb.). A term used by 
miners for loss, ap "last reckoning 
I bootit it thirty." (Hunt) 

Boot-leg. See Gun. 

Boracite. A borate and chloride of 
magnesium, MgiCl*BiO, occurring 
in hard glassy crystals, and in softer 
white masses. It is strongly pyro- 
electric. (Webster) 

Boratera (Chile). A borax deposit 

Borax. A crystalline sodium biborate. 
NajB 4 O7.10H,O. See also TincaL 

Borax bead. A drop of borax, in 
blowpipe analysis, which, fused 
with a small quantity of a metallic 
oxide, will show the characteristic 
color of the element; as, a blue 
borax bead indicates the presence of 
cobalt. (Standard) 

Borcher's process. An electrolytic 
method for refining silver. The 
anode consists <5f granulated alloys 
containing about 60 per cent pure 
silver. The cathode of sheet silver 
is suspended in a cell with perfo- 
rated double walls on each side. 
The electrolyte is dilute nitric acid 
or a solution of nitrates, preferably 
copper nitrate. (Goesel) 



(Newc.). 1. A passage or breast, 
driven up the slope of the coal from 
the gangway, and hence across the 
grain of the coal (Raymond). A 
bord four or more yards wide is 
called a wide bord, and one less than 
four yards in width is called a nar- 
row bord. Also spelled Board. 2. 
A lateral passage at the place where 
a shaft intersects a coal seam. 

Bord and pillar method. A system of 
mining in which the distinguishing 
feature is the winning of less than 
50 per cent, of coal on the first 
working. It is more an extension 
of the development work than min- 
ing. The second working is similar 
in principle to top slicing. The re- 
mainder of the coal is won by a 
retreating system, the cover being 
caved after each unit has been 
worked. The term "bord and pil- 
lar " is not used to any great extent 
in American mining literature, but 
has a place in English literature 
(Young). Various names have been 
applied to this method as: Checker- 
board system ; Brown panel system ; 
Following up the whole with the 
broken; Lancashire bord and pil- 
lar system ; Modified room and pil- 
lar working; Narrow working; 
North Staffordshire method ; Rearer 
method of working inclined seams; 
Rock-chute mining; Room system; 
Room system with caving; War- 
wickshire method of working con- 
tiguous seams; Wide or square 
work; and Pillar and breast. 

Bord course (Aust). A direction at 
right angles to the main cleat or 
facing, i. e., the length of a bord. 

Bordeta (Sp.). A small pillar in a 
mine. (Crofutt) 

Bord gate (York.). A heading driven 
generally to the rise, out of which 
stalls are opened and worked. 
(Gresley) < 

Bordo (Mex.). 1. A pillar left to sup- 
port vein -matter. 2. A block of 
ground ready for stoping. ( Dwight ) 

Bord room. 1. A heading driven par- 
allel to the natural joints. (Ores- 

t. The space excavated in driving a 
bord. The term is used in connec- 
tion with the "ridding" of the fallen 
stone in old bords when driving 
roads across them in pillar work- 
Ing; thus, "riding across the old 
bord room." (C. and M. M. P.) 
8. (Bng.). The width across an 
old bord. (Bainbridge) 

Bords and longwork (York.). A sys- 
tem of working coal. First, the 
main levels are started on both 
sides of the shaft and carried to- 
ward the boundary. Second, the 
bord gates are worked in pairs to 
the rise and continued as far as 
the boundary, or to within a short 
distance of a range of upper levels 
and other bord gates. Lastly, the 
whole of the pillars and remaining 
coal are worked out downhill to 
within a few yards of the levels, 
and ultimately, all the coal between 
the levels is removed. (Gresley) 

Bord ways course. The direction at 
right angles to the main cleavage 
planes. In some mining districts it 
is termed "on face." (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Bore. 1. To make a hole or perfora- 
tion with a boring instrument; to 
cut a circular hole by the rotary 
motion of a tool, as to bore for wa- 
ter, oil, etc. 2. A hole made by bor- 
ing. See Borehole. 3. A tidal flood 
which regularly or occasionally 
rushes with a roaring noise into 
certain rivers of peculiar configura- 
tion or location, in one or more 
waves which present a very abrupt 
front of considerable height, danger- 
ous to shipping. Also a very high 
and rapid tidal flow. (Webster) 
4. A borehole; also, a tunnel, es- 
pecially during its construction. 

Borebit A rock boring chisel. (Stand- 

Borehole. A hole made with a drill, 
auger or other tools, for exploring 
strata in search of minerals, for 
water supply, for blasting purposes, 
for proving the position of old work- 
ings, faults, and letting off accumu- 
lations of gas or of water (Gres- 
ley). See also Oil well. 

Bore-hole pump. A pump for use in a 
bored well. (Standard) 

Bore meal (Eng.). Mud or fine cut- 
tings from a borehole. (Gresley) 

Borer. 1. An instrument for boring. 

2. (Eng.). A piece of round iron 
with a steel point which is driven 
into the rock to make holes for the 
purpose of blasting (Hunt). See 
also Drill. 

Bore-rod (Newc.). See Boring rod. 

Borgnet furnace. A Belgian zinc dis- 
tillation furnace with a single com- 
bustion chamber. (Ingalls, p. 432) 



Boring. 1.. The act or process of mak- 
ing a hole with a boring tool. 2. A 
hole so made. 3. Material removed 
by boring. (Standard) 

Boring bar. A revolving or stationary 
bar carrying one or more cutters or 
drills for boring. 

Boring bit (Derb.). A sharp piece of 
steel at the end of an auger stem or 
drill for cutting rock or other ma- 
terial ( Min. Jour. ) . See Bit, 1 and 2. 

Boring contract. An agreement entered 
into between a producer and a con- 
tractor for the sinking of oil or gas 
wells on a property. (Mitzakis) 

Boring head. The cutting end of a 
boring tool, especially the cutter 
head of a diamond drill. (Webster) 

Boring journal. A book which con- 
tains an accurate record of the prog- 
ress of the boring work, day by 
day. It Is usually kept by the drill- 
Ing master (Mitzakis). See also 
Log, 3. 

Boring master. A man in charge of a 
well-boring outfit.- 

Boring rod. A rod made up of seg- 
ments, carrying at Its lower end a 
tool for earth boring or rock drill- 
ing. (Webster) 

Borneador (Sp.). A man who turns 
a drill. (Halse) 

Bornear. (Sp.). To turn a drill. 

Bornita (Mex.). Bornite. (Dwight) 

Bornite; Erubescite; Peacock copper 
ore. A sulphide of copper and Iron, 
CuiFeSs. Contains 62 per cent cop- 
per (U. S. Geol. Surv,). Called also 
Horseflesh ore. 

Borolanite. A rare rock related to the 
nephelite-syenites from Borolan, 
Sutherlandshire. Scotland. It has a 
granitoid texture, and consists prin- 
cipally of orthoclase and the variety 
of garnet called melanite. Biotite, 
pyroxene, sodallte, titanite, apatite 
and magnetite are accessory min- 
erals. (Kemp) 

Boron, A nonmetalllc element occur- 
ring only In combination. May be 
obtained with difficulty as an olive- 
green, brown or reddish amorphous 
mass from its oxide, or as octa- 
hedral crystals resembling the dia- 
mond in hardness and other prop- 
erties by heating the amorphous 
boron with aluminum. Symbol, B; 
atomic weight, 11.0; Specific gravity, 

7440100 17 7 

Boronatrocalcita, See Ulexite. 

Borra (Mex.). I. Vein-matter. 2. 
Lead-dross. 3. Barren vein-matter 
or rock; B. de veta, soft rotten 
rock; B. en borra, unproductive 
ground. (Dwight) 

Borrasca (Sp.). In mining, barren 
rock or non-paying ore : opposed to 
bonanza. Also spelled Borasco; 
Boutasque (Standard). An unpro- 
ductive mine. 

Borrow pit. An excavation made by 
the removal of earth, rock, etc., for 
use in filling, as in railroad con- 

Borsella. An instrument for stretch- 
ing or contracting glass in its 
manufacture. (Standard) 

Bort. 1. An impure variety of dia- 
mond (also chips and dust), used 
only for cutting and polishing. 2. 
Carbonado or black diamonds. 

Bosado (Colom.). Alluvial gold. 

Bosh. 1. A trough in which bloomery 
tools (or, in copper smelting, hot 
ingots) are cooled. 2. The portion 
of a shaft furnace in which it 
widens from above the hearth up to 
its maximum diameter. (Raymond) 
3. (Wales). A tank or tub out of 
which horses drink. (Gresley) 

Bosh breakouts. Breakouts of the 
blast, gas, or coke through the bosh 
brickwork of an iron blast furnace, 

Bosh jacket. A water jacket used tor 
cooling the walls of a shaft furnace. 

Bcsh plates. A flat water-cooled cast- 
ing extending from inside to out- 
side face of furnace walls to keep 
them from being softened by heat. 

Bosque (Mex.). A forest; a grove. 

Boss. 1. A person in immediate 
charge of a piece of work, as mine 
foreman. 2. (Ark.). A coal mine 
employee not under the jurisdiction 
of the miner's union. (Steel) 
3. A master workman or superin- 
tendent, a director or manajror ; a 
political dictator. 4. A domelike 
mass of igneous rock congealed be- 
neath the surface and laid bare by 
erosion. 5. The enlarged part of n 
shaft on which n wheel is keyed, 
or nt the end where it Is coupled 
to another. 6. A cast-Iron plate 



secured to the back of a traveling 
forge hearth. 7. A swage or die for 
shaping metals. (Webster) 

8. A heavy cylindrical piece of iron 
(usually cast or steel) into the top 
of which the stamp stem fits and 
into the bottom of which the shoe 
is inserted. It is the body of the 
hammer into which the handle tits 
and which also gives heft to the 
blow. Also called Top head. (Rick- 

9. (Scot). Hollow. The waste or 
exhausted workings of any mineral. 
To hole or undercut. (Barrowman) 

10. A cushion or pad, as of soft 
leather or silk, used for smoothing 
or making uniform the colors ap- 
plied with oil in porcelain and glass 
making. (Webster) 

Boss driver. One in charge of men or 
boys who are driving horses or mules 
for hauling coal, rock, or ore at 

Bossing. 1. (Scot.). The holing or 
undercutting of a thick seam, as of 
limestone, the height of the under- 
cutting being sufficient for a man to 
work in. (Barrowman) 
2. In ceramics, the process of mak- 
ing a coat of color uniform, by dust- 
ing the color on boiled oil, or apply- 
ing it plentifully mixed with oil, and 
tapping to smoothness with a boss 
or pad; ground-laying. See Boss, 
10. 3. A coating of oil to be em- 
ployed as above. (Standard) 

Boss miner. 1. A contract miner. 
2. In Ohio, 1883, a mine boss. (Roy) 

Boss process. A continuous pan-amal- 
gamation process for silver extrac- 
tion. (Liddell) 

Bostonite. A rock occurring in dikes, 
and having the mineralogical and 
chemical composition of trachyte or 
porphyry, except that anorthoclase 
(and therefore soda) is abnormally 
abundant, and dark silicates are 
few or lacking. The name was sug- 
gested by its supposed presence near 
Boston, Mass., but Marblehead, 20 
miles or more distant, is its nearest 
locality. It has been found around 
Lake Champlain and in the neigh- 
boring parts of Canada. (Kemp) 

Bota (Mex.). 1. A bucket made of 
one or more ox skins, to take out 
water.. (D wight) 

2. B. chica, a small leather bag; 
B. ffrande, a large leather bag, 
worked by horse whims, for hoisting 
water. (Min Jour.) 

Botch. A worthless opal. (Power) 

Botc (Mex.). 1. A boat 2. A can. 

3. An ore bucket (Dwight) 

Botryogen. A vitreous hyacinth-red, 
translucent, hydrous magnesium fer- 
ro-ferric sulphate, crystallizing in 
the monoclinic system. (Dana) 

Botryoidal. Having the form of a 
bunch of grapes (Webster). Said 
usually of minerals. 

Botryolite. A radiated, columnar da- 
tolite with a botryoidal surface. 

Bott. 1. A plug of clay at the end of 
a bar, to stop the flow of melted 
metal from a cupola. (Standard) 
2. A cast-iron or forged-steel plug 
mounted on long steel rod that fits 
inside of the cinder tap (Willcox). 
A blast furnace term. 

Botting. Thrusting a bot into the 
tap hole to stop a run of slag or 
metal. (Willcox) 

Bottle coal (Scot). Gas coal. (Bar- 

Bottle jack (Eng.). An appliance^for 
raising heavy weights in a mine. 

Bottle stone. An old name for 
chrysolite, or any other mineral, 
which can be melted directly into 
glass (Chester). See also Bouteil- 

Bottom. 1. The landing at the bottom 
of the shaft or slope. 2. The lowest 
point of mining operations. 3. The 
floor, bottom rock, or stratum un- 
derlying a coal bed. (McNeil) 

4. Low land formed by alluvial de- 
posits along a river. 5. (Aust). 
The dry bed of a river of Tertiary 
age, containing alluvial gold, often 
covered to a great depth by vol- 
canic matter or detritus. Also 
called Gutter. 6. To underrun 
with a level for drainage, etc., as a 
gold deposit which is to be worked 
by the hydraulic method. (Web- 

7. To break the material and throw 
it clear from the bottom or toe of 
the bore hole. (Du Pont) 

8. A mass of impure copper formed 
below the matte, In matting copper 
ores (Weed). See also Bottoms, 2. 

Bottom board (Eng.). The bottom of 
a wagon or trucl v^hich is un- 
fastened by knocking off a catch 
when the wagon Is required to be 
discharged. (G. C. Green well) 

Bottom break. Same as Floor break. 



Bottom eager. A man at the bottom 
of a shaft in a mine to superintend 
the operation of the raising and 
lowering of the cage. (Illinois 
Third Vein Coal Co. v. Cloni, 215 
Illinois, p. 583.) See also Cager. 

Bottom canch. See Canch, 2. 

Bottom coal. Coal below the undercut 
It may or may not be removed. 

Bottom digger. A workman who 
digs out the bottom in an entry in 
thin coal, to give sufficient height for 
the haulage way. 

Bottomer (Eng.). The man stationed 
at the bottom of a shaft in charge 
of the proper loading of cages, sig- 
nals for hoisting of cages, etc. A 
cage or skip tender (Raymond). 
Also called Bottom eager. 

Bottom filler. A man who fills a nar- 
row with ore, coke, or stone, weighs 
it and places it on the cage, or 
elevator to be hoisted to top of the 
furnace. (Willcox) 

Bottom ice. Ground ice; anchor ice. 

Bottoming. 1. The ballasting material 
for making a roadbed; ballast. 2. 
The act of fitting with a bottom or 
performing some basal operation. 

Bottoming hole. The opening at the 
mouth of a furnace, before which a 
flint glass article, In process of 
manufacture, is exposed for soften- 
ing. (Standard) 

Bottom Joint A joint or bedding plane, 
horizontal or nearly so. (C. and 
M. M. P.) 

Bottom lift. The deepest lift of a 
mining pump, or the lowest pump. 

Bottom lifter. One who digs up the 
bottom of a drift, entry, or other 
haulage way to gain head room; 
also called Br usher; Dirt scratcher; 
Groundman; Ripper, and Stoneman. 

Bottom pillars. Large blocks of solid 
coal left unworked around the shaft 
See also Shaft pillar. (Gresley) 

Bottom plate. A plate supporting a 
mold. (Webster) 

Bottoms. 1. (Corn.) The deepest 
mine workings. 2. In copper smelt- 
Ing, the impure metallic copper, or 
cupriferous alloy, which separates 
from the matte, and is found below 
it when there is not enough sulphur 
present to retain in combination all 
the copper. (Raymond) 

Bottom-set beds. The layers of finer 
material carried out and deposited 
on the bottom of the sea or a lake in 
front of a delta. As the delta grows 
forward they are covered by the 
fore-set beds (La Forge). See 
Fore-set beds and Top-set beds. 

Bottom settlings. Earthy matter, In- 
ert organic matter, or, in the case 
of Pennsylvania petroleum, an emul- 
sion of amorphous paraffin wax and 
water, which accompanies crude oil. 

Bottom stewards (York). Under- 
ground mine officials. (Gresley) 

Bottom stone. See Fire clay. 

Bottom water. In oil wells, water that 
lies below the productive sand, and 
is separated from it Compare Top 
water; Edge water. (U. S. Geol. 
Surv. Bull. 658, p. 44.) 

Boucharde (Fr.). A marble- workers 
tool with which the surface of mar 
ble may be roughened or furrowed. 

Bongard marble. A dark-gray and 

white mottled stone with streaks 

and clouds of yellow, brown, and 

pink; from Nassau, Germany. 

Bonking ( Scot. ) . 1. Segments of wood 
or other material used for increas- 
ing the diameter of a drum. 2. To 
coil unevenly on a drum, as the rope 
or cable is not bouking well. (Bar- 

Boulangerite. A massive metallic, blu- 
ish-gray lead-sulphur-antimony min- 
eral, PbsSbiSu. (Dana) 

Boulder. See Bowlder. 
Bonlet (Fr.). A briquet. 

Bouleur (Belg.). A small girl who col- 
lects coal into heaps in the working 
places underground. (Gresley) 

Bounce. 1. A sudden spalling off of 
the sides of ribs and pillars due to 
excessiye pressure; a bump. (C. 
M. P.) 

2. An explosion, or the noise of one. 

Bound (Corn.). An area taken up for 
tin mining; a tin-bound. (Stand- 

Boundary. 1. A line between areas of 
the earth's surface occupied by rocks 
or formations of different type and 
age; especially used in connection 
with geologic mapping, hence, also, a 
line between two formations or car- 



togiaphic n** on * geologic map. 
(La Forge) 

2. That which Indicates or fixes a 
limit or extent or marks a hound, as 
of territory. (Webster) 
Boundary pillar. A pillar left between 
adjoining properties in mines. (Roy) 

Bounder, l. (Corn.) The owner of a 
small patch of ground called a 
"bound." (Davies) 

2. One who, in early times, yearly 
fixed or marked the bounds of tin 
mines in Cornwall. (Standard) 

Bournonite. A sulphide of lead, anti- 
mony, and copper. Approximately 
PbCuSbSs. Sometimes called Wheel 
ore* (Dana) 

Bourse. The Stock Exchange of Paris 
or other cities of Continental 
Europe. (Webster) 

Bouse (No. of Eng.). Ore mixed with 
veinstone; second-class ore, which 
must undergo further preparation 
before going to the smelter. Also 
spelled Boose. (Century) 

Bouse-team (No. of Eng.). The place 
where bouse is deposited outside of 
a mine, ready to be dressed or pre- 
pared for the smelter. (Century) 

Bout. 1. (Mid.) A coil of rope upon 
a drum. 2. (Leic.) A dinner or 
other jollification given by the 
owners or lessees of a colliery to 
their workmen in honor of some 
special event (Gresley). Also 
called Do. 

3. (Derb.) A measure of lead ore; 
twenty-four dishes. (Raymond) 

Bouteillenstein; Bottlestone. A pecu- 
liar green and very pure glass, found 
as rolled pebbles near Moldau, Bo- 
hemia. It is also called Moldavite 
and Pseudochrysolite, the latter 
from its resemblance to olivine. It 
is not certainly a rock, as it may 
be prehistoric slag or glass. (Kemp) 

'Boutgate. 1. (Scot). A road by 
which the miners can reach the sur- 
face. 2. A passage around a shaft 
at a landing. 3. A traveling road 
from one seam to another. (Bar- 
rowman ) 

Bouton (Scot). 1. A mass of roof con- 
sisting of stone or shale. (Gresley) 

2. (Scot). A projecting stone in a 
shaft or underground road. (Bar- 

Bdveda (Sp.) 1. A flue leading to 
stack. 2. An arch of a furnace. 

3. A cave or cavern. 4. A chamber 
deposit. (Halse) 

Boredones (Peru). Large vaulted 
stopes or caves. (Dwight) 

Bovey coal.' A kind of brown coal (of 
the Miocene period) burning with a 
weak flame and generally a dis- 
agreeable odor. Found at Bovey, 
England. (Webster) 

Bow. 1. A short, stout, bowed piece 
of wood with a cutting wire 
stretched between its ends : used in 
working clay in brick making. 

2. (Eng.). The bent iron bar or 
handle of a mine bucket (Gresley) 

Bowenite. An unusually hard mas- 
sive, apple green or greenish-white 
variety of serpentine. (Dana) 

Bower-Barff process. A process for 
producing, upon articles of iron or 
steel, .an adherent coating of the 
magnetic oxide of iron, which is not 
liable to corrosion. (\Vebster) 

Bowk (So. Staff.) 1. A small wooden 
box in which iron ore is hauled un- 
derground. (Raymond) 

2. (Aust.) An iron bucket used for 
raising rock, etc., while sinking. 

3. A report made by the cracking of 
the strata owing to the extraction 

. of the coal beneath. See also Thud. 

4. The noise made by the escape 
of gas under pressure. (G. C. 
Green wall) 

Bowlder, or Boulder. A fragment of 
rock brought by natural means from 
a distance (though this notion of 
transportation from a distance is 
not always, in later usage, involved) 
and usually large and rounded in 
shape. Cobble stones taken from 
river-beds are, in some American 
localities, called bowlders. (Ray- 

Bowlder-belt. A belt of glacial bowl- 
ders of many kinds, derived from 
distant sources and lying transverse 
to the direction of glacial movement. 

Bowlder-clay. The stiff, hard, and 
usually unstratified clay of the drift 
or glacial period, which contains 
bowlders scattered through it; also 
called Till, Hardpan, Drift-clay, or 
simply Drift (Roy. Com.). See also 

Bowlder-cracker. A heavy iron rod to 
be dropped upon a rock encountered 
by the drill in a deep well boring. 

Bowlder-fan. A series of bowlder- 
trains whose lines of direction are 
divergent. (Standard) 



Iderfng-stone. Smooth translu- 
cent flint pebbles, found IB gravel - 
pits and used to smooth the faces 
<xf emery wheels and glazerg by 
abrading any large grains of emery 
or other powder on their surfaces. 

Bowlder motiom (Local, U. S.). A 
arfaee quarry worked only in de- 
tached masses of rock overlying the 
solid rock : sometimes contracted to 
Motion. (Standard) 

Bowlder-pavement A zone of bowl- 
ders, naturally arranged along a 
beach, and derived from contiguous 
beds of bowlder-clay. (Standard) 

Bowlder pop. An alarm given when 
a bowlder is to be broken up by a 
pop shot (Batesell v. American, 
Zinc, Lead, etc. Go., 190 Missouri 
App., p. 236) 

Bowlder quarry. A quarry in which 
the joints are numerou^ and irregu- 
lar, so that the stone is naturally 
broken up into comparatively small 
blocks (Ries). In Tennessee a local 
term applied to certain marble quar- 
ries in the region of Knoxville, 
where erosion has formed many 
large cavities and cracks, between 
which the rock stands up as pin- 
nacles. The cavities are now filled 
with clay. (Bowles) 

Bowlder-train. A train or line of gla- 
cial bowlders of the same sort of 
rock, extending from the source or 
parent ledge, perhaps for many 
miles, in the direction of the ice 
movement (La Forge) 

Bowl metal. The impure antimony ob- 
tained from doubling. See Doubling, 
I. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Bowse; Bouse; Bouze (Derb.). Lead 
ore as cut from the lode. (Ray- 

Box. 1. The part of a wheel which 
fits the axle. 2. The threaded nut 
for the screw of a mounted auger 
drill. More commonly called box- 
ing. (Steel) 

3. A flash or frame for sand mold- 
ing. (Webster) 

4. (Eng.). A vehicle in which 
coal is conveyed from the workifag 
places along the underground road- 
ways and up the shaft A hutch. 

Box barrow. A large wheelbarrow 
with upright sides. (Webster) 

Box-bill. A tool used in deep boring 
for slipping over and recovering 
broken rods. (Raymond) 

Box bottoms (Leic.). The small coal 
or slack produced by breakage In 
transit underground, and by sorting 
at the surface. (Gresley) 

Box canyon. A canyon, from the bot- 
tom of which four almost vertical 
walls appear on all four sides, as 
a result of the canyon's zigzag 

Boxed-off. Inclosed or protected by ft 
wooden pipe or partition. (Gres- 

Boxes (Penn.). Wooden partitions 
for conducting the ventilation front 
place to place. (Gresley) 

Box-groove. A closed groove between 
two rolls, formed by a collar on one 
roll, fitting between collars on an- 
other. (Raymond) 

Box hardening. A process of case 
hardening by cementation in an Iron- 
box. (Webster) 

Boxing. A method of securing shafts 
solely by slabs and wooden pegs. 
(C, and M. M. P.) 

Box metal. A brass, bronze, or anti- 
friction alloy used for the journal 
boxes of axles or shafting. (Cen- 

Box timbering. Same as Plank tim- 
bering. (Raymond) 

Boya (Peru). A rich vein or pocket 
of ore. (D wight) 

Brace. 1. (Corn.) The mouth of a 
shaft. (Webster) 

2. The platform, collar, or landing 
at the mouth of a shaft (Roy. 

3. A rigid piece, as of timber, to 
hold something, as parts of a frame, 
firmly in place. Especially, a 
framed diagonal piece in an angle ; 
a strut (Standard) 

4. (Scot). An old measure of 
weight. The Hurlet brace was 
equal to 4 cwt (Barrowman) 

Brace head. A cross-attachment at the 
top of the column of rods in deep 
boring, by means of which the rods 
and bit are turned after each drop. 
(Raymond). Same as Topit 

Brace key. Same as Brace head. 

Brachy axis. The shorter lateral axis 
in the crystals of the orthorhomblc 
and triclinic systems. (Webster) 

Brachydiagonal. In crystallography, 
1. Of or pertaining to the shorter 
lateral axis. 2. The shorter lateral 
axis. See Brachy axis. (Standard^ 



Bracaydome. In crystallography, a 
dome parallel to the brachydiagonal. 

Brachypinacoid. A plnacold parallel 
to the vertical and brachydiagonal 
axes. (Standard) 

Braehypyramid. A pyramid whose in- 
tercept on the brachydiagonal is 
less than unity. (Standard) 

Brachytypous. In crystallography, 
comparatively short. (Standard) 

Bracket. A platform over a shaft en- 
trance. (Standard) 

Bradenhead. In oil-well drilling, an 
iron or steel head screwed into the 
top of the casing. The inner, pipe 
projects up through it and is packed 
with some pliable substance, prefer- 
ably rubber. The bradenhead is 
used to confine gas between the tub- 
ingv and casing, or between two 
strings of casing, and has an outlet 
through which gas may : be. piped 
away. More commonly called Stuf- 
fing-box casirig'head. 

Bradenhead gas. In oil wells, natural 
gas inclosed or confined by a braden- 
head. It applies to all this gas thai 
lies above the oil and through 
which the drill must go 'to Teach 
the lower -and more profitable oil 

Bradford preferential separation proc- 
ess.. A flotation process for the 
treatment of mixed sulphides, it) 
which is added certain mineral 
salts, such as thiosulphates, to the 
water used in the flotation cells. 
The addition of the salt causes the 
zinc sulphide to be "wetted " while 
the lead sulphide and pyrlte float 
The separation of the zinc mineral 
from the gangue is effected later. 

Brae (Scot). 1. A hillside, a slope, 
a bank, a hill. 

2. An inclined roadway, more com- 
monly used in the compound form, 
e. g., pulley-brne, cuddy-brae. 

3. Wood imperfectly bnrned in a 
charcoal pit. (Webster) 

BragnetiUa (Peru). A smelting fur- 
nace ; the simplest being merely a 
hole in the ground. (Dwlght) 

Braird (Scot). To increase the 
height of the holing or undercutting. 

Brairding (Scot). The height of 
holing or undercutting at front. 

Brait. A rough, diamond. (Standard) 

Braise. A variant of 
dust of charcoal which accumulates 
around the furnaces of charcoal 
works ; coal dust ; coke dost (Cen- 

Brake. 1. (Bng.) A stout, tfooden 
lever tc which boring; rods are at- 
tached. It is worked by one or more 
men. . (No. Staff:). Td lower 
trams on dips by means of a wheel 
and rope. (Gresley) 
S. Any device for retarding or Jrtop- 
ping by, fxictton, as .* block, lev** 
or,, ba.nd^ .applied to , the rim of a 
head prxfruwocjthe axfeof a wh*eL 

beam. The beam t$at eonnaete 
tbe, brake blocks, of opposite wheels. 

Brake bldcfcf. That Itort a brake 
holding the brake shoe, or the shoe 
itself. (Webster) 

BraJte hanger. A bar or link suspend- 
ing brake beams. (Webster) ; 

?** horse power* , The actual power 
given out by a < engine or other 
motor calculated i frotn (1) the 
force -exerted on a frictic brake, 
(2) tii<? effective radius of thia force, 
and (3> the speed of the flywheel 
pi! brake wheel. < Webster-) . 

Brakeman. 1. A man in cnarge of a 
brake or brakes, as oa a railroafl 
car or in a mine. ( Standard }. 
2. (Eng.) The man in charge of 
a winding (hoisting) engine for a 
mine. Brakeninn is usually used in 
the United States;* buakesman is 
British usage (Webster). T^e, man 
in Charge of hoisting engines, 'e^e- 
cially in the .United Stages,, is usu- 
ally called a hoisting engineer. 

Brake power. See Brake horse power. 

Brake shoe. That part of a brake 
which rubs against some part of- the 
machine, .or some object outside of 
the machine having a relative mo- 
tion to the shoe,, a^ dwbeel or the 

Brake sieve; A Jigger, 'Operated by a 
hand lever. (Raymond) 

Brake s^nan (Eng,), See Brakemah. 

Brake rtafE (Bng.). fiee Brake, 1; 
also Breakstaff. 

Brake wheel. 1. A hand wheel for 
operating a brake/ as on a vehicla. 
2. A wheel or pulley on. which a 
friction brake acts. 3. A heavy 
wheel provided with cams for con- 
trolling the movement of a trip ham- 
mer. (Webster) 



Ivamoes. See Brasses, 1. 

Branch. 1. (Som.) An underground 
road or heading driven ip coal 
measures. 2. An underground road- 
way turned from a level, etc. 

8. (Corn.). A. small vein deporting 
from the main lode, and in some 
cases returning. (Raymond) 

Braachite. A hydrocarbon mineral 
from the brown coal of Mt Vaso in 
Tuscany. (Bacon) 

Breach tope ( Aust) . See- District rope. 
Brandcrs (Scot). Furnace oars. 

Brandric (Derb.>. An iron guide at 
the foot of a pump to make the 
chain enter and prevent wearing. 

Bcan&erite. A. complex- black opaque 
titanate of uranium and other ele- 
ments in which the weight of uran- 
ium exceeds that of titanium. Ex- 
cepting pitchblende, it is the most 
radioactive opaque mineral* known. 
It contains Approximately 43.8 per 
cent uranium oxides^ 39 per cent 
titanium oxide, 3.9. p^r cent yttri^ 
earths, 4.1 per cent tbpria, and small 
quantities, of several other oxides. 
From the placers of Stanley Basin, 
Named for Dr, Jf. C, Branner. 

Brard's .process. A method adopted by 
M. Brard to discover in a short time 
the. relative resistance ,offere4 by 
different kinds of rock to the action 
of moisture and. frosk and therefore 
to determine their durability with 
reference to exposure* (Page) 

Bra sea (Sp.). Brasque; a mixture, of 
powdered charcoal and refractory 
earth, used as a furnace-bottom lin- 
ing. (Halse) 

Brash. 1. A mass of loose or broken 
fragments of rocks resulting from 
weathering* or disintegration 6ft tire 
spot. 2. Brittle, (Century) 

Brashy. Resemblipg,' or the nature of 
brash or broken fragments ; crumbly. 

Brasque. <Fr.) . A paste made, by mix- 
ing powdered charcoal, coal, o* coke 
with clay, molasses, tar, x>r other 
suitable substance. It is used for 
lining hearths, crucibles, etc, Also 
called Steep. (Webster) 

Brasqned crucible. 'A crucible lined 
with charcoal or lampblack, and 
used for the reduction of oxides of 
metals to the metallic state. The 
crucible is prepared by ramming it 
fall of lampblack or charcoal, and 
then excavating a portion of its con- 

tents and polishing the lining witbr 
a burnisher. (Jackson) 

Brass. 1. An alloy of copper and zinc. 
. See Brasses, 1. 

Brass balls. Nodular py rite. (Power) 

Bras* binder (Corn.). A thin pyrUout 
grit (Power) 

Brasses. 1. (Eng. and Wales). Pyrite 
(sulphide of iron) in coal. (Ray* 

2. Fittings of brass in bearing 
blocks, etc.,, for diminishing the fric- 
tion of revolving journals that rest 
upon them. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Bxassf ounder's ague, A form of chills 
;an<a fever common among brass 
founders and others exposed to the 
fumes of &inc. (Standard) 

Brass furnace. One of tw6 kinds of 
furnaces 'for the making and found- 
ing of brasw. (a) A .reverberafcory 
furnace for large quantities of the 
alloy, (b) A crucible furnace for 
.small quantities. (Century) 

Brassil; Brazil, 1.. Iron pyrlte. 

2. Coal containing pyrite. (Stand? 

Brass toe. An early name for aurt- 
chalcite (Chester). A basic car- 
bonate of zinc and copper. 

Brass powder. 1. A pulverized mix- 
ture of copper filings and ocher. 
2. Pulverized brass filings. (Stand- 

Brassy top (Augt.). The top part of 
the Greta coal seam, in which them 
are large quantities of sulphide .of 
(rcto. (Power) 

Brat (Eng.; and Wales) . A thin bed 
of coal mied with pyrite, or with 
calcium carbbnatei. ! ( Raymond ) 

Brattice. 1. A board or plank lining, 
or other partition, in any mine- pa*- 
sage to confine the air and force it 
into the working places. Its object 
isvto keep the Intake air from finding 
its way by a short route into the 
return airway (Chance) . Also writ- 
ten Brettice, Brettis, Brattish. Tem- 
porary brattices are often made 'of 
cloth. See Brattice cloth. 

2. ( Mid. ) . A built-up pillar ot cord- 
wood sometimes like a large chock 
(which see), and serving a similar 
purpose. (Gresley > 

3. Planking to support a wan or roof. 

4. To provide with a brattice, far 
separation or support. Frequently 
called Brattice, up. (Webster) 



Brattice cloth. A heavy canvas, often 
covered with some water proofing 
material, for temporarily forcing 
the air into the face of a breast or 
heading; also used in place of doors 
on gangways ; then known as 
** sheets." (Chance) 

Brattice man. A person who assists 
the fire boss in constructing brat- 
tices. (Steel) 

Brattice road. A road through the 
goaf supported by chocks or timber 
packs. (Gresley) 

Brattice trick (Aust). A trick played 
on inspectors when measuring the 
air in a mine, the quantity of air 
being reduced in some districts be- 
low its normal amount, in order to 
increase it in the district being 
tested. Usually effected by placing 
a piece of brattice cloth across one 
of the return airways. (Power) 

Brattice wall. The bratticed side of 
an aircourse or roadway. (Ores- 

Bratticing; Brattishing. A partition in 
a mine to form an 'air passage. 

Brattish. A variation of Brattice. 

Braunite. A somewhat variable man- 
ganese silicate, approximately 3Mnr- 
O.MnSiO.. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Braze. To solder with hard solder 
which usually is copper and zinc 
half and half. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Braze-jointed. United by a brazed 
joint or joints. (Webster) 

Brazen dish (Eng.). The brass gage, 
or standard, used in the Low Peak 
district, Derbyshire, about 1,500. 
The miners formerly measured lead 
ore in this dish. It had a capacity 
of 8 quarts, and was chained at a 
certain public place. (Hunt) 

Brazier* 1. An artificer who works 
in brass. 2. A pan for holding burn- 
ing coals. (Webster) 

Brazil; Brazzil. Pyrlte. (Raymond) 

Brazilian chrysolite. A jeweler's 
name for yellowish-green tourmaline, 
cut as a gem. (Chester) 

Brazilian emerald. A green variety of 
tourmaline. (Power) 

Brazilian pebble. A colorless trans- 
parent quartz, such as is used for 
optical purposes. (Chester) 

Brazilian ruby. A light rose -red 
spinel ; or a topaz approaching a 
red color. (Power) 

Brazilian sapphire. A blue variety of 
tourmaline. (Power) 

Brea. 1. Sand or soil impregnated with 
petroleum from seepages, the vola- 
tile constituents having evaporated. 

2. Maltha or mineral tar. (Web- 

Breach. 1. An opening made by break- 
ing down a portion of a solid body, 
as a wall, a dike, or a river bank; 
a break; a gap. (Century) 
2, The face of a level or drift 

Break. 1. A fault; rupture, fracture. 

2. A crack or small natural cavity 
or fracture in a coal seam. 8. A 
crack, often several inches in wiilth, 
proceeding from old workings or 
hollows, (Gresley) 

4. To come apart or divide into 
two or niore pieces, usually with 
suddenness and violence ; to part, 
to buKst asunder. (Webster) 

5. (Scot.). A reduction of the day's 
wage. ( Barrowman ) 

Break line. 1. The line in which the 
roof of a coal mine is expected to 
break. 2. The line of complete ex- 
traction of coal. 8. A line roughly 
following the rear edges of the pil- 
lars that are being drawn or mined. 

Breakage clause (Eng.). A clause in- 
serted in some mining leases pro- 
viding for an abatement of. royalty 
or allowance on weight for a cer- 
tain weight of small coal or break- 
age sent out in every ton of large 
coal, e. g., 120 Ib. in every collier's 
ton of 2,640 Ib. ( Gresl ey ) 

Breakback. The fractures caused by 
the shattering of a solid rock ledge 
back of the drill holes in which the 
charge is placed. (Bowles) 

Breaker. 1. In anthracite mining, the 
structure in which the coal is 
broken, sized, and cleaned for mar- 
ket. Known also as Coal breaker. 

2. A machine for breaking rocks or 
for breaking coal. (Webster) 
8. (No. of Eng.) A large crack 
formed in the roof next to the goaf. 
See Break, 1. 4. (Som.) A coal 
miner or hewer. 5. (Italy) A col- 
lier who wedges down coal and fills 
it into cars. (Gresley) 
8. A wave breaking into foam 
against the shore, or against a sand 
bank, or a rock or reef near the 
surface. 7. A transverse ridge in a 
road to facilitate drainage. (Web- 



Breaker boy. A boy who works in a 
coal breaker. See Breaker, 1. 

Breakes (Eng.). Fissures in old coal 
workings (Bainbridge). See also 
Break, 3. 

Break-in (Som.). To commence to 
hole. (Gresley) 

Breaking. 1. (Eng.) The breaking 
of poor or dradgy ore by hand with 
flat irons, called breaking hammers. 

8. (Can.) The poor part of ore 
ready for crushing. (Morine) 

Breaking band (Scot.). A method of 
setting or fixing props in the work- 
ings, in lines running diagonally to 
the line of the face or wall (Ores- 
ley). Compare Breaking prop. 

Breaking-down machine (Eng.). A 
mechanical appliance, worked by 
compressed air, or by hydraulic 
power, for bringing down the coal 
after holing. (Gresley) 

Breaking-down rolls. The first set of 
rolls through which hot iron is 
passed in a rolling mill (Standard). 
Called also Roughing rolls; Rough- 
ing-down rolls. 

Breaking-iii shot The first bore hole 
fired in "blasting off the solid" to 
provide a space into which mate- 
rial from subsequent shots may be 
thrown (Du Pqnt). Also called 
Opening shot; Buster shot 

Breaking load. The steady and gradu- 
ally applied load under which a 
material of construction will break 
asunder or collapse. (Webster) 

Breaking prop (Ark.). One of a row 
of props of sufficient strength to 
cause the rock above the coal to 
break and so limit the area of top 
brought down by a brushing shot 
(Steel). Compare Breaking band. 

Breaking strain; Breaking strength; 
Breaking stress. Thfc least load that 
will break a rope. These terms are 
used 1 indiscriminately to mean the 
load that wilt break a rope. Th* 
stress on a rope at the moment of 
breaking is the breaking stress, and 
the strain or deformation produced 
in the material by this stress is the 
breaking strain. (C. M. P.) 

Breaking-lip (Clev.). A system of em- 
ployment under which a skilled 
miner engages an unsMUjd man, the 
former paying the latter a mere la- 
borer's wage until he becomes an ex- 
perienced miner. (Gresley) 

Break in lode. A fault (Duryee) 

Breakoff. 1. (Eng.). A short narrow 
heading driven from one road to 
another ; a breakthrough. (Gresley) 
2. (Derb.). An alteration in the 
rein due to an intrusion of barren 
rock, or to a fault (Hooson) 

Breakout Escape of gas, coke, slag,, 
or iron from the bosh, tuyere, breast,, 
or hearth of a blast furnace. (Will- 

Breakstaff. The lever for blowing a 
blacksmith's bellows, or for working: 
bore rods up and down (C. and 
M. M. P.) 

Break-through. 1. A narrov,- passage. 
cut through the pillar to allow the- 
ventilating current to pass from one- 
room to another. Also called a 
Crosscut, or Room crosscut Larger 
than a dog hole. (Steel) 
2. Ah opening accidentally made be- 
tween two workings. 

Break-up. 1. (Eng.). An excavation* 
commenced from the bottom of a 
tunnel heading and carried upward,. 
so as to form two interior working: 
faces. (Simms) 

2. (Mid.). To cut away and remove- 
the floor of an entry or other open- 
ing. (Gresley) 

3. The thawing and. breaking of ice- 
on a river or other body of water 
with the advent of spring. 

Breakwater. A structure or contriv- 
ance, aa a mole, mound, or wall* 
serving to break the force of wave* 
and protect a harbor or anything: 
exposed to the force of the waves- 

Breast. 1. The face of a working. 
i. In coal mines, a. chamber driven 
in the seam from the gangway, lor 
the extraction of coal. 3. That side 
of the hearth of a shaft furnace- 
which contains the . metal notch. 

4. (Italy). A stall in a steep. seam 
from 12 to 18 yards wide. The stall* 
are carried one above another front 
the lowest level to the rise. 5. 
(Leic.). To take down or get a 
buttock (face) of coal end-on. (Gres- 

6. That part of the *>edplate whlclv 
is back of the crossheads in engines 
of the Corliss type. (Crofutt) 
Breast- and-pillar (Penn.). A system 
of working anthracite coal by bord 
10 yards in width, with narrow pil- 
lars 5 yards wide between thenv 
holed through nt certain intervals. 
See Bord-and-pillar. The breasts 
are worked from the dip to the rise. 



Breast auger. An auger supported by 
a breast plate against the miner's 
"body. Used for drilling holes in 
soft coal. (Steel) 

Breast boards. Planking placed be- 
tween the last set of timbers and 
the face of a gangway or heading 
which is in quicksand or loose 
ground. (Raymond) 

Breast-bore (Scot). A borehole put 
in parallel with the seam, made and 
kept in advance of a working-place, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the 
position of old works, tapping wa- 
ter, letting off gas, etc. (Gresley) 

Breast-eyes (Lane.). See Day, 1; Day 
eyes, also Day-hole. 

Breast-heads. Natural Joints in rock, 
coal, etc. (Gresley) 

Breast holes, Relief holes used in tun- 
neling, and which are fired after the 
bottom cut. (Du Pont) 

Breasting. 1. (No. Staff.) A short 
leading stall, worked at right angles 
to and forming the face of the main 
levels. 2. A wide heading or level. 
(Gresley) A, 

3. ( Eng. ) Taking ore from the face 
or head of a drift. (Skinner) 

Breastplate. A slightly curved iron 
plate fastened to the end of a coal 
auger to enable the miner to press 
the auger forward with his body. 

Breast sloping. A method of stop- 
ing employed on veins where the dip 
is not sufficient for the broken ore 
to be removed by gravity. The ore 
remains close to the working-face 
and mujt be loaded into cars at that 
point (Crane). See also Over- 
hand stnping. 

Breast wall (feng.). A wall built to 
prevent the falling ot a vertical face 
cut nto the natural soil. (C. and 
M. M. P.) 

Breast wheel. A tyfce o water wheel 
on which the water Is led at about 
half the height of f&e .wheel. The 
water acts partly by Impulse and 
partly by weight as it descends in 
the buckets. (Webster) 

Breather (Eng.). An apparatus en- 
abling a man to enter and explore 
underground workings filled with 
noxious gases. (Gresley* 1883) 

Breccia. A fragraental rock whose 
components are angular and there- 
fore, as distinguished from conglom- 
erates, are not water-worn. There 
are friction or fault breccias, talus- 
breccias and eruptive breccias. The 
word is of Italian origin. (Kemp) 

Breccia marble. Any marble made up 
of angular fragments. (Merrill) 

Brecciated. Converted into, or resem- 
bling, a breccia. (Webster) 

Brecciated vein. A fissure filled with 
fragments of rock in the interstices 
of which vein matter is deposited. 
(Shamel, p. 146) 

Brecha. 1. (Mex.) Breccia. 2. 
(Colom.) An open trench or cut 
leading to the mouth of an adit; or 
a channel by .which pay gravel is 
led to the ground sluice. 3. (Port.) 
A prospecting cut. (Halse) 

Breeching. 1. (Mid.) Drawing loaded 
trams down hill underground. 

2. That part of a harness which 
passes round the breech of a horse, 
enabling him to hold back a vehicle. 

3. The sheet-iron casing at. the end 
of boilers to convey the smoke from 
the flues to the smokestack. (Web- 

Breeding-fire (So. Staff.). Sponta- 
neous combustion in a mine. See 
also Gob fire. (Gresley) 

Breese. See Breeze. 

Breeze. 1. (Eng.) Small coke. Prob- 
ably connected, perhaps interchange- 
able, with Braize, and both with the 
Fr. Braise, to cook over live coals. 

2. (Scot.) Fine or slack coal. 

Breeze oven. 1. An oven for the 
manufacture of small coke. 2. A 
furnace designed to consume breeze 
or coal dust. (Century) 

Breithanptite. Nickel antimonide 
NiSb). See also Niccolite. (Dana) 

Brelho (Port.). A pebble; a small 
stone. (Halse) 

Bremen blue. See Verditer, 3. 

Brenner (Eng). A smelter (Bain- 
bridge). An old variant derived 
from the word burn. A burner. 

Brenston. See Brimstone. 
Brettice; Brettis. See Brattice. 
Brettice cloth. See Brattice cloth. 

Brettis (Derb.). A crib of timber 
filled up with slack or waste (Ray- 
mond). See also Brattice, 3. 

Brettis-way (Derb.). A road in a coal 
mine, supported by brattices built 
on each side after the coal has been 
worked out (Raymond). See also 
Brattice, 3. 



Breunnerite. A variety of magnesite 
containing several per cent of FeO. 

Brick. A building and paving mate- 
rial made from clay by molding into 
blocks while moist, and hardening 
It in the sun or by fire. (Webster) 

Brick ax. A two-edged ax used for 
cutting off bricks. (Webster) 

Brick clamp. A stack of bricks for 
burning, in layers alternating with 
layers of breeze, or fine coal and 
cinders. (Standard) 

Brick clay. Any clay that can be 
used for brick manufacture. (Ries) 

Brick coal (Eng.). Small, dirty coal 
suitable for brick kilns and similar 
purposes. ( Gresley ) 

Brick earth. Clay or earth for making 
bricks. (Webster) 

Brickfield; Brickyard. A field or yard 
where bricks are made. (Century) 

Brick fuel (Wales). Patent fuel; a 
synonym for Briquet. 

Bricking. The walling or casing of a 
shaft. (Gresley) 

Brick kiln. 1. A structure of unburned 
brick built into flues and chambers 
through which heat passes from a 
fire below, burning the brick. 2. A 
permanent structure, having stacks 
or chimneys, in which unburned 
bricks are burned by heat from a 
central source. (Standard) 
3. A pile of green bricks arched un- 
derneath to receive the fuel for 
burning them. (Webster) 

Brick layer's itch. An itching 
eczema of the hands occurring 
among bricklayers, caused by con- 
tact with lime. (Webster) 

Brick machine. An apparatus for 
molding bricks. (Century) 

Brick red. A dark orange-red like that 
of common bricks. (Webster) 

Brickstone (Prov. Eng.). A brick. 

Brickyard. A place where bricks are 
made. (Standard) 

Bridge. 1. A low separating wall, 
usually of fire brick, in a reverbera- 
tory furnace betweeh the hearth and 
the grate (fire bridge) or some- 
times between the hearth and the 
flue (flue bridge). Often called 
bridge wall. 2. A plank way or 
platform to convey fuel or ore to 
the mouth of a furnace. 3. A de- 
vice to measure the resistance of a 

wire or other conductor forming a 
part of an electric circuit (Web- 

4. A piece of timber held above the 
cap of a set by blocks and used to 
facilitate the driving of spiling In 
soft or running ground. (Sanders) 

5. See Air crossing. 

6. (Eng.). A platform mounted on 
wheels, for covering the mouth of a 
shaft when landing coal, rock, or 
men at surface. (Gresley) 

Bridge operator. One who operates an 
ore bridge of the Gantry crane 
type. (Willcox) 

Bridge rails (Aust.). Rails made in 
the form of an inverted U, generally 
in short lengths, which are light 
to handle, and .can be brought 
within 'easy shoveling distance of 
the face. (Power) 

Bridge wire. The fine platinum wire 
which is heated by the passage of 
an electric current to ignite the 
priming charge of an electric blast- 
ing cap, an electric squib or simi- 
lar devices. (Du Pont) 

Bridgman sampler. A mechanical de- 
vice which automatically selects 2 
samples as the ore passes through. 
(Hofman, p. 59) 

Bridle bar. The transverse bar con- 
necting the points of e tramway 
switch (C. M. P.). See also Bridle 

Bridle chains. Safety chains to sup- 
port the cage if the shackle should 
break, or to protect a train of cars 
on a slope should the shackle or 
drawbar fail. 

Bridle iron. A strong flat iron bar so 
bent as to support, as in a stirrup, 
one end of a floor timber, where no 
sufficient bearing can be had; (Web- 

Bridle rod. An iron tiebar used to 
join the ends of two switch rails to 
hold them to gage (Webster). A 
bridle bar. 

Brier (No. of Eng.). A beam or girder 
fixed across a shaft top. (Gresley) 

Briggs' standard. A list of pipe sizes, 
thickness, threads, etc., compiled by 
Robert Briggs about 1862 and sub- 
sequently adopted as a standard. 
(Nat Tube Co.) 

Brightening. See Blick. 

Bright-head (York). A smooth part- 
ing or Joint in coal. A plan* of 
cleavage. (Gresley) 



Bright rope. Rope of any construc- 
tion, whose wires have not been gal- 
vanized, tinned, or otherwise coated. 
(C. M. P.) 

Brilliant. A diamond of the finest cut, 
rellecting and refracting light by 
means of the faces and facets 
formed upon it. (Standard) 

Brillo (Mex.). Luster. (Dwight) 

Brimstone. A common name for sul- 

Brine. Water strongly impregnated 
with salt (Webster) 

Brine pit. A salt spring or well from 
which water is taken to be boiled 
or evaporated for making salt. 

Brine spring. A spring of salt water. 

Bring-back (Eng.). To work away 
the pillars of coal from the boundary 
toward the shaft bottom. (Gresley) 

Brin's process. A process for manufac- 
turing oxygen, in which barium 
monoxide is converted into dioxide 
by heating in air, and the dioxide 
by further heating is decomposed 
into the monoxide and .oxygen. 

Briolette (Fr.). An oval or pear- 
shaped diamond having its entire 
surface cut in triangular facets. 

Briquet. 1. Fuel consisting of slack, 
or coke breeze, with usually some 
binding material, and pressed into 
lump form; also called Coalette, 
Egette. Boulet, and Oarbonet. 

2. An artificially compressed block, 
as of ore, coal dust, etc. (Stand- 

Briquettes (Fr.). See Brick fuel; 
also Briquet. 

Brlscale (It.). A gypsiferous deposit 
occurring at the outcrop of the sul- 
phur deposits of Sicily. (W. C. 
Phalen, mineral technologist, U. S. 
Bur. Mines.) 

Bristol diamond. A fine transparent 
variety of crystallized quartz. Also 
called Irish diamond. (Power) 

Bristol stone. 1. Brick-like blocks of 
very fine sand used for polishing 
and scouring. 2. Bristol diamonds, 
or small well-defined crystals of 
quartz from Bristol. (Standard) 

Britannia. An alloy, made of tin with 
varying proportions of copper and 
antimony (Standard). Called also 
Britannia metal, and Tutania. 

Britching ( Scot. ) See Breeching. 2. 

British; Brettys (Scot). A variation 
of Brattice. 

British barilla. Same as Black ash. 

British plate. Albata, an alloy of 
nickel, copper, and zinc. (Stand- 

British thermal unit. The y^ quan- 
tity of heat required to raise the 
temperature of one pound of water 
from 32 to 212 F. ; substantially 
equal to that required to raise the 
temperature of one pound of water 
from 63 to 64 F. (G. A. Good- 
enough, Mech. Eng. Handbook, 1916, 
p. 295) Abbreviated as B. t u. 

Brittle. Easily broken; not tough or 
tenacious. ( Da na * 

Brittle mica. A synonym for Marga- 

Brittle silver ore. A synonym for 

Broach. 1. A sharp-pointed chisel for 
rough r dressing of stones. 2. A 
reamer, 3. To shape roughly, as a 
block of stone, by chiseling with a 
coarse tool. (Webster) 

Broaching. Trimming or straightening 
a mine working. (Morrison) 

Broaching-bit. A tool used to restore 
the dimensions of a bore hole which 
which has been contracted by the 
swelling of the marl or clay walls; 
also used to break down the inter- 
vening rock between two contiguous 
drill holes. A reamer. 

Broadgate (Eng.). A main working. 

Broadstone bind (Eng.). Shale or 
clay which breaks up into large 
blocks or slabs. (Gresley) 

Broadwall (No. of Eng.). See Long- 

Brob. 1. A heavy spike, driven 
alongside the end of an abutting 
timber to prevent its slipping. 

2. (Mid.). A short thick timber 
prop or sprag for supporting the coal 
while it is being holed. (Gresley) 

Broca (Mex.). A drill bit (Dwight) 
Brocal (Sp.). The first set of shaft 
timbers; the collar; B. del tiro, the 
mouth of a shaft; B. del pozo, a 
well curb, or mouth of a well. 

Brocar (Port). To bore or drill. 



Brocatelit marble. A variety of mar- 
ble from the French Pyrenees. 
The body of the stone is fine, com- 
pact and of light-yellow color 
traversed by veins and dull-red 
blotches. The name signifies a 
coarse kind of tapestry, which it 
otnewhat resembles (Merrill ) . See 
alto BroccatelLo, the Italian term. 

BroecAtello. An Italian word for a 
brecciated and variegated marble 
(Kemp). See also Brocatelle, the 
French tera>. 

Brochantit. A basic sulphate of cop- 
per, CuSO3Cu(OH),. (U. S. Geol 

Brdnrorlte. A radioactive mineral 
provisionally classified as a variety 
of uraninite. It occurs in octahedral 
crystals. Sp. gr., 9.08. (Webster) 

Broil (Corn.), A collection of loose 
rock fragments usually discolored by 
oxidation, and indicating the pres- 
ence of a mineral vein beneath ; out- 
crop; gossan (Century). Also 
spelled Bryle, Broyl. 

Broken. 1. (Eng.). That part of a 
mine where the mineral has already 
been partly worked away, and where 
the remainder is in course of being 
extracted. (Gresley) 
2. The dislocation of a vein OK 
faulting. (Weed) 

Broken ashlar. Ashlar in which the 
stones are rectangular, but of dif- 
ferent sizes and shapes. (Webster) 

Brokem charge. A charge of explosive 
in a drill hole divided into two or 
more parts that are separated toy 
stemming. (Bowles) . 

Broken coal In anthracite only; 
coal that is small enough to pass 
through a 8| to 4-inch (square) 
aperture, but too large to pass 
through a 2| or 2}-inch mesh. 
Smaller than steamboat, and larger 
than egg coal. (Chance) 

Broken groud. 1. Rock strata where 
the walls are poorly defined and 
the general formation shattered. 

. (Eng.). Faulty or unproductive 
measures. (Gresley) 

Broken-range wors. Masonry - work 
made of squared stones in courses 
of uneven heights. (Standard) 

Broken skip (Aust). A skip (car) 
from which some of the coal has 
fallen off in transit leaving only a 
part of a skip load. (Power) 

See Bromyrtte. 

Bromine. One of the elements, which 
Is at ordinary temperature, a deep 
reddish-brown caustic liquid of ' a 
very disagreeable odor. Symbol, 
Br: atomic weight 79.92; specific 
gravity, 8.2. (Webster) 
It does' not occur native but is de- 
rived in large quantities from brines, 
Tts form of occurrence in the bribes 
is unknown. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Bromite. Same as Bromyrite. 

Bromlite. A barium-calcium carbo- 
nate (Ba,Ca)CO, from Bromley Hill. 
Eng. Also called Alstonlte. (Wetf 

Bromyrite. A silver bromide, AgBr, 
containing 57 per cent, silver. (TJ. 
S. Geol Surv.) 

Bronee (Sp.). Iron or copper pyritee. 
Bronze.. Any mineral like bronze or 
brass in appearance. (Halse) 

Bronco (Mex.). Wild, loose. Roof- 
rock, liable to fall (Dwight) * 

BrongniardlU. A lead-silver sul- 
phantimonide, PbAgiSbjS*. Contains 
26.2 per cent, silver. (U. S. GoL 

Bronquear (Mex.). To hammer or pry 
with hammer or gad in rock which 
is loose and liable to fall. (Dwight) 

Brontolith. A meteoric stone; a thun- 
der-stone. (Standard) 

Bronze. An alloy of copper and tin. 

Bronze-gold. Any bronze resembling 
gold in color. (Standard) 

Bronze mica. A synonym for Phlogo- 

Bronze steel. An alloy, of copper, tin, 
and iron: used as gun metaL 

Bronzite. 1. A ferriferous variety ojf 
enstatlte often having a bronze-like 
luster. (Webster) 
2. Is often used as a prefix to the 
names of rocks containing the min- 
eral. Rocks of the gabbro family 
are the commonest ones that haw 
the prefix. (Kemp) 

Bronzitite. An igneous rock composed 
wholly of bronzite. (Standard) 

Bronzndos (Mex.). yriUc ores. 

Brooch (Corn). A' mixture of various 
ores. (Power) 

Broaching. See Broaching. 




Brood (Corn.). The heavier kind* of 
waste Jn tin, and copper ores (Ray- 
mond ) . A mixture of tin and cop- 
per ore. {'Pryce) 

Brookite. Tifenium dioxide, TiO,. 
Identical in composition with rutlle, 
hut occurs in brown translucent or- 
thorhombie crystals. (Dana) 

Broqueiro (Braz.). A miner, borer, or 
driller. (Halse) 

Brora (Eng.). In Sutherland, the imr 
perfect Coal in the lower part of the 
Oo'Jite'lotmation. (Roberts) 

Broiling; Brosiag time (Scot). Keal 

time. (Barrowman) 
Brotaz6n de veta (Mex.). Apex of 

vein.; crpppings. (DWight) 

Brouse (Derb.). A sort of-coarae stop- 
ping, made of small boughs of trees, 
and, placed back of shaft timbers to 
prevent rock from failing. (Hoo- 

Brqw r 1. (Lane.) Ah undergrbuiiti 
roadway leading to a working place, 
-driven either 'to the rise or to the 
dip. 2. A low place in the roof of 
a mine, giving insufficient head- 
room. (Gresley) 

3, .The edge or projecting upper part 
ot a steep place, as the brow ot ft 
precipice or hJUl. (Webster) 

Brow bar (Mid,), A massive curb or 
beam of timber fixed fn the wall df 
the shaft across the top of ah Inset 
or statloa (Gresley ) . Also called 
Brow piece. 

Breton clay-ironstone. Compact* .often 
nodular masses of limonite with 
clay impurities. (Moses) 

Brown coal. Lignite. A fuel , inter- 
mediate .between peat and bitumi- 
nous coal. (Steel) 

Brown-face. Gossan of the tin lodes 
of Tasmania. (Vogt) 

Brown hematite. Limonite. See also 
Brown iron ore. 

Brown hen (Derb.). A hard, brown 
clay which sticks to the ore,. making 
the ore look poor, to the disadvan- 
tage of the miner. (Hooson) 

Brown horseshoe furnace. A furnace 
of .the annular turret type for cal- 
cining sulphide ores. (Peters, p. 
218; Hofroan, p. 182; Ingalls, p. 85) 

Brown iron ore; Limonite; Brown 
hematite; Bog iron ore. Its ap- 
proximate formula is 2Fe2OHiO, 
equivalent to about 59.3 per cent 
iron. Probably a mixture of hy- 
drous iron oxides. (U. 8. Geol. 

Brown le&d ore. An early name for 
brown pyromorphite. (Chester) 

Brown muffle furnace. A merchanicaUy- 
raked roasting furnace of the 
straight-line type with a series of 
longitudinal combustion flues placed 
under the hearth, (Ingalls, p. 139) 

Brown-OHara furnace. A long/ hori- 
zontal, double-hearth furnace for 
the treatment, of lead ores. (Hof- 
man, p. 190) 

Brown panel system. Samfc as Pfllar- 
and-breast in coal mining* 

Brown petroleum. A natural solid, or 
semi-solid product produced by the 
action of air upon fluid- ttitunenfi 

Browa spar.. Any light carbonate, ^ col- 
ored brown by the presence of iroi) 
oxide, as ankerlte, doloniite, nmg 4 
neslte. or sideiite. (Standard) 

Brown atone (Aust.). Dedomposed 
iron pyrtte. (Power) 

Brownstonc. A dark-brown sandstone 
from quarries in the ' Trjasdlc, e8f- 
pecially from the Connecticut River 
valley. Used as a buOdfng stone 
(Century). See also Sandstone. 

Brown tank. A cylindrical tank or 
vat, tall in proportion to .its diame- 
ter, with the. bottom ending, in., a 00? 
cone. Within the tank is a hollow 
column extending from the bottom 
to within about 8 inches from the 
top. The apparatus works on tht 
air-lift principle, the aerated pulp in 
the tube flowing upward, and dis- 
charging at the top while more pulp 
flows in at the bottom to take, its 
place. It is in reality a pulp agi- 
tator. Also called Pachuca tank. 

Brown umber. A brown earthy variety 
of limonite. (Power) 

Brow piece. A heavy timber used 
for underpinning in the opening of 
a station for & new level iu a mine. 
(Webster). #ee Brow bar. 

Browse. Ore imperfectly smelted, 
mixed with cinder and clay. : (Ray- 

Brow-up (Lane.). An inclined road- 
way driven to the- r|se. Also called 
Brow or Up-brow. (Gresley) 

Frox burn oil shafe. 4. Scottish shale 
which yields 23 to 35 gals, of crude 
oil and 35 to 40 Ibs. of ammonium 
sulphate per ton, (Bacoo) 

Broyl (Corn.). See Broil. 



Broza (Batopilas, Mex.). 1 Ore con- 
taining two-thirds native silver and 
one-third calcite. 2. (Chile) Waste, 
rubbish. (Halse) 

3. (Peru) Very poor ores wmch 
generally do not repay extraction. 
(D wight) 

Brozires (Bol.). Men who break large 
stones in the mines. (Halse) 

Bmcite. Hydrated magnesium oxide, 
MgO.EWX (Dana) 

Bruckner cylinder (Pac.). A form of 
revolving roasting furnace (Ray- 
mond). See Brttckner furnace, 

Bruckner furnace. A horizontal De- 
volving, cylindrical furnace for roast- 
ing pulverized sulphide ores. (Pe- 
ters, p. 196; Hofman, p. 198; In- 
gafls, p. 121) 

Brujula (Mex.). Magnetic compass. 

Brnnnerite, A blue to violet variety 
of calcite that is found both as cu- 
boid crystals and massive. (Stand- 

Brunoing (Ark. .and Mo,).. Pulling 
fine ore down from the. working 
place, especially with the hands. 
From its similarity to the action of 
a bear. (J. J. Rutledge) 

Bruno man (Ark., and Mo.). One who 
removes fine ore from a working 
place, especially when the work is 
done with the hands. See also 

Brunstone. A scotch form of brim- 
stone; (Century) 

Bronton. A small pocket compass with 
Bights and a reflector attached, used 
in sketching mine workings, as in 
mihe examinations, or in preliminary 

Brunton's sampler. A mechanical 
sampling device which automatically 
selects 1/625 part of the ore pass- 
ing through the sampler. (Hofman, 
P. 57) 

Brush. 1. (Mid,) To mix gas with 
air In the mine by buffetting it with 
a jacket. 2. (Forest of Dean.) A 
rich brown hematite. (Gresley) 
8. To shoot or wedge down some of 
the rock over a roadway to increase 
the height of head-room. Less of- 
ten, to take up bottom for the same 
purpose. (Steel) 

Brut* hook. A short heavy hook with 
an axe handle, used, by surveyors for 
cutting brush* 

Bruthers (Scot, Som.). Men who 
brush the roof, build packs and 
stoppings (Gresley). See also Brush 
3. Also called Stonemen. 

Brushing. 1. (Scot). That part of 
the roof or floor of a seart removed 
to form roadways. (Barrewman) 
2- Digging up the bottom or the tak- 
ing down the top of an entry / or 
room for the purpose of admitting 
cars where the seam of coal is too 
thin or shallow for the admission of 
cars. See Brush, 3... (Williams,!?. 
Craig Dawson Coal Co., 146 North- 
western, p. 736) 

Brushing bed (Scot). The stratum 
brushed or ripped (Gresley). See 
also Brush, 3. 

Brushing shot 1. A charge fired ID 
the air of a mine to blow out ob- 
noxious gases, or to start an air 
current (Du Pont) 
& A shot so placed as to remove 
a portion of the roof to increase 
height of a haulage way. See 
also Brush, 8. 

Brushite. A nearly colorless acid 
phosphate of calcium, HOaPOi-j- 
2H 3 O, in slender crystals or massivg. 

Brush ore. An iron ore in brushllke 
or stalactitic forms (Webster). 
See also Brush, 2 

Bmskins (Mid.), Lumps of coal 
weighing about one pound each. 

Bryan mill. A three-roll (edge-roller) 
mill of the Chilean type. 

3ryle ( Corn. ) . See . Broil. 

B. S. oil. A term applied to -crude-oil 
tank residues. See also Bottom set- 
tlings. (Badoh) 

B. t. u. An abbreviation for British 
thermal unit. 

Bubble. A globule of ait or other gam 
in a liquid ; also a vesicle tff water 
or other liquid inflated with air or 
other gas (Rlckard). A term used 
In flotation. 

Bucaramangite. A resin resembling 
amber but insoluble in alcohol and 
yielding no succinie acid. (Bacon) 

Bnche (Port.). A pocket or bunch of 
ore. (Halscl) 

Bnchnerite. A name proposed by 
Wadsworth for those peridotites, 
terrestrial and meteoric, which 'con- 
sist of oliviiMi, enstatite (bronzite) 
and augite. The name was given in 
honor -of Dr. Otto Buchner, an au- 
thority on meteorites. (Kemp) 



Buohonite. A special name given by 
Sandberger to a nephelite-tephrite 
that contains hornblende. (Kemp) 

Buck. 1. To break up or pulverize/as 
ores. 2. To carry, as to buck wa- 
ter. (Webster) 

Bucket 1. (Derb.). A flat piece of 
iron with a wooden handle, used for 
breaking ore. (Raymond) 

2. One who bucks or breaks ore. 

3. (Washington). A laborer who 
pushes coal down a chute in pitching 
or inclined coal seams. 

Bucket. 1. A vessel for hoisting and 
conveying water, coal, ore, or grain. 
A tub or scoop of which there are 
several types. 2. One of the recep- 
tacles on the rim of a water wheel 
into which the water rushes caus- 
ing the wheel to revolve, (Web- 

3. The piston of a well pump. It 
always contains a valve. It is con- 
nected to and operated by the 
sucker rods. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Bucket door (Scot.). The cover of an 
opening in pipes for access to the 
pump bucket. (Barrowman) 

Bucket-door piece (Eng.). The portion 
of a set of pumps immediately above 
the working barrel, having a re- 
movable door through which the 
bucket is changed ; the bucket door 
is secured to the bucket-door piece 
by bolts. (G. C. Green well) 

Bucket dredge. A dredge in which the 
material excavated is lifted by an 
endless chain of buckets. (Weather- 

Bucketing (Eng.). The operation of 
removing a worn-out pump bucket 
or clack, and replacing it with a 
new one. (Gresley) 

Bucket lid (Scot.). The flap of a 
bucket valve. (Barrowman) 

Bucket lift (Eng.). The iron pipes of 
a mine pump. (Bainbridge) 

Bucket line. The series of joined 
buckets forming part of the digging 
apparatus of a dredge. (Weatherbe) 

Bucket machine. See Elevator pump. 

Bucket mounting (Scot). Leather or 
gutta-percha packing of a pump 
bucket. (Barrowman) 

Bucket piece (Scot.). The pipe carry- 
ing the bucket door of a pump. 

Bucket pump. 1. A lifting pump. 2. 
An iron or wooden receptacle for 
hoisting ore, or for raising rock in 
shaft sinking. ( Chance Y 

Bucket rods (Eng.). Wooden rods to 
which a pump piston is attached. 

Bucket shell (Scot.). The cast-iron 
or brass frame of a pump bucket. 

Bucket sword (Eng.). A wrought-iron 
rod to which a pump bucket is at- 
tached, having at its upper end a 
knocking-off joint. (Gresley) 

Bucket tree (Eng.). The pipe between 
the working barrel and the windbore 
of a pump. (Gresley) 

Bucking (Derb.). The act of break- 
ing or pulverizing ore. The buck- 
ing hammer or bucking iron is a 
broad headed hammer used for this 
purpose; and the ore is broken on a, 
flat piece of iron (bucking plate). 

Buckin b hammer. See Bucking. 

Bucking iron. See Bucking; Bucking 

Bucking ore. A hand process of 
crushing ore. (Woodson) 

Bucking plate. An iron plate on which 
ore is ground by hand by means of 
a muller. Extensively used for the 
final reduction of ore samples for 
assaying. Also called Bucking iron. 

Bucklandite. 1. A black variety of 
epidote having a tinge of green, and 
differing from ordinary epidote in 
having the crystals nearly symmet- 
rical and not, like other epidote, 
lengthened in the direction .of the 
orthodiagonal. 2. Anhyodrus allan- 
ite in small black crystal 1 . (Dana) 

Bucklers; Tacklers (Derb.). Small 
chains put around the coal when 
loaded in corves, to prevent it* fall- 
ing off. (Min. Jour.) 

Buckling. The act of bending; ten- 
dency to bend or become wavy. 

Buck quartz (Aust.). Non-auriferous 
quartz. (Power) 

Buckshot (Aust.). Graunlated lava 
imbedded in a sandy alluvium. 

Buckshot cinder. Cinder from the 
iron blast furnace, containing grains 
of iron. (Winchell) 

Buckshot land; Buckshot soil. Land 
or soil containing many limonitic 
nodules. (Standard) 

Buck staff. See Buckstay. 



Buckstay. . An upright iron or steel 
brace resting upon or built Into a 
boiler setting or furnace wall to 
support the brickwork. (C. M.. P.) 

Buckstone. Rock not producing gold 
'Duryee). Compare Buck quartz. 

Buck-up (Eng.). A contribution by 
shareholders. (Bainbridge) 

Buckwheat; Buckwheat coal. In an- 
thracite only. Buckwheat is di- 
vided into four sizes : No. 1, or buck- 
wheat; No. 2, or rice; No. 3, or 
barley; No. 4, or barley No. 2, 
or silt (sometimes also called culm 
or slush). Buckwheat No. 1 passes 
through a }-inch woven wire screen 
and over a tV-inch woven wire 
screen, through a A-inch round 
punched plate and over a f-inch 
round punched plate. The American 
Institute of Mechanical Engineers 
has recommended that buckwheat 
No. 1 shall pass through A -inch 
holes and over A-inch holes, a 
screen with circular holes being 

Buckwheat slate. A friable slate 
(shale) that requires careful timber- 
ing in headings driven through it. 
It crumbles badly at or near the sur- 
face of the ground. 

Bnddagh (Leinster, Ireland). A 
highly carbonaceous, soft, muddy- 
looking fire clay. (Power) 

Buddie. 1. (Corn.). An inclined vat, 
or stationary or revolving platform, 
upon which ore is concentrated by 
means of running water. Strictly 
the huddle is a shallow vat, not a 
platform or table, at least not in 
some localities. . But general usage, 
makes no distinction. (Raymond) 
2. To separate (ore) from slime or 
stamp work by means of a buddle. 

Buddler (Derb.). One who searches 
old workings for ore. Compare 
Caver, 1. (Mander) 

Buddie work (Eng.). Dressed and 
partly-dressed ore obtained from the 
buddle. (Hunt) 

Buddy. A partner. Each of two men 
who work in the same working place 
of a coal mine. Sometimes spelled 
Butty. (Steel) 

Bufa (Mex.). 1. Cliff or precipice. 
2. At Mazapil, brown iron ore and 
malachite. (Halse) 

Bufador (Sp.). A blower or sudden 
outburst of gas. (Halse) 

744010 O 47- 

Buffer. 1. An elastic apparatus or fen- 
der for deadening the jar caused by 
the collision of bodies. Anything 
serving to deaden a shock. (Web- 

2. A rotating head covered with felt 
or other soft material. It is sup- 
plied with a fine polishing powder 
and is employed to polish the sur- 
face of stone. (Bowles) 

Buffer bar. The heavy iron bar in a 
railroad car which receives the im- 
pact of the other cars. (Webster) 

Buffer beam (Scot). Beams fixed in 
a shaft to prevent pump rods from 
traveling too far. (Barrowman) 

Buffer block. A block serving as a 
buffer. (Webster) 

Buffer rope (Aust). A rope suspended 
between the cages in a shaft where 
rope guides are employed, so as to 
prevent the cages from colliding. 

Buffer shooting. Same as Blanket 
shooting. (Bowles) 

Buffer-thimble. A cast-iron bushing on 
the end-timber of the platform of a 
car. < Standard) 

Buffing machine. A machine used for 
bufllng or polishing. (Century) 

Buff stick. A piece of stick covered 
with leather or velvet and charged 
with emery or other powder, used in 
polishing. (Century) 

Buff ware (Staff.). A stoneware made 
from clay and other ingredients; it 
is^not decorated. (Century) 

Buff wheel. An emery wheel. (Web- 

Bug dust. The fine coal or other ma- 
terial resulting from a boring or cut- 
ting of a drill, mining machine, or 
even a pick. This is sometimes 
wrongly used as a tamping or uem- 
ming material in coal mining (Du 
Pont). See also Makings. 

Buggy. A small wagon or truck used 
for short transportation of heavy 
material as coal in a mine, lumber, 
steel Ingots, etc. (Webster)/ A 
four-wheeled steel car used for haul- 
ing coal to and from chutes. ( Sabela 
v. Newport Min. Co., 184 Michigan, 
p. 677) 

Bug hole. A small cavity, in a rock, 
usually lined with crystals (C. and 
M. M. P.). See also Vug. 



Bugre (Braz.). Pockets of yellow 
clay, rich in gold, found especially 
in contact with the itabirites and 
quartzites. (Halse) 

Buhrstone. A silicified fossiliferous 
limestone, with abundant cavities 
which were formerly occupied by 
fossil shells. Its cellular character 
and toughness occasioned its exten- 
sive use as a millstone in former 
years (Kemp). Also spelled Burr- 
stone, and Burstone. 

Buildhouse. See Bildas. 

Builders-tip (Eng.). Men who make 
packs and set timber, in ironstone 
mines. (Gresley) 

Building (Som.). A built-up block, or 
pillar of stone or cx>al to carry the 
roof (Gresley). See also Cog. 

Building stone. 1. (Som.) Sandstone 
or other rock suitable for pack 
building (Gresley). See also Sand- 
stone. 2. Stone suitable for use in 
masonry construction. 

Built-up. See Chunked-up. 

Buitr6n. 1. (Sp.) A low blast fur- 
nace for smelting silver ore. 2. 
(Mex.) Fire box. 3. (Peru) A ma- 
sonry sump for settling pulp after 
grinding and before taking it to the 
patio. (Dwight) 

Bujia (Mex.). A candle; candle 
power. (Dwight) 

Bule. 1. (Eng.) A bit of iron put 
round pistons. (Bainbridge) 

2. (Derb.) The handle or bail of 
an ore bucket. (Hooson) 

Bulk (Brist.). Run-of-mine coal in 
large quantities. (Gresley) * 

Bulkhead. 1. A tight partition or 
stopping in a mine for protection 
against water, fire, or gas. 2. The 
end of a flume, whence water is car- 
ried in iron pipes to hydraulic work- 
ings. (Raymond) 

3. A solid crib used to support a 
very heavy roof. See also Cog; 

Bulk-oil flotation. A flotation process 
in which large amounts of oil are 
used. (Ralston) 

Bull. 1. (No. of Eng.) An iron rod 
for preparing a shot-hole in watery 
ground when the hole has to be 
lined with clay (Gresley). See also 
Clay iron. 

8. (Aust.). See Drag, 1 and 2; 
also Backstay. 

Bull bit. A flat drill bit. (Gillette) 

Bulldog. 1. A refractory material 
used as furnace-lining, got by cal- 
cining mill-cinder, and containing 
silica and ferrip oxide. 2. (Pefin.) 
/See also Buckshot-cinder. (Ray- 

Bulldoze (U. S.) To reduce broken 
rock by the use of explosives to a 
size handy for raising to the surface 
(Skinner). See also Mud cap; Sec- 
ondary blasting. 

Bull engine. A single-acting pumping 
engine constructed upon the direct- 
acting principle (Gresley). See also 
Bull pump. 

Buller shot. 1. ( Som. ) A second shot 
put in close to and to do the work 
not done by a blown-out shot, loose 
powder being used. (Gresley) 
2. (Scot.) A blown-out shot (Bar- 
rowman). Also called Buller. 

Bulletin. 1. A large tabulation sheet 
on which the weight of each car loau 
of coal each miner sends out is en- 
tered. Also called Coal bulletin. 

2. A brief or condensed statement of 
news to the public, as issued by an 
acknowledged authority. A periodi- 
cal. (Webster) 

3. A class of publications issued by 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines; U. S. 
Geological Survey etc. 

Bulletin board. A board on which bul- 
letins are posted (Webster). See 
also Bulletin, 1. 

Bullfrog. See Barney. 

Bulling. 1. The dislodging of rock by 
exploding blasting charges in fis- 
sures. (Webster) 

2. Lining shot hole with clay. 
(C. and M. M. P.) 

Bulling bar. An iron bar used to 
pound clay into the crevices cross- 
ing a bore hole, which is thus .ren- 
dered gas-tight (Ihlseng). Compare 
Bull, 1. 

Bulling shovel. A triangular, sharp- 
pointed shovel used in ore dressing. 
Also called Vanning shovel. (Cen- 

Bullion. 1. Uncoined gold and silver. 
Base bullion is usually pig lead con- 
taining but little gold or silver. 
( Lawver ) 

2. Gold and silver coined but con- 
sidered simply with reference to 
its commercial value as raw mate- 
rial. 3. Figuratively, s*olid gold and 
silver, as distinguished from mere 
imitations; hence solid worth. 



Bullion balance. A sensitive beam bal- 
ance of heavy construction used for 
weighing bullion and specie. (Web- 

Bullion bar. 1. Unrefined gold or 
silver melted and cast into a bar. 

*. A bar upon which the molten 
glass at the end of a blowing tube 
is rested to assist in bringing it into 
special shape. (Webster) 

Bullions (Lane.). Nodules of clay 
ironstone, pyrite, shale, etc., which 
generally inclose a fossil. (Gresley) 

Bull point. A large steel point driven 
with a sledge. (Bowles) 

Bull pump (Corn.). A direct single- 
acting pump, the steam cylinder of 
which is placed over the top of a 
shaft or slope, and the piston rod 
attached to the pump rods. The 
steam lifts piston and pump rods 
and the weight of these produces 
the down stroke. (Raymond) 

Bull pmp. A worthless mining claim. 
(C. and M. M. P.) 

Bun rope. In well boring, the rope 
from which the boring tools are sus- 
pended and by which they are 
worked. (Webster) 

Bull's eyes. Nodules of pyrlte in roof- 
ing slate. (Power) 

Bull's-eye tuyere. A tuyere discharg- 
ing in the center of a hemispherical 
plate. (Standard) 

Bull wheel 1. In well drilling, a 
wheel on which the bull rope is 
wound. 2. An underground sheave 
wheel. Particularly the wheel 
around Which the tail rope is passed 
beyond each terminal of a tail-rope 
haulage system. (Steel) 

Bully. A pattern of miners' hammer, 
varying from "broad-bully" to "nar- 
row-bully." (Raymond) 

Bullying. See Springing. 

Bumicky. A combination of powdered 
stone and cement used to fill crev- 
ices made by the accidental chip- 
ping, as of building stones : a stone- 
mason's term. (Standard) 

Bumming. 1. (Scot). Heaving or 
rising of the pavement or floor 
8. Emitting a hollow sound when 
truck. ( B a r ro win an ) 

B*mp (Eng.). L A sudden breaking 
sometimes accompanied by a settling 
or upheaval of the strata in the mine, 
accompanied by a loud report Also 

called Crump (Gresley). Bee 
Bounce, 1. The term is not in com- 
mon use among the miners in this 
country, and has been interpreted by 
many to indicate a sudden squeeze, 
or buckling of the floor or walls of 
the mine passage-ways. This is not 
the case, as the word is practicably 
synonymous with "jar." It has its 
origin in the shocks accompanying 
earth movements. (Geo. S. Rice, 
chief mining engineer, U. S. Bur. 

Bumper. See Buffer, 2; Catches, 3. 

Bumping and jerking tablet. These 
machines use mechanical agitation 
to bring the light and heavy grains 
into their respective layers on a 
washing surface, and they use a 
bumping or jerking action to con- 
vey the heavy grains to one side or 
the other of the machine, while 
the current of surface water conveys 
the light grains to another side or 
end. They may be either side-bump, 
having the bump or jerk at right 
angles to the flow of water, or end- 
bump, having the bump or Jerk in 
the opposite direction from the flow 
of the water. See aUo Rittinger, 
Bilharz, Wilfley, Bartlett, and Over- 
strom. (Liddell) 

Bumping post A post placed as a 
buffer at the end of a spur of rail- 
road track. (Webster) 

Bumping trough. A sheet Iron trough 
hung from plugs so that it may be 
swung backward and forward and 
used for handling ore in stopes 
where the dip is such that the ore 
will not " run." (H. 0. Hoover, p. 

Bump knocker. Local term at Spadra 
(Arkansas) for a person who picks 
<Iown portions of machine-mined coal 
which have not been shot down by 
blasting. (Steel) 

Bunch. 1. A small quantity of ore in 
a compact mass in the vein. (Whit- 

2. A portion of a pipe vein of greater 
thickness than the rest ( Standard) 

Bunch of ore (Corn.). An ore body, 
usually a small one. (Raymond) 

Bunchy. An ore body containing small 
scattered masses or bunches of ore. 

Bunchy reef (So. Afr.). A succession 
of blows, or outcrops, following 
certain course (Power). See *Uo 
Blow, 2 and 6. 



Bunding. .A staging of boards on 
stulls or stemples, to carry deads. 
See also Stull-covering. (Raymond) 

Bunk. A frame attached to a wall or 
partition, which serves as a bed or 
Bleeping place (Webster). Common 
in mining and lumber camps. 

Banker coal. A term applied to coal 
consumed by ocean steamers, tugs* 
ferry-boats, or other steam water 
craft (Nicolls). Also called Bunkers. 

Bunker Hill screen. A rotating screen 
shaped like a funnel. Material is 
delivered inside the funnel, the un- 
dersize passing through the screen, 
while the oversize is discharged 
through the funnel neck. (Llddell) 

Bunker plate. An iron plate covering 
a hole in a ship's deck leading to 
the coal bunker. (Century) 

Bunkers (Wales). See Bunker coal. 

Bunky (111. and Wis.). In metal 
mines, a partner; called Buddy in 
coal mines. 

Bunney. See Bonny. 

Bunnlng (Eng.). In lead mining, a 
floor or staging of wood built across 
the lode over the miners' heads, and 
on which the refuse was thrown, BO 
that the mine, originally begun as 
an open work, became covered over 
for its whole length except the wind- 
lass opening ( Century ) . Also spelled 

Bunter sandstone (Eng.). A sandstone 
at the base of the Triassic system 
in western Europe. (Cox) 

Bun tons. Timbers placed horizontally 
across a shaft. They serve to brace 
the wall-plates of the shaft-lining, 
and also, by means of plank nailed 
to them, to form separate compart- 
ments for hoisting or ladder-ways. 

Buoy. To keep from sinking; to keep 
afloat in a liquid. A term used in 
flotation. (Rickard) 

Buque (Mex.). A boy employed in & 
mine. (D wight) 

Bur; Burr. 1. A mass of flint rock in 
a softer rock. 2. A burrstone or 
buhr. (Standard) 

Burbuja (Sp.). A bubble, bleb or blis- 
ter. (Halse) 

Burbusco (Panama). Extracting the 
rich ore; spoiling. (Lucas) 

Burbutero (Panama). A spoiler (Lu- 
cas). See also Barequero. 

Burden (Corn.). 1. The tops or head, 
of stream-work, which lie over the 
stream of tin. 2. The proportion 
of ore and flux to fuel in the charge 
of a blast-furnace. (Raymond) 

3. Valueless material overlying the 
ore, especially such as is removed by 
stripping. Frequently called Over- 
burden. (Webster) 

4. The distance between the charge 
and the free face of the material 
to be blasted. (Du Pont) 

Bure (Fr. ( Belg.). A coalpit. (Gres- 

Bureau. A department or office of the 
Government for the transaction of 
public business (Webster). As the 
Bureau of Mines. 

Burette. An apparatus used in chemi- 
cal laboratories for delivering meas- 
ured quantities of liquid or gas. 

Burgy (Lane.). Slack, or small coal. 

Burled placers. Old placer deposit* 
which have become buried beneath 
lava flows or other strata. (Shamel, 
p. 279) 

Burled rivers. River-beds which have 
been buried below streams of basalt 
or alluvial drifts. (Duryee) 

Burilada (Sp.). A sample chipped 
from silver bullion, to be assayed. 

Burk. A hard knot or lump in a vein. 
(Power). Possibly a corruption of 
burl which means a knot, lump or 
an excrescence. 

Burleigh. See Rock drill. 

Burmite. A fossil resin, resembling 
amber, but harder and tougher; it 
occurs in Upper Burma. (Bacon) 

Burned. Said of slate or other im- 
purity that adheres tightly to the 
coal. Similarly, coal is said to be 
"burned to the roof" when it is 
hard to separate the roof rock from 
the coal. 

Burner: Burner man. A man who 
takes care of kilns for roasting ore, 
largely confined to plants roasting 
sulphur from Cornwall ores. (Will- 

Burning. 1. Same as Calcining. See 
also Calcine. 2. (Derb.) An old 
method of working veins by soften- 
ing them with fire. See also Firing, 
3. (Mander) 



Burning house. The furnace in which 
sulphide ores are calcined to sub- 
lime the sulphur; a kiln. (Century) 

Burning mountain. A volcano. (Web- 

Burning oiL A common name for 

Burning point. The temperature at 
which a volatile oil in an open ves- 
sel will ignite from a match held 
close to its surface: formerly used 
to determine the safety of kerosene 
and "other illuminants. (Standard) 

Burnt alum. A white porous sub- 
stance obtained by heating ordinary 
alum to dull redness, thus expelling 
the water of crystallization and 
some of the sulphuric acid. (Web- 

Burnt brass. Blue ?..riol. (Webster) 

Burnt coal (Scot). Coal altered by 
an igneous rock intrusion (Barrow- 
man). See also Natural coke. 

Burirt copper. Copper oxide. (Web- 

Burnt-iii. In ceramics, said of colors 
that have been applied under the 
glaze, and are fired with it (Cen- 

Burnt iron. 1. Iron which by long 
exposure to heat has suffered a 
change of structure and become 
brittle. It can be restored by careful 
forging at welding-heat 2. In the 
Bessemer and open-hearth processes, 
iron which has been exposed to oxi- 
dation until all its carbon is gone, 
and oxide of iron has been formed 
In the mass. (Raymond) 

Burnt ore. Roasted ore. 

Burnt stone. An antique earn el i an 
such as is sometimes found in an- 
cient ruins and has apparently been 
acted on by fire. (Century) 

Burnt stuff. 1. (Mid.). Waste or 
refuse coal that has been thoroughly 
burned by spontaneous combustion. 

2. (Aust). An Intensely hard, 
rocky stratum underlying the sur- 
face-soil. (Standard) 

Burnt umber. See Umber. 

Burr (Derb.). A hard knot or lump 
in a vein. A lump of ore that is 
harder than the vein itself (Hoo- 
son). Also spelled Bur; Burk. 

Bun-ell gas detector. A device to ob- 
tain a safe, rapid and accurate de- 
termination for low percentages of 
methane Inside the mine. Complete 

combustion of the methane takes 
place within the apparatus, and the 
percentage is measured volumetrl- 

Burrero (Mex.). A donkey boy. 

Burro (Mex.). A windlass; a donkey; 
a carpenter's horse. (Dwight) 

Burrow (Corn.). A heap of refuse. 

Bun-stone. A cellular but very com- 
pact siliceous rock from which the 
best - millstones are ma^e (Stand- 
ard). Also called Bur; Burr, and 

Burster; Bursting shot 1. (Scot). A 
shot in a coal seam which has not 
been sheared or undercut. (Barrow- 
man). Equivalent to "shot off the 
2. See Buster. 

Bursting charge. A small charge of 
fine powder, placed in contact with 
a charge of coarse powder to insure 
the ignition of the latter. (Cen- 

Burst of whinstone (Scot). A bed or 
mass of igneous rock at the surface 
of the ground. (Barrowman) 

Burt filter. A stationary, intermittent 
filter in which the. leaves are sus- 
pended vertically In a cylindrical 
vessel set on a considerable incline. 
The leaves are therefore ellipses. 
The slime cake is discharged by in- 
troducing air and water into the in- 
terior of the leaf. There is also a 
newer Burt filter of the continuous 
rota ting-drum type. (Liddell) 

Burthen (Scot). The load of coal 
which the bearers carry on their 
backs. (Barrowman) 

Burton. Any of several kinds of 
tackle, usually one with a single 
and double block. See also Tackle, 
2. (Webster) 

Bury (Ireland). Soft shale or clay] 
flucan. (Century) 

Bui bar. A copper or aluminum con- 
ductor used in electric lighting or 
power stations to receive the cur- 
rent from all the dynamos, or dis- 
tribute it to the motors, etc. (Cen- 

Busca. 1. (Mex.). A quantity of ore 
extracted by a campero or butcon. 
2. (Sp.). A search. 

Buscador. A searcher; an investiga- 
tor (VeL). (Min. Jonr.), 



Buscar (Sp.). To search for mines; 
to prospect. (Halse) 

Busc6n (Mex.). 1. A miner working in 
abandoned mines either to get and 
sell ore, or to obtain a reward for 
some valuable discovery. Prospect- 
or. See also Campero. (Dwight) 
2. A petty robber. JVel.) 

Bushel. A measure of capacity, the 
imperial bushel, of 2218.192 cubic 
inches, and the Winchester bushel, 
of 2150.42 cubic inches, being di- 
vided into 4 pecks'. The bushel used 
in measuring charcoal and coal con- 
tains 5 pecks, or 2688 cubic inches, 
being 20 pounds or less of charcoal, 
and, in various localities, 80, 76, or 
72 pounds of coal (Raymond). The 
Winchester bushel is the standard 
for the United States. 

Bush hammer. A hammer having a 
serrated face, as of rows of pyram- 
idal points, for dressing stone. 

Bushing. A pipe fitting for the pur- 
pose of connecting a pipe with a fit- 
ting of larger size, being a hollow 
plug with internal and external 
threads to suit the different di- 
ameters. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Bush metal. An alloy used for jour- 
nals, bearings of shafts, etc. (Cen- 

Bustamente furnace. A cylindrical 
shaft furnace for roasting quick- 
silver ores; divided by perforated 
arches into two compartments, of 
which the upper receives the ore and 
the lower the fuel. The mercury- 
vapors are condensed in aludels. 

Bustamite. A grayish-red variety of 
rhodonite containing lime. (Dana) 

Buster (really Burster) (Eng.). A 

machine for breaking down coal, 

without the use of explosives. 

Buster snot. Same as Breaking-in 

Bustle. 1. (York.) Hurry in mining 
or working coal, or in performing 
other colliery work. (Gresley) 
2. A board put on the end of a car 
to keep coal on the car when going 
up or down a steep slope. 

Bustle pipe. A large pipe surrounding 
a blast furnace, which receives the 
blast from the stoves and delivers it 
to the tuyeres. (Tieman) 

But (Scot.). Outwards; toward the 
shaft (Barrowman). Outbye. 

Butracos (Sp.). Inclined shafts fol- 
lowing the dip of lead and zinc lodes. 

Butt. 1. (Eng.). Of coal, a surface 
exposed at right angles to^the face. 
See also End, 1. (Raymond) 
2. The butt of a slate quarry is 
where the overlying rock comes in 
contact with an inclined stratum of 
slate rock. (Merrill) 

Butt cleat. A short, poorly defined 
cleavage plane in a coal seam usu- 
ally at right angles with the face 
cleat. Compare Face cleat. 

Butte. A conspicuous isolated hill or 
small mountain, especially one with 
steep or precipitous sides. (Web- 

Butt-entry. The gallery driven at 
right-angles with the butt cleat. An 
end-on entry. 

Butterfly. 1. The name applied to cer- 
tain valves made after the design 
of a damper in a stove pipe. 2. In 
pumps this term signifies a double 
clack-valve whose flaps work on a 
diametral hinge, like the wings of a 
butterfly. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Butterfly valve. See Butterfly. 

Butter of tin. Stannic chloride. 

Butters' filter. A stationary, intermit- 
tent vacuum filter. The leaves are 
arranged in a box having a pyram- 
idal bottom. When the pulp is in- 
troduced a vacuum is applied until 
a cake from 1 to 2 in. in thickness 
is formed. The surplus pulp is then 
removed from the box and wash 
solution or water introduced and the 
cake washed. After removing the 
wash solution, either the box is 
filled with water, or the cake dropped 
and sluiced out. (Liddell) 

Butt heading. See Butt entry. 
Butt-joint. See Butt cleat 

Buttock (Eng.). That portion of a 
working face of coal, next to be 
taken down. (Gresley) 

Buttocker (Eng.). One who breaks 
down the coal that has been under- 
cut by the holers. A getter. (Red- 

Button. The globule of metal remain- 
ing on an assay-cupel or in a cruci- 
ble, at the end of the fusion. (Ray- 

Button balance. A small, very delicate 
balance used for weighing assay but- 
tons. (0. and M. M. P.) 



Button metal. A variety of brass com- 
posed of one part copper and four 
parts zinc. (Webster) 

Button solder. A white solder com- 
posed of tin, brass and copper, used 
as a substitute for silver solder in 
making buttons. (Century) 

Butt shot. In coal mining, a charge 
placed so that the face or burden is 
nearly parallel with the bore hole. 
(Du Pont) 

Button strike. A strike to compel 
every employee to join the union and 
to pay the dues regularly. On pay- 
ment of dues, each man is given a 
button to wear on his hat. 

Buttweld. Welded along a seam that 
is not scarfed or lapped. (Nat. 
Tube Co.) 

Butty. 1. A comrade; a chum or 
partner. 2. (Eng.) In coal mining, 
one who takes a contract, or is a 
partner in a contract for working 
out a certain area of coal (Cen- 
tury). Also spelled Buddy. 
3. (Mid.) A man who sorts and 
loads the coal, for which he is paid 
by the ton. Known as a Butty 
banksman. (Gresley) 

Butty collier (Eng.). A foreman of a 
butty gang. (Standard) 

Butty gang (Eng.). A company of 
men who ^undertake work by con- 
tract and divide the profits among 
themselves. ( Standard ) 

Butty man (York). A contractor who 
mines coal. See also Butty. (Gres- 

Buttyship (So. Staff.). The prevail- 
ing mode of working the " Ten-yard " 
coal seam. The contractor mtnes, 
loads, and delivers coal to place of 
sale, finding all tools, horses, skips, 
corn, candles, powder, pit beer, etc. 
The masters find timber, engine- 
power, and loaders at the boats. 

Butty system (So. Staf., No. Staff., 

Mid.). The working of a pit or 

mine by contract. See also Butty- 
ship. (Gresley) 

Butyrellite. A white or yellow waxy 
substance found in certain of the 
Irish and Scotch bogs. (Bacon) 

Buzamiento (Sp.). Hade, dip, inclina- 
tion, slope. (Lucas) 

Buzo (Colom.). Divers who get al- 
luvial gold from the bottom of 
rivers with batea*. (Halse) 

Buz6n (Sp). 1. A funnel-shaped hop- 
per. 2. A winze. 3. A subsidence 
of upper workings produced by a 
funnel-shaped cave of ground below. 

Byard. A leather breast strap used 
by miners in drawing carloads of 
ore or coal. (Standard) 

Byat. See Biat. 

Bye chains (Wales). Hauling ropes, 
or chains for dip inclined planes. 

Byerite. A caking bituminous coal 
from Middle Park, Colo. It resem- 
bles albertite in the large amount 
of gas and oil which it yields upon 
.distillation. (Bacon) 

Byerlite. An artificial asphalt made 
from petroleum by driving off the 
volatile products. (Webster) 

Bywork (Mid.). Odd work, or that 
which is paid for by the day, in con- 
nection with the underground roads. 
The men who perform it are called 
By- workmen. (Gresley) 

By-lead. See By-wash. 

By-level. A side level driven for some 
unusual but necessary purpose. (C. 
and M. M. P.) 

By-pass; Bye-pass. 1. A short passage 
used to get by or around a place 
't is not advisable to cross, e. g., 
a mine shaft. (Power) 
2. A small passage to permit equal- 
ization of the pressure on the two 
sides of a large valve so that it may 
be readily opened or closed (Nat. 
Tube Co.). An extra gas pipe pass- 
ing around a valve OF gas chamber 
used to prevent a complete stoppage 
of the flow of gas when the valve or 
chamber is closed. (Century) 

By-pit. (Scot.). A pit nearer the out- 
crop than the engine pit ; an air pit 

By-product. A secondary or additional 
product (Webster), e. g. The more 
common by-products of coke ovens 
are gas, tar, benzol and ammonium 

By-product oven. A coke oven consist- 
ing of a series of long narrow cham- 
bers arranged in rows, and heated 
by flues in which are burned a por- 
tion of the combustible gases gener- 
ated by the coking of the coal. All 
of the volatile products are saved 
and collected as ammonia, tar and 
gas, etc. 



By-road (Scot.). A subsidiary road. 

Bysmalith. A name suggested by J. 
P. Iddings for an igneous intrusion 
that forms a huge cylindrical mass 
or plug, with length and width ap- 
proximately the same, but of rela- 
tively great height (Kemp) 

Bysolite. An olive-green fibrous va- 
riety of amphibole. (Webster) 

Bytownite. A plagioclase feldspar 
having a composition between labra- 
dorite and anorthite. (Dana) 

By-wash. A channel cut to convey 
the surplus water from a reservoir 
or an aqueduct, and prevent over- 
flow. Also called By-lead. (Cen- 


Cab (Eng.). A hard ferruginous gouge 
or casing between the unaltered 
country rock and the ore. See also 
Casing, 2. 

Caballeriza (Hex.). Stable. (Dwight) 

Caballero (Sp.). A spoil bank. 

Caballete (Mex.). Ridge-beam, trestle, 
etc. C. de tension, tension station of 
a cable tram. (Dwight) 

Caballo (Sp.). 1. A miner's candle- 
stick. 2. A rope sling for lowering 
men in a shaft. (Dwight) 
3. A horse. 4. Barren rock in a 
lode or vein. 5. A grinding stone 
In an arrastre. 6. A cofferdam. 

Cabbie. To break up into pieces (as 
charcoal iron) preparatory to the 
processes of faggoting, fusing and 
rolling into bars. (Century) 

Cabecedo (Mex.). The end-line of a 
claim. (Dwight) 

Oa^tceira (Braz.). 1, A horizontal 
portion of a sluice. 2. A level head- 
ing. (Halse) 

Cabecera (Mex.). "Heads" obtained 
in ore concentration. (Dwight) 

Cabecilla. 1. (Sp. Am.). Slimes or 
sand in the washing trough. (Lu- 

2. Coarse ore which is reground. 

3. In the patio process the residue 
after washing the torta. (Halse) 

Cabeza. 1. (Mex.). Head or end. 
2. C. de ingenio (Peru), the shaft 
of a vertical water-wheel. ( Dwight ) 
8. (Colom.) The upper extremity 
of a placer mine. 4. (Mex.) An 
outcrop. (Halse) 

Cabezada (Mex.). The end piece in 
shaft-timberfng. (Dwight) 

Cabezal (Mex.). A cap used In mine 
timbering. (Dwight) 

Cabez6n (Colom.). The point at 
which a current of water loses its 
velocity, and deposits the suspended 
material. (Halse) 

Cabezuela (Mex.). Rich concentrates, 
usually containing both gold and 
silver. Mineral crushed to less than 
i in. in diameter. (Dwight) 

Cabin- A small room, either on the 
surface or underground, e. g~, a lamp 
cabin, or a deputy's cabin. (Power) 

Cable. 1. Snme as cable-laid rope; a 
fiber cable consists of three hawsera 
laid up left-handed. (C. M. P.) 

2. A bundle of insulated wires, insu- 
lated by an outside wrapping, form- 
ing a water-proof electrical conduc- 
tor, as a submarine cable. (Web- 

3. A steel rope for hoisting or for 
aerial trams. 

Cable (Mex.). Cable or hoisting-rope ; 
C. de porte, carrying rope; C. de 
traccidn, de motor, de m6vil, trac- 
tion-rope; traveling-rope. ( Dwight} 
C. de cola, tail rope; C. rastrero, 
haulage rope; C. electrico, electric 
cable or wires. (Halse) 

Cable drill. See Churn drill. 

Cable-laid rope. Wire cables made of 
several ropes twisted together, each 
rope being composed of strands 
twisted together without limitation 
as to the number of /strands or di- 
rection of twist. A fiber cable-laid 
rope is composed of strands of haw- 
ser-laid rope, twisted right-handed. 
(C. M. P.) 

Cable's length. The length of a ship's 
cable, usually about 600 feet, or 
one- tenth of a nautical mile. (Web- 

Cable system. One of the well-known 
drilling systems, sometimes desig- 
nated as the American or Rope sys- 
tem. The drilling is performed by a 
heavy string of tools suspended from 
a flexible manila or steel cable to 
which a reciprocating motion is im- 
parted by its suspension from an 
oscillating "walking beam." One 
end of the walking beam is above 
the mouth of the well when hori- 
zontal, and the other end is directly 
above a crank attached to the band- 
wheel shaft (Mitzakis) 



Cable tools. The apparatus used in 
drilling deep holes, such as artesian 
wells, with a rope, Instead of rods, 
to connect the drill with the machine 
on the surface. (Raymond) 

Cable-via a6reo (Mex.). Aerial cable 
tramway. (D wight) 

Cabo (Mex.). 1. Handle. 2. Stump 
of candle. 3. Sub-foreman, or boss. 
(D wight) 

Cabocle. A compact rolled pebble re- 
sembling red jasper, supposed to be 
hydrous aluminum-calcium phos- 
phate: found in the diamond-pro- 
ducing sands of Bahia, Brazil. 
(Standard) , 

Cabrerite. A hydrous arsenate of 
nickel, cobalt and magnesium, found 
In green crystals and in masses. 

Cabrestante (Mex.). Capstan; winch. 
(D wight) 

Cagamba (Braz.). The bucket of a 
gold dredge. (Halse) 

Cache (Fr.). The place where pro- 
visions, ammunition, tc. are cached 
or hidden by trappers or prospec- 
tors in unsettled regions. (Ray- 

Cachetear (Mex.). To loosen a gad 
by striking it alternately on each 
side. (Dwight) 

Cachi (Peru). A "Quechua" word, 
meaning salt; also applied to all 
kinds of white gangue-rocks. 

Cacho (Colom.). A piece of horn used 
in gold washing (Halse). A horn 

Cacholong. An opaque bluish-white or 
pale-yellow opal, containing a little 
alumina. (Dana) 

Cachucha (Mex.). A miner's cap. 

Caco (Braz.). A sugary quartz found 
in gold veins. (Century) 

Cacoxenite. A hydrous phosphate of 
iron, FePo 4 Fe(Oh),-f-4iH 3 O, occur- 
ring in yellow or brownish radiated 
tufts. (Dana) 

Cadena (Sp.). 1. Chain. A unit of 
linear measurement. (Dwight) 
2. C f de rocas, a ledge or ridge of 
rocks. (Halse) 

Cadge (Derb.). To attach the hoist- 
ing rope to an ore bucket; also to 
fasten tools in the bucket with a 
rope to prevent them falling out 

Cadger. A little, pocket oil can for 
miners. (Min. and Scl. Press, Aug. 
%, 1915) 

Cadmium. A tin-white, malleable, duc- 
tile metal, capable of a high polish 
and emitting a crackling sound 
when bent. Symbol, Cd; atomic 
weight, 112.40. Specific gravity, 8.6. 

Cadmium ochre. The mineral green- 
ocklte. (Standard) 

Caducar (Mex.). To forfeit a title 
through noncompliance with the 
stipulations contained therein. 

Caducidad (Mex.). The act of for- 
feiting a title, etc. (Dwight). See 
also Caducar. 

Caen stone. A light cream-colored 
Jurassic limestone, chiefly from 
Caen, Normandy, largely used in 
carved architectural work. (Stand- 

Caer de cruz (Mex.). The beginning 
of the action of the quicksilver In 
the process of amalgamation. 

Caesium. A soft, silvery metal, closely 
resembling rubidium and potassium. 
Symbol, Cs ; atomic weight, 132.81. 
Specific gravity 1.84 (Webster) 

Cage. 1. A frame with one or more 
platforms for cars, used in hoisting 
in a vertical shaft It Is steadied 
by guides on the sides of the shaft 
2. A structure of elastic iron rods 
slipped into the bore-hole in rod- 
boring to prevent vibration of the 
rods. 3. The barrel or drum of a 
whim on which the rope is wound. 

Cage cover (Scot). The iron sheets 
fixed above a cage to protect Its 
occupants (Barrowman). A hood. 
See also Bonnet, 1. 

Cage guides, 1. Vertical pieces of 
wood, iron, or steel, fixed in a shaft, 
between which cages run, and 
whereby they are prevented from 
striking one another, or against any 
portion of the shaft (Steel) 
2. (Scot.) Shoes, usually cast iron, 
clasping the guides (see Cage 
guides, 1) in a shaft and guiding 
the cage in its movements in the 
shaft ( Barrowman ) 

Cage iron. In foundry practice a coro 
iron resembling a cage. (Webster) 



Cage of a whim (Corn.). . The barrel 
on which the rope is wound (Min. 
Jour.). A drum. 

Cager. 1. The person who puts the 
cars on the cages at the bottom of 
the mine shaft, or at intermediate 
landings. (Steel) See also Top 

2. One who supervises weighing, 
and the sequence of sending up 
components of a furnace charge, 
keeps tally of the number of 
charges and signals to top filler 
when it is time to hoist. (Willcox) 

Cage seat. Scaffolding, sometimes 
fitted with strong springs, to take 
the shock, and on which the cage 
rests when reaching the pit bottom, 
or other landing (Steel). See Cage 

Cage shuts. (Som.). Short props or 
catches upon which cages stand 
during caging (Gresley). Called 
Falters in Lancashire. See also 
Chairs; Dogs; Cage seat. 

Cage tail-chain (Scot). A chain 
fastened to the bottom of the shaft 
cage to haul a car out of a short 
dip road. (Barrowman) 

Cage-tender. See Cager, 1. 

Cageway. A cage guide, or the part 
of a shaft containing the guides. 

Caging (No. Staff.). The operation 
of changing the tubs or cars on a 
cage. (Gresley) 

Caida (Mex.). A fall of ground. 

Caiman (Mex). 1. An oreshoot. 2. 
A Stillson wrench. (Dwight) 

Cainozoic; Cenozoic. Containing recent 
forms of life: applied to the latest 
three divisions into which strata 
have been arranged with reference 
to the age of the fossils they include. 
It includes the Tertiary and Post- 
tertiary of the British geologists. 

Cairn; Cam (Gaelic). A mound or 
heap of stones erected for a me- 
morial or mark, as a sepulchral 
monument, or a landmark, or to indi- 
cate the site of a cache. (Standard) 

Cairngorm. A yellow or smoky brown 
variety of quartz found at Cairn- 
gorm, Scotland. (Webster) 

Caisson. A water-tight box or cham- 
ber within which submarine con- 
struction is carried on under great 
air pressure to keep the water out 
(Webster). Used also in excavating 
for foundations in the presence of 
great quantities of water. 

Caisson disease. A disease frequently 
induced by remaining for some time 
in an atmosphere of high pressure, 
as in caissons, diving bells, etc.. 
Characterized by neuralgic pains 
and paralytic symptoms (Webster). 
Also called Bends. 

Caja (Mex.). 1. Case; box; water- 
jacket of furnace; housing of 
crustier; C. chica, furnace -tap 
jacket; C. fundida, C. quemada, a 
burnt-out furnace- jacket. (Dwight) 
2. (Sp.). Wall of a vein. 3. The 
inclosure of a deposit between walls, 
or between the roof and floor. 

Cajete (Mex.) A masonry basin to 
receive the pulp from an arrastre. 

Oaj6n (Peru). 1. Box; caisson. 2. Load 
of about 3 tons (variable in differ- 
ent localities). 3. Shoot. 4. Drain. 

5. C. del tiro, shaft - compartment. 

6. C. de granzas (Mex.), the pit to 
receive the crushed ore. 7. C. incli- 
nado (Sp.) A buddle; an inclined 
table. (Halse) 

8. ( Sp. ) In the southwestern United 
States, a canon or narrow gorge 
with steep sides; a box gorge. 

Cajonero. (Sp.). The man who re- 
ceives, registers and distributes the 
mine cars at the shaft mouth. 

Cake. 1. The solid residue left in a 
filter press after the solution has 
been drawn off. (Clennell) 
2. See Cake of gold. 3. To form in 
a mass as when ore sinters together 
in roasting, or coal cakes together 
in coking. (Duryee) 

Cake copper. See Tough cake. 

Cake of gold. Gold formed into a 
compact mass (though not melted) 
by distillation of the mercury from 
amalgam. Also called Sponge gold. 

Cakes of ore. Flat masses of ore. 

Caking coal. See Coking coal. 

Cal (Mex.). Lime; C. apagadd, slaked 
lime; C. viva, quick or unslacked 
lime; C. en piedra, limestone or 
chalk. (Halse) 

Cal (Corn.). Wolframite; tungstate 
of iron and manganese (Whitney). 
Frequently associated with tin ore. 

Cala (Sp.). Prospecting-pit (Dwight). 
See also Cata. 



Calabashlng (Nigeria). Panning met- 
alliferous gravel with a calabash, or 
gourd. (Skinner) 

Calabrote (Mex.). A rope of large 
diameter. (D wight) 

Calaite. The mineral turquois. (Hum- 

Calamaco (Mex.). Large piece of 
rock, difficult to break up. (Dwight) 

Calamin. To apply to (pottery) a 
wash made from the pigment cala- 
mine. (Standard) 

Calamina (Sp.). Dry bone; smlthson- 
ite (Lucas). See also Calamine. 

Calamine. 1. A commercial, mining 
and metallurgical term comprising 
the oxidized ores of zinc, as distin- 
guished from the sulphide ores 
(blendes). Used also by mineralog- 
ists as the name of mineral species, 
American mineralogists commonly 
calling the hydrous silicate of zinc, 
H a O.2ZnO.SiOa, by this name, but in- 
asmuch as British mineralogists call 
the anhydrous carbonate, ' ZnCOs, by 
the same name, some authorities ad- 
vocate discontinuance of the use of 
the name for distinct mineral species 
and the confinement of its use to a 
class of ores, which was the original 
use and still is the commercial and 
technical use. (W. R. Ingalls, 
Trans. A. I. M. E M vol. 25, p. 17.) 
2. A special kind of so-called gal- 
vanized iron. Spelled also Kalamin. 

Calamine stone (Eng.). A carbonate 
of zinc (Roberts). More properly, 

Calamita (Sp.). 1. Loadstone. 2. A 
compass needle. 3. Siderite or 
spathic iron ore. (Halse) 

Calami te. 1. An asparagus-green 
variety of tremolite. (Standard) 

Calaverite. A telluride of gold and 
silver, (Au. Ag) Tea. Variable in 
composition, but contains about 39.5 
per cent gold and 3.1 per cent silver. 
(U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Oalcaire (Fr.). Limestone. (Stand- 

Calcaire grossier (Fr.). An extensive 
coarse limestone stratum, or rather 
series of strata, found in the Paris 
Basin, belonging to the Eocene se- 
ries. (Comstock) 

Calcaphanite. A variety of diabase, 
with small kernels of calcium car- 
bonate embedded in the green 
ground mass. (Webster) 

Calcar. 1. Kind of oven, or reverbera- 
tory furnace used in the manufac- 
ture of glass for calcination of the 
batch into a frit. 2. An annealing 
arch or oven. (Webster) 

Calcar (Mex.). To make a tracing of 
a drawing. (Dwight) 

Calcarenite. A name suggested by A. 
W. Grabau for a "limestone or dolo- 
nite composed of coral or shell-sand 
or of calcic sand derived from the 
erosion of older limestones." The 
name is from Latin for lime and 
sand. (Kemp) 

Calcareo (Mex.). Calcareous. 
(Dwight) . 

Calcareous. Consisting of or contain- 
ing carbonate of calcium. (Web- 

Calcareous grits. Sandy beds, Inter- 
mixed with calcareous matter. 

Calcareous sandstone. A sandstone 
containing a considerable propor- 
tion of calcium carbonate. ( Bowles) 

Calcareous spar. Crystallized carbon- 
ate of calcium. See also Calclte. 

Calcareous tufa. A spongy, porous or 
vesicular deposit of calcium car- 
bonate. When the carbonate of cal- 
cium is deposited in a solid form it 
te called travertine or calc-sinter. 
Stalactites and stalagmites are of 
this nature. (Roy. Com.) 

Calcarone (Italy). A kiln used in 
Sicily in which sulphur is separated 
from the crude ore by heat (Stand- 

Calcedonia (Mex.). Chalcedony. 

Calcedony. See Chalcedony. 

Calcio. Of, pertaining to, or contain- 
ing calcium. Said especially of min- 
erals, particularly feldspars, of 
which calcium Is an important con- 
stituent, and of igneous rocks which 
are characterized by the presence 
of Rich minerals, (La Forge) 

Calciferous. Bearing, producing, or 
containing, calcite, or carbonate of 
calcium. (Webster) 

Calcify. To make or become hard or 
stony by the deposit of calcium salts. 

Calcigenous. Forming a calx: said of 
certain metals. (Standard) 



Calcilutite. A name suggested by A. 
W. Grabau for a limestone or dolom- 
ite made up of calcareous rock flour, 
the composition of which Is typi- 
cally nonslliceous,. though many cal- 
cllutites have an intermixture of 
clayey material. The word is from 
the Latin for lime and mud. 

Calcin (Mex.). A r casting-furnace. 
(D wight) 

Calcin a (Sp.). Concrete. (Halse) 

Calcinable. Capable of being calcined 
or reduced to a friable state by the 
action of fire. (Century) 

Oalcinar (Mex.). To calcine or roast. 

Calcination. The reduction of ore or 
other material to a calx or friable 
condition by the action of fire 
(Hitchcock). See also Calcine. 

Calclnatory. See Calciner. 

Calcine. To expose to heat, with or 
without oxidation; to roast. Ap- 
plied to ores for the removal of wa- 
ter and sulphur, and the disinte- 
gration of the mass; to limestone 
for the expulsion of its carbon 
dioxide; etc. (Raymond) 

Calciner. A furnace or kiln for roast- 
ing. (Raymond) 

Calcining furnace. A furnace used 'for 
roasting ore in order to drive off 
certain impurities. (C. and M. M. 
P.) Also called Calciner. 

Calcic (Sp.). Calcium. (Dwight) 

Calciocelestite. A variety of celestite 
containing calcium. (Standard) 

Calclovolborthite. .A vanadate of cop- 
per and calcium. Contains about 38 
per cent VaO.. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Calclrudite. A name suggested by A. 
W. Grabau for a "limestone or 
dolomite composed of broken or 
worn fragments of coral or shells or 
of limestone fragments, the inter- 
stices filled with calclte, sand, or 
mud, and with a calcareous cement." 
The word is derived from the Latin 
for lime and rubble. (Kemp) 

Calcite. Hexagonal (rhombohedral) 
calcium carbonate, the more com- 
mon form of CaCOk Contains 56 
per cent lime, CaO. (U. S. Geol. 

Calcitrant. Refractory (Webster). 
Said of certain ores. 

Calcium. A silver-white, rather soft 
metal of the alkaline earth group. 
Symbol, Ca; atomic weight, 40.07. 
Specific gravity, 1.56. (Webster) 

Calcium carbide. A crystalline solid, 
CaCa, colorless when pure, but often 
resembling gray limestone. It is 
made by heating lime and carbon 
together in the electric furnace, and 
is used for the generation of acety- 
lene (Webster). Used in miners' 

Calcium carbonate. A solid, CaCOs, 
occurring In nature, as calcite, etc. 

Calcium chloride. A compound, CaCl* 
crystallizing usually with six mole- 
cules of water. (Webster) 

Calcium fluoride. The compound, GaFa, 
occurring in nature as fiuorite. 

Calcium hydroxide. Slaked lime, 
Ca(OH)a. (Webster) 

Calcium phosphate. See Apatite. 

Calcium sulphate. See Anhydrite; 

Calco (Mex.). A tracing on cloth or 
paper. ( Dwight) 

Calcomalachite. A form of malachite 
containing calclte and gypsum ; used 
as an ornamental stone. (Webster) 

Calc-schist. A schistose rock, rich in 
calclte or dolomite, forming Inter- 
mediate or transitional rock between 
the mica-schists and crystalline 
limestones. (Kemp) 

Calc-sinter. Limestone deposited from 
springs and waters containing it; 
travertine (Hitchcock). Also called 
Calcareous tufa. 

Calc-spar. A synonym for Calcite. (A. 
F. Rogers) 

Calc-tufa (Corn.). A spongy or porous 
deposit of carbonate of calcium. Bee 
also Calcareous tufa. 

Calculifonn. Pebble-shaped. (Web- 

Caldear. 1. (Mex.). To glow with 
heat. (Dwight) 

2. (Sp.). To heat a furnace; to 
weld. (Halse) 

Caldera. 1. A very large crater pro- 
duced by a gigantic explosion. 2. A 
crater produced by the fusion of the 
core of a volcano and the falling 
in of its summit. (Webster) 
8. (Sp.). A kettle or caldron. 0. 
de vapor, a steam boiler. 4. A 
winze. 5. The bottom of a shaft; 
a sump. (Halse) 



Caiderista; Calderero (Mex.). 1. A 
boiler-maker. (Dwight) 
2. A blacksmith. (Halse) 

Calderitc. A variety of garnet 

Caldron bottom (Eng.). The fossil 
root of a f tree or fern lying on the 
roof of a seam of coal. It derives 
its name from the resemblance to 
the bottom 6f a caldron or pot. 
See Bell-mold; also Cauldron. 

Cale (Mid.). A specified number of 
tubs taken into a working place dur- 
ing the shift (Gresley) 

Calecero (Mex.). A man who rides on 
hoisting-cage and gives the signals. 

Caledonite. A green basic sulphate of 
lead and copper of uncertain com- 
position. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Calentadura (Mex.). 1. The first bar 
of lead treated by a lead-refining 
furnace. (Dwight) 
2. Putting a furnace into blast, 
or the first heating of a furnace 
(Halse). "Blowing-in" a furnace. 

Calentar los cuerpos. 1. (Peru) The 
turning yellow of mercury in patio- 
amalgamation. (Dwight) 
2. (Sp.) C. un homo, to blow in a 
furnace, or to put a furnace into 
blast (Halse) 

Calera (Mex.). Limekiln; calcining 
furnace. (Dwight) 

Calero (Mex.). Lime burner; roaster- 
man. (Dwight) 

Calesa (Mex.). Buckets for ore or wa- 
ter. (Dwight) 

Caliber. The inner diameter or bore 
of a tube or pipe. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Calibrate. 1. To determine the caliber 
of, as the interior of a thermometer- 
tube, 2. To determine the relative 
value of c s different parts of an or- 
dinary scale. (Century) 

Calicanto. 1. 'Mex.) Masonry work. 
2. Aurlferouw conglomerate in Chu- 
quibamba, Peru. (Dwight) 

Calicata (Sp.). A digging or trial pit. 

Calicbal (Mex.). Second-class silver- 
:--e (carrying from 150 to 1000 oz. 
per ton) (Dwight). At Pachuca, 
Hidalgo, the best or first-class ore 
separated in the mine, the second- 
class being known as azogues. 

Caliche. 1. (Chile and Peru). Impure 
native nitrate of soda. 2. (Uco, 
Peru) A thin layer of clayey soil 
capping auriferous veins. 3. (Chile) 
Whitish clay in the selvage of veins. 

4. (Mex.) Feldspar; a white clay. 

5. (Mex.) A compact transition 
limestone. 6. (Colom.) A mineral 
vein recently discovered. 7. (Colom.) 
In placer mining, a bank composed 
of clay, sand and gravel. (Halse) 
8. (Mex. and Southwest U. S.) 
Gravel, sand, or desert debris ce- 
mented by porous calcium carbonate ; 
also the calcium carbonate Itself. 

Calichera (Chile). A deposit of cali- 
che. (Halse) 

Calicheros (Sp.). Lime burners. (Mln. 

Calico marble. A local name for a 
Triasslc conglomerate used in the 
columns of the old Chamber of Rep- 
resentatives in the Capitol at Wash- 
ington. The source is Frederick 
County, Md. (Merrill) 

Calicntc (Mex.). Hot. The condition 
when mercury flours in amalgama- 
tion. (Dwight) 

Calientes (Mex.). Silver ores, gen- 
erally colorados, 1, with some sul- 
phate of iron, the result of decom- 
position. (Halse) 

Californian onyx. A dark amber-col- 
ored and brown aragonite, used in 
ornamentation. (Standard) 

California pump. A rude pump made 
of a wooden box through which an 
endless belt with floats is operated; 
used for pumping water from shal- 
low ground. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Californite. A compact, massive ve- 
suvianite. Used as an ornamental 
stone. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Caling (Mid.). Conveying tubs into 
the stalls out of turn irregularly 
so that each miner is not supplied 
with an equal number during the 
day. (Gresley) 

Caliper; Calliper, ^.n instrument with 
two legs, usually bent, fastened to- 
gether with a hinge or spring, used 
for determining the thickness or di- 
ameter of objects, distance between 
surfaces, etc. (Webster) 

Caliza; Piedra caliza (Mex.). Lime- 
stone. (Dwight) 

Calk. l..To drive tarred oakum into 
the seams between planks and fill 
with pitch. 2. A sharp-pointed piece 
of iron or steel projecting from the 
bottom of a horseshoe (Webster) 



3. In metal working, to strike a 
chisel,, or calking tool with a ham- 
mer, making a slight indentation 
along the seam. The effect of this is 
to force the edge of one plate hard 
against the other, and thus fill up 
any slight crevice between the plates 
which the rivets failed to close. 

Calking tool; Calking iron. A blunt- 
ended chisel used in calking. See 
also Calk, 1 and 3. 

Callainite. An apple- to emerald-green 
massive wax-like aluminum phos- 
phate, A1PO 4 +2$H 2 O. (Dana) 

Callais. A precious stone of green- 
ish-blue color, probably turquoise, 
referred to by Pliny, 77 A. D. (Pliny 
History, Bk. 37, 151). .Dana uses 
this is a synonym of callainite, an 
emerald-green, hydrated aluminum 

Csllapos (Peru). Rude wooden steps 
at the mouth of a mine. (D wight) 

Callen; Kallen. Irony; especially 
used when a lode is rich in soft 
Iron ocher. (Power) 

Caller (No. of Eng.). A miner who 
goes round the villages about two 
hours before work commences, to 
call the men who examine the mine 
In the morning before the miners 
enter. (Gresley) 

Callcy -stone (York.). In coal mining, 
a kind of hard sandstone, more or 
less argillaceous (Century). See 
alto Canister, 8. 

CaUiard; Qalliard (No. of Eng.). A 
hard, smooth, flinty grit-stone. 

Callimns. Loose, stony matter found 
In the cavitiea of eaglestone. 

Calling course (Eng.). The time for 
the men to go to work (Bain- 
bridge). See also Caller. 

Callow. 1. The baring or cover of 
open workings. (Gresley) 
8. The stratum of soil over the sub- 
foil; the top or rubble bed of a 
quarry. 3. Low-lying marshy land. 

Callow oone. A conical settling tank 
with vertical central feed, peripheral 
overflow, annular launder to collect 
and convey away the overflow, and a 
pigot in the form of a gooseneck to 
discharge the tailings. (Liddell) 

Callow process. A flotation process 
embodying the usual principles but 
in which agitation is secured by air 
forced into the pulp through the 
canvas-covered bottom of the cell. 
(Megraw, p. 18) 

Callow screen. A classifying screen 
using the traveling-belt principle, 
the screen cloth forming the belt 
member. It passes, over two drums, 
or pulleys, oversize being discharged 
while the belt travels under the 
drums. (Liddell) 

Callys (Corn.). See Killas. 

Calm; Caulm (Scot). White or light 
colored blaes. (Barrowman). See 
also Blaes. 

Calomel. Horn quicksilver. Mercu- 
rous chloride, Hg 3 Cl a , containing 85 
per cent mercury. (Dana) 

Calor de frio (Mex.). In the patio 
process, steam issuing from the ore 
mixture, especially in cold weather. 

Calorie. The amount of heat required 
to raise the temperature of one 
gram of water one degree centigrade 
at or near the temperature of maxi- 
mum density. Called Small calorie. 

Calorifics. The science of heat The 
technics of artificial heating. (Web- 

Calorimeter. 1. Any apparatus for 
measuring the quantity of heat gen- 
erated in a body or emitted by it, 
as by - observing the .quantity of a 
solid liquified, or of a liquid vapor- 
ized, or the amount of heat absorbed 
by a certain quantity of water, under 
given conditions. 2. The combined 
area of cross-section of smoke flues 
or passages, as in a locomotive boiler. 

Calp (Ir.). A bluish-black to grayish- 
blue limestone found in Ireland. 

Cal viva (Sp.). Quicklime. (Miru 

Calx, 1. Lime. 2. The friable resi- 
due left when a metal or mineral 
has been subjected to calcination. 
Metallic calxes are now called 
oxides. 3. Broken and refuse glass 
returned to the p<*ts. (Webster) 

Calyx. A long cylindrical vessel of the 
same diameter as the core-barrel, 
which guides the bit, and receives 
the debris resulting from the action 
of the cutter. Its action is not un- 
like that of the diamond drill and 
necessitates the use of a powerful 
water flush. The cutter, which 



takes the place of the diamond 
crown, has a number of long teeth 
which produce a chipping action 
when rotated by hollow flushing rods 
in the presence of a constant flow 
of water. Used in a system of oil- 
well drilling, originating in Aus- 
tralia. The great advantage of this* 
system is that a core is extracted 
and preserved in a core-barrel and 
brought to the surface. (Mitzakis) 

Calza. 1. (Mex.). A shim; liner. 

2. A stone for scotching a wheel. 
8. (Chile). A converter lining. 4. 
(Arg.) Lagging. (Halse) 

Calzar (Mex.). To sheath or face 
with metal. To shim; to tamp. 

Cam. A rotating piece, either noncir- 
cular or eccentric: used to convert 
rotary into reciprocating motion: 
often of irregular outline, and giv- 
ing motion that is irregular in di- 
rection, rate, or time. (Standard) 
In stamp mills the cam projects 
from a revolving horizontal shaft 
and raises the stamp by catching the 
lower surface of the tappet or collar 
surrounding the rod on which the 
stamp-head is hung. The upper side 
of the cam has an easy curve, such 
as a parabola, so that when it strikes 
the tappet it may not jar it when the 
lifting movement begins. (Roy. 
Com.) Sometimes called Lifter or 

Cambay stone. A variety of carnelian 
from Cambay, India. 

Cambiar (Mex.). To switch. (Dwight) 

Gambia via (Mex.). A turntable; a 
man who operates switch. (Dwight) 

Cambio. 1. (Mex.). Switch. (Dwight) 
2. (Sp.). Alteration, change. 3. C. 
de naturaleza, variation m the 
quantity and class of material form- 
ing a sedimentary deposit. C. de 
potencia, change in the thickness of 
a deposit (Halse) 

Cambrian. The oldest of the systems 
into which the Paleozoic stratified 
rocks are divided; also the corre- 
sponding geologic period. (La Forge J 

Cameo. A gem carved in relief, from 
onyx, sardonyx, a shell or other ma- 
terial usually having layers of dif- 
ferent colors. (Webster) 

Cameo ware. Fine pottery with figures 
In relief of a different color from 
the ground, as jasper ware (Stand- 
ard. See also Wedgewood ware. 

Camino. 1. (Mex.) A road; a gallery 
or shaft in a mine used for general 
traffic. 2. C. de hierro, a railway; 
a railroad. (Halse) 

Cammett table. See Wilfley table, 

Camoien (Fr.). See Cameo. 

Camon. 1. (Mex.) The iron tire of 
mill-wheel. (Dwight) 

2. (Mex.) A section or segment of 
a crown wheel of a Chilean mill. 

3. Pine boards forming the side of 
an arrastre. (Halse) 

Camp. A mining town. (Weed) 

Campaign. The period during which 
a furnace is continuously in Oper- 
ation. (Raymond) 

Campan marble. A beautiful pale, yel- 
lowish - green stone mottled with 
white. A dark-green variety con- 
taining red blotches is known as 
Campan rouge. (Merrill) 

Campana. 1. (Mex.) A bell. See Ca- 
pellina; also Campanula. (Dwight) 
2. (Sp. Am.) Nonproductive ground. 

Campanela (Mex.). An upper drill 

hole. (Dwight) 
Campanero (Mex.). A bellman, or 

station tender. (Dwight) 

Campanil (Sp.). Compact red hema- 
tite. (Halse) 

Campanilla (Sp.). A bell-signaling ap- 
paratus. (Halse) 

Camper (ScotJ. Coal slightly altered 
by whin; dirty coal. (Barrowman) 

Campero (Mex.). The foreman in 
charge of Campos. A miner work- 
ing on tribute. (Dwight) 

Campistas (Sp.). Tributers. (Min. 
Jour. ) 

Campo. 1. (Mex.) A limited lease of 
a small section of ground in a mine, 

2. A mining camp. See also Real, 1. 

3. (Braz.) Undulating table-land. 

4. (Mex.) A mine-working in pos- 
session of buscones. (Halse) 

Camptonite. A name given by Rosen- 
busch to certain dike rocks at Camp- 
ton, N. H., having in typical cases 
the mineralogical composition of 
diorites, i. e. t with dark-brown horn- 
blende, plagioclase, magnetite, and 
more or less augite. They are often 
porphyritic in texture, and may even 
have a glassy groundmass. Without 
the microscope camptonites usually 
appear as dark basaltic rocks with 
a few shining crystals of hornblende 
or augite; their determination is es- 
sentially miscroscopic. (Kemp) 



Campylite. A yellowish to brown va- 
riety of mimetite crystallizing in 
barrel-shaped forms. (Dana) 

Cam shaft. In stamp milling, a strong 
horizontal revolving shaft to which 
a number of cams are attached in 
such a manner that no two of them 
shall strike the tappets at the same 
instant, distributing the weight to 
be lifted. (Wmchell) 

Camstone. 1. A compact, whitish lime- 
stone. 2. A bluish-white clay used 
for whitening purposes. (Stand- 

Cafiada (Sp.). A ravine, or small 
cafion. ( Raymond ) 

Canadian pole system, A system of 
oil-well drilling differing from the 
American cable system, in that 
wooden rods screwed together are 
used instead of a rope. The Cana- 
dian pole 1s a useful all-round pros- 
pecting rig, and It Is particularly 
suitable for regions where excessive 
caving makes it necessary to have 
some positive method of rotating the 
bit (Mitzakis) 

Canadol. A light petroleum ether of 
the specific gravity (X650-0.700, 
which has been used for the pro- 
duction of local anesthesia by spray- 
Ing, and as a solvent. (Bacon) 

Canal. 1. (Mex.) Channel. Spout; 
C. de humo, a flue. 2. O. del oro, 
a gold-bearing channel. (Halse) 

Canales (Sp.). Deposits of manganif- 
erous oxide of iron, formed by fill- 
ing crevices in limestone, and con- 
formable to its stratification. 

Canalistas (Braz.). Gold dredging 
men who work in the channel. 

Canal6n (Colom.). A ground sluice 
used in placer mining; a channel; 
a sluice. (Halse) 

Canary ore. A yellow earthy argentif- 
erous lead ore, generally pyromor- 
phite, bindheimite, or massicot, more 
or less impure. (Power) 

Canary stone. A somewhat rare yel- 
low variety of carnelian. (Power) 

Canasta ( Mex. ) . A basket. ( Dwight ) 

Canastlllo (Mex.). A tramway-bucket. 

Canch. 1. A part of a bed of stone 
worked by quarrying. (Raymond) 
2. (No. of Bng.). That part of the 
roof of an underground roadway 

which has to be taken down, or of 
the floor to be broken up, in order 
to equalize the grade of the road. 
If above a seam, it is termed a Top 
canch; if below, a Bottom canch. 
Also spelled Caunche, Caunch. 

Oancha. 1. (Sp.) . A place for drying 
slimes or sorting ore. (Dwight) 
2. ( Peru ) . A mine dump. ( Pf orte ) 

Canch ero (Peru). A person in charge 
of dumping and sorting of ores. 

Cancrinite. A silicate and carbonate 
of sodium, calcium and aluminum 
H 8 NaCa(NaCOs),Al 8 (Si04).. (Dana) 
The name of the mineral is some- 
timps prefixed to the names of rocks 
containing it, as cancrinite syenite. 

Cand (Corn.). Fluorspar, or fluorite 
occurring as a vein stone ; called by 
the Derbyshire miners, Blue-John 
(Century). Also spelled Cann, 

Candeias (Braz.). A miner's lamp. 

Candelero. 1. (Sp.). A candlestick. 2. 
(Peru). That part of drill hole re- 
maining after blasting. 3. (Mex.). 
A piece of clay on which retort sil- 
ver is laid for final heating. 

Candil (Mex.). An oil lamp. 

Candle coal. See Cannel coal. 

Candle-power. Illuminating power, as 
of a lamp, or gas flame, reckoned In 
terms of the standard light of a 
candle (Webster). The British 
standard candle is defined as a 
sperm candle, that burns at the rate 
of 120 grains of sperm per hour. 

Cafieria (Sp.). A water pipe; an 
aqueduct C. de descarga, water 
discharge. (Lucas) 

Canfleldite. A metallic black-blue 
silver-tln-germanlum sulphide (Ag 
(Sn,GeS) that crystallizes in the 
isometric system. (Standard) 

Canga (Braz.). A kind of auriferous 
glacial rock; in reality an iron 
breccia. Also applied to a brown 
porous conglomerate. (Halse) 

C an galla (Chile). Stolen ore. (Halse) 

Cangalli (Bol.). A ferruginous quartz 
conglomerate. (Halse) 



Cangaua (Sp.). A South American 
term for the volcanic mud of the 
Quiteiiian Andes. (Page) 

Cangrejeros (Colom.). Bunches or 
small pockets of gold occurring in 
veins. ( Halse) 

Canister. 1. (Aust). A tin for hold- 
ing blasting powder. 2. A hopper- 
shaped truck, from which coal is dis- 
charged into coke ovens. (Power) 

Cank; Cankstone (Derb., Leic.). See 
Burr; Whin; Whinstone. 

Canker. 1. (Eng.). The ocherous 
sediment in mine waters, being bi- 
. carbonate of iron precipitated by the 
action of the air. (Gresley) 

2. Rust; verdigris or copper rust. 

3. To rust, to corrode, to oxidize. 

Cann (Corn.). See Cand. 
Cannel. See Cannel coal. 

Cannel coal. A massive, noncaking, 
tough, clean, block coal of fine, even, 
compact grain, dull luster, com- 
monly conchoidal cross fracture, 
having a typical low-fuel ratio, a 
high percentage of hydrogen, easy 
ignition, long yellow flame, black 
to brown greasy streak, and mod- 
erate ash, pulverulent in burning. 
It is essentially a rock derived by 
solidification and partial distillation 
or oxidation of water-laid deposits 
consisting of or containing large 
quantities of plant spores and pollen 
grains and more or less comminuted 
remains of low orders of water 
plants and animals. There may be 
admixed greater or less quantities of 
mud, woody or peaty material. 
(U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 659, p. 8) 
This word is derived from Canicyl, 
meaning a candle, from the readi- 
ness with which the coal ignites and 
gives off a steady flame. (Gresley) 

Cannes marble. See Griotte marble. 

Cannon-ball mill. A mill for grinding 
tough materials ?-? attrition with 
cannon balls in a rotating drum or 
chamber (Standard). See also 
Ball mill. 

Cannonier (Fr.) See Fireman. 
Cannon shot. See Blown-out shot. 

Canny (Corn.). Applied to lodes con- 
taining calcium carbonate and fluor- 
spar (Power). See Cand. 

Canoa (Braz.). A platform used in 
gold- wishing. (Lock) 

744010 O 47 9 

Canon. 1. (Sp.) A valley, usually 
precipitous; a gorge (Raymond). 
Also spelled Canyon. 

2. (Mex.). A mine-level drift or 
gallery. C. de guia, a drift along 
the vein. (Dwight) 

3. (Sp.). An Inclined flue; C. de 
chimenea, a flue or smokestack. 

Cant. 1. To slip or turn over to one 
side. (Gresley) 

2. An Inclination from a horizontal, 
vertical, or other given line ; a slope 
or bevel; a tilt. (Webster) 

Cant dog (Eng.). A handspike with 
a hook. A cant hook. (Century) 

Canteen. A metal, wooden or leather 
vessel or flask of small capacity, 
used by soldiers, travelers, or work- 
men for carryiiig water or other 
liquid. (Webster) 

Cantera. 1. (Sp.). A stone quarry. 
2. (Mex.). An unstratified stone 
of volcanic origin, as an andesitic 
tuff, andesitic breccia; also a meta- 
morphosed quartz-porphyry ; a white- 
banded porphyry. 3. (Chile). A 
light, sandy tuff. 4. (Venez.) Small 
quartz veins which are detached 
from the principal veins. (Halse) 

Cantero (Sp.). Stone mason; quarry- 
man. (Min. Jour.) 

Cantharid luster. A ceramic luster 
having green and blue irridescence 
like that of a Spanish fly. (Stand- 

Cant hook. A wooden lever with a 
movable iron hook at the end used 
for canting or turning over logs. 

Cantle piece. A side piece in a cask 
head. See Cants. (Webster) 

Canto (Mex.). The narrowest face of 
a timber. (Dwight) 

Cantonite. A variety of covellite that 
occurs in cubes. (Standard) 

Cants (Eng.). The pieces forming the 
ends of buckets of a water wheel (C. 
and M. M. P.). See also Cantle 

Canturron (Colom.). Oxide of manga- 
nese. (Halse) 

Canuela (Mex.). A fuse. (Dwight) 

Canvas. Any strong cloth of cotton, 
hemp, or flax. A miner's name for 
brattice cloth. 



Canvas tables. Iriclined rectangular 
tables covered with canvag. The 
pulp, to which cleai* water is added 
If necessary, is evenly distributed 
across the upper margin. As it flows 
down, the concentrates settle in the 
corrugations of the canvas. After 
the meshes are filled, the pulp feed 
is stopped, the remaining quartz is 
washed off ' with clear water, and 
finally the concentrates removed (by 
hose or brooms). (Liddell) 

Canyon. See Cafion. 

Cap. 1. A piece of plank placed on 
top of a prop or stull. 2. The blue 
halo of ignited fire damp which 
shows above the yellow flame of a 
safety lamp when in air containing 
small quantities of fire damp. The 
percentage of fire damp can be 
roughly measured by the height of 
the cap. (Steel) 

3. ( So. Af r. ) A mine when the vein 
matter is barren or when the vein 
is pinched, or contracted, is said to 
be "in cap." (Skinner) 

4. Rock above coal or ore. See also 
Cap roc 1 5. An attachment riveted 
on the C n1 of a rope to which a 
chain nay be fastened. (Gresley) 

6. A fitting that goes over the end 
of a pipe, to close it, producing a 
dead end. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

7. See Blasting cap. 

Capa (Mex.). A flat deposit of ore or 
capping of lava, clay, etc. ; stratum. 

Cap acho( Peru). A large leather bag 
having a capacity of 75 to 150 
pounds of ore. (Pfordte^ 

Capacity of air compressor. The actual 
amount of air compressed and de- 
livered, expressed in terms of free 
air at intake temperature and at 
the pressure of dry air at the suc- 
tion. The capacity of an air -com- 
pressor should be expressed in cubic 
feet per minute. (A. I. M. E., Bull. 
140, p. Ivii) 

Caparrosa (Sp.). Copperas, the result 
of decomposition of pyrite, marcas- 
Ite, or pyrrhotite (Halse). See also 

Capataz (Sp.). Foreman; overseer; 
captain. (Lucas) 

Cap board. Same as C.ip, 1. (Steel) 
Cap crimper. See Crimper. 

Cape diamond. A diamond of yellow- 
ish tinge. (Webster) 

Capel; Kapel. 1. (Corn.). A com- 
posite stone of quartz, schorl, and 
hornblende v Raymond), ofec Caple. 
2. A wall of a lode: so called by 
Cornish miners, and chiefly when 
the country closely adjacent to the 
lode itself has been more or less al- 
tered by those chemical agencies 
under the influence of which the 
latter was formed. Also called Cab. 
In the United States, Casing is some- 
times used synonomously. (Cen- 

Capela (Mex.). A strap passing over 
a man's shoulders from handles of a 
wheelbarrow. (Dwight) 

A cupelling furnace. 

Capella (Sp.). 

Capellina (Mex.). In the patio proc- 
ess, the bell-shaped vessel, campana, 
of copper or iron beneath which the 
amalgam is distilled (Halse). See 
Pifia, 1. 

Capel lode (Corn.). A lode composed 
of hard unpromising felspathic min- 
erals containing minute particles of 
chlorite (Power). See also Capel. 

Cape ruby. A ruby.-red garnet found 
associated with diamonds in the 
South African diamond mines. (Cen- 

Caperuza (Peru). An iron or earthen 
cylinder, placed over amalgam in 
distilling, so that the open lower end 
is in water, into which the condens- 
ing mercury drops. (Dwight) 

Capes (Scot). Movable sides and 
ends put on a hutch, wagon, or car 
to increase its capacity (Barrow- 
man). Compare Bustle, 2. 

Cap head (Eng.). A top for an air- 
box used in shaft sinking. (Bain- 

Capillarity. The peculiar action bj 
which the surface of a liquid, wher * 
it is in contact with a solid (as in a 
capillary tube) is elevated or de- 
pressed. Capillarity depends on the 
relative attraction of the molecules 
of the liquid for each other and for 
those of the solid. See also Surface 
tension. ( Webster ) 

Capillary. Resembling a hair; fine, 
minute; having a very small bore. 

Capillary pyrites. Same as Millerite. 

Capitacao (Braz.). A poll tax, or a 
tax fixed according to the number 
of men employed in mines. (Halse) 



Capltan; Capataz (Mex.). A mine cap- 
tain- C. de patio, a surface boss. 

Capitana (Peru). A hemispherical 
stone vessel, 2 feet In diameter, for 
washing pulp. (Halse) 

Caple. (Cora.). A hard rock lining 
tin lodes (Duryee) See also Capel. 

Capouazo (Mex.). A hlow on me hand 
of the man holding a drill, due -to 
fault of striker. (Dwight) 

Caporal (Sp. Am.). One who super- 
vises laborers; a boss. (Standard) 

Capote. 1. (Mex.). The bell-shaped 
iron cover fitting over the capellina, 
in retorting to confine the heat. 

2. (Colom.) A superficial layer of 
vegetal earth. (Halse) 

Capotera (Colom.). A shallow placer. 

Cappean furnace. A modification of 
the Ropp furnace for calcining sul- 
phide ore. (Ingalls, p. 96) 

Capped quartz. A variety of quartz 
containing thin layers of clay. 

Capper. In brickmaking, the man who 
receives the filled molds as they 
come from a brick machine; a 
molder. (Standard) 

Cappice (Aust). A horizontal stick 
of timber or bar of steel used for 
supporting a weak roof (Power). 
A variation of Cap or Cap piece. 

Cap piece. Same as Cap, 1. In Ar- 
kansas, usually a piece of wood 
split from a log. (Steel) 

Capping. 1. The name given to a 
method by which the flow of a 
spouting oil well is stopped or re- 
stricted. When a very strong dis- 
charge of petroleum is expected, 
strong valves are attached to the 
casing, which permit the flow to be 
controlled, and in order to prevent 
these valves from being blown 
away, they are firmly anchored to 
the ground by means of long, heavy 
bolts. (MitzakisJ 

2. The separation of a block of 
stone along the plane of the bedding 

3. Sometimes used as a synonym 
for Over-burden. 4. See Cap, 1. 

Cap pot. In glass making, a crucible 
having a lid or cap. (Century) 

Cap rock. 1. Barren vein matter, or 
a pinch in a vein, supposed to over- 
lie ore. (Raymond) 
2. (Ark.) A hard layer of rock, 
usually sandstone, a short distance 
above a coal seam. (Steel) 

3. The layer of rock next overlying 
ore, generally of barren vein mate- 
rial (Webster) 

CapsaL A capstan. (Standard) 

Cap silt The upper horizontal beam 
in the timber framing of a bridge, 
viaduct, etc. (Century) 

Capstan. A vertical axle usea for 
heavy hoisting, and worked by hori- 
zontal arms or bars. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Capstan bar. One of the levers by 
which a capstan is worked. (Web- 

Capstone. In masonry, the uppermost 
or finishing stone of a structure. 

Capsnia (Mex.). A blasting cap. 

Captain (Corn, and Wales). The offi- 
cial in immediate charge of the work 
in a mine (Raymond). See Mine 

Captain dresser (Eng.). A manager of 
ore-dressing plant (Bainbridge) 

Capnli (Peru). A kind of wood for 
mine timbering. (Halse) 

Car. 1. A vehicle adapted to the rails 
of a railroad. A vehicle moved on 
wheels. X Webster) 
2. A vehicle used for the convey- 
ance of coal or ore along the gang- 
ways or haulage roads of a mine 
(C. and M. M. P.). Also called Mine 
car, Tram ear, Tub, Wagon, and 
Mine wagon. 

Cara (Sp.). The facet of a crystal. 

Caracas (Colom.). Thin, hard layer 
of gray or reddish clay, between the 
bed rock and pay gravel. (Halse) 

Caracol (Mex.). A curved, spiral, or 
shell-like structure exhibited by cer- 
tain silver ores of San Dimas, Du- 
rango. (Halse) 

Caracolite. A colorless, 1 ydrous, lead- 
sodium chlorosulphate, perhaps Pb- 
(OH)Cl.Na 2 SO4. Occurs as crystal- 
talline Incrustations. (Dana) 

Caracoly. An alloy of gold, silver, and 
copper used first by the Caribs in 
making ornaments. (Standard) 

Carat. 1. A unit employed in weigh- 
ing diamonds, and equal to 3$ troy 
grains (205 mg.). A carat-grain is 
one-fourth of a carat. The inter- 
national metric carat (abbr. C. M.) 
of 200 mg. has (1913) been made the 



standard in Great Britain, France, 
Germany, Holland, and the United 
States (Webster). 2. A term em- 
ployed to distinguish the fineness 
of a gold alloy, and me.aning one- 
twenty-fourth. Fine gold is 24-carat 
gold. Goldsmiths' standard is 22 
carats fine, i. e., contains 22 parts 
gold, 1 copper, and 1 silver. (Ray- 

Carat-goods. Parcels of diamonds 
which are of an average weight of 
about one carat each. (Century) 

Carbenes. The components of the 
bitumen in petroleum, petroleum 
products, malthas, asphalt cements, 
and solid native bitumens, which are 
soluble in carbon disulphide, but 
insoluble in carbon tetrachloride. 
See also Asphaltene and Petrolene. 

Carbide. 1. A binary compound of car- 
bon with some other element (Web- 
ster). 2. A commercial term for cal- 
cium carbide used in miner's lamps. 

Carbide of silicon. An artificial abra- 
sive made by fusing coke, sand, salt 
and sawdust in electric furnaces. 
Discovered in an attempt to make 
artificial diamonds (Pike). See 
Carborundum . 

Carbocoal. A pulverulent product ob- 
tained by distilling coal at a moder- 
ate temperature. It hag* but little 
resemblance to coke, but it ignites 
more readily, supposedly because of 
the occlusion of an extraordinary 
amount of oxygen. (Min. and Sci. 
Press, vol. 117, pp. 471 and 491.) 

Carbodynamite. A form of dynamite 
in which fine charcoal is used as the 
absorbent. (Webster) 

Carbohydrate. Any of a group of com- 
pounds* composed of carbon, hydro- 
gen and oxygen and characterized 
by containing .six or a multiple of six 
carbon atoms combined with hydro- 
gen and oxygen in the proper pro- 
portion to form water. (Webster) 

Carbolate. A salt of carbolic acid. 

Carbolic. Of, pertaining to, or derived 
from carbon and oil ; of or pertain- 
ing to coal-tar oil. (Standard) 

Carbolic acid. A white crystalline 
deliquescent compound, CH.OH, 
with a burning taste and odor re- 
sembling that of creosote. It is a 
caustic poison. (Standard) 

Carbolite. A by-product in iron 
smelting, consisting of calcium- 
aluminum-silicon carbide, and used 
as a substitute for calcium carbide. 

Carb6n (Mex.). 1. Charcoal. Afco 
called Carbon de lena. 2. C. de 
piedra, mineral coal; C. craso, cok- 
ing coal; C. de gas, gas coal; 0. 
pardo, lignite or brown coal ; C. .seco, 
noncoking coal. 3. Graphite. (Raise) 

Carbon. An elementary substance oc- 
curring native as the diamond and 
also as graphite or black lead and 
forming a constituent of coal, pe- 
troleum, asphalt, limestone and other 
carbonates, and all organic com- 
pounds. Symbol, C, atomic weight, 
12.0. Specific gravity, 1.7 to 3.6. 

Carbona (Corn.). An irregular de- 
posit or impregnation of tin ore, 
found in connection with a tin lode. 

Carbonaceous. Coaly, containing car- 
bon or coal. Especially shale or 
rock containing small particles of 
carbon distributed throughout the 
whole mass. (Steel) 

Carbonado (Braz.). A black or dark- 
colored diamond, occurring in small 
irregular rounded nodules. (Halse) 

Carbonate. 1. A salt formed by the 
union of carbonic acid with a base. 
2. Any ore containing a large pro- 
portion of lead cartonate. See also 
Carbonates, 1. 

Carbonated springs. Springs of water, 
containing carbon dioxide gas. They 
are very common, especially, in vol- 
canic countries; and sometimes con- 
tain so much gas, that if a little 
sugar be thrown into the water it 
effervesces like soda water. (Corn- 

Carbonated stone. An artificial stone 
in the manufacture of which steam 
and carbon dioxide are used to has- 
ten hardening. (Standard) 

Carbonate of barium. See Witherite. 

Carbonate of calcium. See Calcium 
carbonate; also Calcite. 

Carbonate of strontium. See Strontian- 

Carbonates. 1. The common term in the 
West for ores containing a consider- 
able proportion of carbonate of lead. 
They are sometimes earthy or ocher- 
ons (soft carbonates), sometimes 
granular and comparatively free 
from iron (sand carbonates), and 
sometimes compact (hard carbon- 
ates). Often they are rich in silver 
(Raymond). Salts of H 2 CO. 
2. (Bng.) Black, imperfectly crys- 
tallized form of diamond used for 
rock boring. The diamond is set *n 



a bit which, as it turns, cuts the 
rock in an annular form, producing 
cores (Gresley). Bee also Carbon- 

Carbonato (Sp.). Carbonate; O. de 
hierro, spathic Iron. (Halse) 

Carbon black. A name for lampblack. 

Carbon dioxide. A heavy colorless ir- 
respirable gas, CO*, which extin- 
guishes a flame. It is formed in 
mine explosions and mine fires and 
forms part of the afterdamp. 

Carbon disulphide. A clear liquid, CS* 
of very disagreeable odor. 

Carboncria (Sp.). 1. A coal yard. 2. 
A coal shed. 3. A coal mine. See 
also Hullera. (Halse) 

Carbonero. 1. (Mex.). A coke or coal 
wheeler. (D wight) 
2. (Sp.). A coal miner. 3. A coal 
merchant 4. A colliery or coal 
mine. See also Hullera. (Halse) 

Carbonet. See Briquet. 

Carbon flame. The characteristic white 
flame caused by burning carbon. It 
issues from the converter only when 
all the silicon has been removed 
from the molten iron. (Webster) 

Carbonic acid gas. See Carbon di- 

Carbonic oxide gas. See Carbon mo 

Carboniferous. In the nomenclature of 
the U. S. Geological Survey, and in 
general usage as well, the youngest 
of the systems into which the Paleo- 
zoic stratified rocks are divided j'also 
the corresponding period of geologic 
time. (La Forge) 

Carbonite. 1. A native coke, occur- 
ring at the Edgehill mines, near 
Richmond, Va. ; it -is more compact 
than artificial coke and some va- 
rieties afford bitumen. (Bacon) 
2. A permissible explosive. 

Carbonization, The process of con- 
verting to carbon, by removing other 
ingredients, a substance containing 
carbon, as in the charring of wood 
or the natural formation of anthra- 
cite. (Raymond) 

Carbonized. Converted into carbon. 

Carbon monoxide. A colorless, odor- 
less gas, CO. It is the product of 
incomplete combustion of carbon. It 
burns with a pale-blue flame form- 
ing CO*, It is very poisonous to 
animals, since it combines with the 

haemoglobin of the blood, expelllag 
oxygen (Webster), Also known as 
White damp. 

Carbono (Sp.). The element carbon. 

Carbon oil. A trade name for kero- 
sene. (Bacon) 

Carbonolite. Wadsworth's name for 
carbonaceous rocks. (Kemp) 

Carbon spar. A name given to several 
mineral carbonates, as carbonate of 
magnesium, zinc, etc. (Century) 

Carbon spot. A black spot in'the body 
of a diamond. (Webster) 

Carbon steel. Steel deriving its quali- 
ties from carbon chiefly, without the 
presence of other alloying elements 
(Webster). Ordinary steel, as dis- 
tinguished from chrome steel, man- 
ganese steel, etc. (Standard) See 
also Simple steel. Compare Alloy 

Carbon tube. A cylindrical glass 
vessel used in the calorimetric de- 
termination of carbon in steel (Web- 
ster. See also Combustion tube. 

Carborundum. A crystalline com- 
pound, SIC, consisting of silicon and 
carbon. It is produced in an elec- 
tric furnace and used as an abrasive 
(Webster). Silicon carbide. 

Carborundum machine. A machine 
provided with carborundum wheels 
designed to cut moldings, cornices, 
balusters, etc., from stone. (Bowles) 

Carboy. A large globular glass bottle 
enclosed in a box or in wickerwork ; 
used mainly for the transportation 
of corrosive acids and the like. 

Carbuncle. A gem of a deep-red color, 
inclining to scarlet, found chiefly in 
East Indies. When held up to the 
sun it looses its deep tinge and be- 
comes the color of burning coal. 
Formerly believed to be capable of 

'shining in darkness. A variety of 
garnet, though the name includes' 
also the ruby and the spinel. (Cen- 

Carburet. A combination of carbon 
with a metal or other substance. A 
carbide. (Webster) 

Carbureted hydrogen. Any of several 
gaseous compounds of carbon and 
hydrogen, some of which are the 
constituents of illuminating gas. 
(Webster) Light carbureted hydro- 
gen is methane or marsh gas, GEL 
It is the chief constituent of fire 



Carburization. The process of impart- 
ing carbon, as in making cement 
steel. (Raymond) 

Carburo (Mex.). Carbide. (Dwight) 

Carcamo (Sp.). 1. A drain or conduit 
for carrying slimes. 2. A drain in 
a mine. 3. (Mex.) A slime pit. 4. 
A penstock. (Halse) 

Carcao (Port.). A matrix in which 
gold occurs. (Halse) 

Carcel. 1. (Sp.) The timber frame 
of a shaft. 2. (Mex.) Hitches or 
steps for timbers. (Halse) 

Card concentrator. A table made of 
two planes having a flexible joint 
between them dividing the table into 
two nearly equal triangles, forming 
a diagonal line along which concen- 
trates separate from the tailings. 

Cardenilla (Mex.). Proustite; ruby 
silver. (Halse) 

Cardenillo (Mex.). Verdigris. 

Cardiglio marble (It). A gray, cloud- 
ed variety of marble obtained for 
ornamental purposes from the Island 
of Corsica. (Page) 

Cardinal points." The four principal 
points of the compass, as North, 
South, East, and West. (Webster) 

Car dumper. A mechanical device for 
tilting a railroad hopper or gondola 
car over sidewise and emptying its 
contents. (Wlllcox) 

Carena (Sp.). An upright stanchion 
for supporting machinery. (Min. 

Carga. 1. (Mex.) A charge, as for a 
furnace. A mule load, generally of 
300 Ibs. Avoir., but variable in dif- 
ferent places. C. de arrastre, a 
charge for an arrastre; usually 
about 200 Ibs. Avoir. (Dwight) 
2. C. real, a land tax. 3. (Colom.) 
Stones, pebbles, and gravel occur- 
ring in placers. 4. (Peru) Ovef- 
burden Of a placer mine. (Halse) 

Cargada (Colom.). A placer contain- 
ing many large stones. (Halse) 

Cargador (Mex.). One who feeds a 
furnace; an ore carrier; a porter. 

Cargadora (Sp. Am.). 1. The first 
washing trough (Lucas). 
2. A charging vat (Halse). See 
also Tina. 

Cargar (Mex.). To charge a furnace 
(Dwight). To feed a mill. 

Cargo (Peru). The first portion of 
mercury added to an amalgamation 
charge. (Dwight) 

Carguero. 1. (Mex.) A charger for 
a furnace. (Dwight) 
2. (Colom.) Stones, pebbles, etc., 
taken from placer workings in or- 
der to extract the gold. (Halse) 

Car haul. An endless chain or cable 
arranged to haul the cars automati- 
cally up a slope, from the top of 
which the cars may travel by grav- 
ity. (Steel) 

Carinate fold. In geology, an iso- 
clinal fold (Standard). See also 

Carinthian furnace. 1. A small rever- 
beratory furnace with inclined 
hearth, in which lead ore is treated 
by roasting and reaction, wood be- 
ing the usual fuel. (Raymond) 
2. A zinc-distillation furnace with 
small vertical retorts. (Ingalls, p. 

Carinthian process (sometimes spelled 
Corinthian ) . A metallurgical method 
for treating lead ore, the character- 
istics of which are: The smallness.of 
the charge, the slow roasting, so 
that for every part of lead sulphide 
one part of sulphate and at least 
two of oxide are formed, the low 
temperature at which all of the 
operations are . carried, on, and the 
aim to extract all the lead in the 
reverberatory. The hearth is in- 
clined toward the flue and the lead 
is collected outside of the furnace. 
(Hofman, p. 88) 

Carlsbad twin; Karlsbad. A twin oc- 
curring in the monoclinic system 
with the vertical axis as the twin- 
ning axis. (Dana) 

Carmeloite. A name given by A. C. 
Lawson to a group of eruptive rocks 
at Carmelo Bay, Calif., which are 
intermediate between the basalts 
and andesites. They range in silica 
from 52 to 60 per cent, have augite 
and plagioclase for phenocrysts; 
and a peculiar, orthorhomoic, hy- 
drated silicate of v iron, lime, mag- 
nesia, and soda, which is a second- 
ary mineral after some original, 
probably ollvine. The secondary 
mineral has been called Iddingsite. 

Carmichel-Bradford process. See Blast- 

Carmin (Sp. Am.). Ore containing a 
large amount of oxide or carbonate 
of iron (Lucas). Colorados ; gossan. 



Caraintte. A carmine to tile-red 
lead-iron-arsenate, perhaps PbsAsaOs.- 
10FeAsO. Found In clusters of fine 
needles; also In spheroidal forms. 

Carnallite. A massive, granular, 
greasy, milk-white, soluble, hydrous, 
magnesium-potassium chloride, 
KMgCb.6H,O, crystalizing in the 
orthorhombic system. (Dana) 

Came de vaca (Peru). Coarse-grained 
galena, generally mixed with gray 
copper-ore. (Dwight) 

Carnelian. One of the varieties of 
chalcedony originally only the red, 
but now (1890) of any color (Roy. 
Com.). Also called Cambay stone, 
from that locality in India. 

Carnotite. A canary-yellow mineral, 
somewhat variable In composition, 
containing uranium and vanadium, 
with either or both lime and potash. 
Is ordinarily a mixture of true 
carnotite 2UOt.V 8 O i .KO+xH,O, and 
tyuyamunite, 2UO.V,O i .CaO+xH 3 O. 
Is radioactive and is used as a 
source of radium. (U. S Geol. 

Carnot's cycle. An ideal heat-engine 
cycle in which the working fluid 
goes through the four following suc- 
cessive operations, (a) Isothermal 
expansion to a desired point; (b) 
adiabatic expansion to a desired 
point; (c) isothermal compression 
to such a point that (d) adiabatic 
compression brings it back to its 
initial state. (Webster) 

Carnot's function. A relation between 
the amount of heat given off by a 
source of heat, and the work which 
can be done by it. (Webster) 

Caromb6 (ISraz.). In placer mining, 
a shallow* wooden box for carrying 
gravel, and also for use in draining 
levels. (Halse) 

Carpet. A bituminous surface of ap- 
preciable thickness, generally formed 
on top of a roadway by the aplica- 
tion of one or more coats of bitumi- 
nous material with gravel, sand, or 
stone chips added (Bacon). Also 
called Blanket 

Carpintero (Sp.). A carpenter. (Min. 
Jour. ) 

Carqnaise. An annealing arch for 
plate glass. (Standard) 

C arrack (Eng.). See Capel. 

Carrana (Peru). Light rawhide shovel 
lor throwing taquia into a furnace. 

Carrancho (Colom.). 1. Decomposed 
country rock; generally granite, 
carrying auriferous pyrite. 2. Soft, 
shaly or schistose country rock In 
which the veins are unproductive. 

Carrara marble. A general name given 
to all the marbles quarried near Car- 
rara, Italy. The prevailing colors 
are white to bluish, or white with 
blue veins; a fine grade of statuary 
marble is here included. (Merrill) 

Carrascal ( Mex. ) . Honey - combed 
quartz, generally barren. (Dwight) 

Carreira (Sp.). A quarry. (Standard) 

Carrera (Mex.). A stroke, as of a 
piston. (Dwight) 

Carrero (Mex.). A charge-wheeler; a 
trammer. (Dwight) 

Carreta (Sp.) A wagon, cart, or 

wheelbarrow. (Halse) ? -) 

Carretero ( Sp. ) . A trammer. ( Lucas)' 

Carretilla; Carrillo de mano (Sp.). A 
wheelbarrow. (Min. Jour.) 

Carriage (Eng.). See Slope cage; 
also Carrigal. 

Car rider. A brakeman or laborer em- 
ployed to ride on car to the dumper, 
or. on cars pushed from cradle, to 
apply brake and prevent hard 
bumping (Willcox). A blast fur- 
nace term. 

Carrier. A catalytic by whose agency 
a transfer of some element or group 
is effected from one compound to 
another. (Webster) 

Carrigal (Scot). A wheeled bogie or 
platform for the conveyance of coal 
cars or tubs, in a level position, on a 
highly-inclined roadway. (Barrow- 

Carrileros (Sp.). Ore carriers. (Min. 

Carrillo (Sp.). 1. A small cart 2. 
C. de mano, a wheefbarrow. 3. A 
pulley block. (Halse) 

Carrizo (Mex.). A small hole in rock 
for a wooden plug. - See also Cho- 
co!6n. (Dwight) 

Cairo (Mex.). A charging buggy; 
mine car. (Dwight) 

Carrot (Eng.). A solid cylindrical 
specimen or core cut in a borehole. 

Carry. 1. (Scot.) The thickness of 
roof rock taken down in working a 
seam. 2. The thickness of seam 
which can be conveniently taken 
down at one working. (Barrowman) 



Carrying gate (Derb.). The main 
haulage road in a mine. (Hooson) 

Carse. A Scottish term applied to the 
flat lands in valleys. (St. John) 

Cart. 1. (Scot.) A measure of 12 
cwt. of screened coal (but in prac- 
tice varying from 12 to 15 ewts.), 
by which miners were formerly 
paid. (Barrowman) 
2. (Som., S. Wales) A tram with 
or without wheels for conveying 
coal underground in thin seams. 

Carting (Som.). Hauling coal under- 
ground in thin seams. (Gresley) 

Cartographic. Pertaining to a map. 
In geology a cartographic unit is a 
rock or group of rocks that is shown 
on a geologic* map by a single color 
or pattern. (Ransome) 

Carton. A pasteboard box containing 
high explosives, blasting-caps, or elec- 
tric blasting caps, a number of which 
are packed in a wooden case for 
shipment. (Du Pont) 

Cartridge 1. A cylindrical, waterproof, 
paper shell, filled with high explo- 
sive and closed at both ends (Du 
Pont). Used in blasting. 
2. Short cylinders (about 4 inches 
long and 2$ inches in diameter) of 
highly compressed caustic lime made 
with a groove along the side, used 
In breaking down coal. See also 
Lime cartridge. (Gresley) 

Cartridge pin. A round stick of 
wood on which the paper tube for 
the blasting cartridge Js formed. 

Car trimmer. A person who adjusts 
the load in a railroad or mine car. 

Cart trade (Som.). See Land sale. 

Cartucho (Mex.). Explosive cartridge. 
(D wight) 

Carving (Leic.). 1. A wedge-shaped 
vertical cut or cutting at the side of 
a stall. 2. An airway between the 
solid and a pack wall. (Gresley) 

Casa (Sp.). House; C. de fundicidn, 
a smeltery ; C. de moneda, a mint. 

Casar metales (Peru). To mix ores 
for amalgamation or smelting. 
(D wight) 

Cascajal (Sp.). A gravel pit. (Cro- 

Cascajero (Colom.). An alluvial mine 
already worked but which still con- 
tains gold. (Halse) 

Cascajo. 1. (Mex.) Gravel; waste 
rock ; oxidized free - milling ore. 
(D wight) 

2. (Peru) A large pocket of ore 
containing native silver in quartz 
mixed with yellow ocherous clay. 

Cascalho (Braz.). 1. Coarse, gold- 
bearing gravel and sand and sub- 
angular rocks embedded in a fer- 
ruginous clay. 2. A mixture of clay 
and quartzose gravel found in river 
beds, and containing diamonds. 

Cascara (Spain). Copper precipitate 
obtained from mine water; cement 
copper. (Lucas) 

Case. 1. A small fissure, admitting 
water into the mine workings. 

2. One of the frames, of four pieces 
of plank each, placed side by side 
to form a continuous lining in gal- 
leries run on loose earth. (Webster) 

3. A wooden box in which dynamite, 
cartons of electric blasting caps, 
boxes of blasting caps or coils 
of fuse are shipped. (Du Pont) 

Case book (No. of Eng.). A book kept 
at a colliery in which the name and 
description of every horse or pony 
which is off work for 24 hours, or 
longer, and the driver's name, is 
entered'. (Gresley) 

Cased tin (Eng.). Fine tin ore that is 
retreated by a gentle current of wa- 
ter flowing over the frame or table. 

Case harden. To convert iron super- 
ficially into steel by partial cementa- 
tion ; as case-hardened steel. (Ray- 

Case hardening. A process of hnrclen- 
ing (iron or steel) by carbonizing 
the surface ,thus converting soft iron 
into steel or mild steel into hard 
steel to a depth depending on the 
length of treatment. This is com- 
monly effected by cementation with 
charcoal or other carbonaceous ma- 
terial, but for a mere skin of steel a 
short treatment with fused potas- 
sium cyanide suffices. (Webster) 

Case markings. The letters or figures 
stenciled or printed on the front of 
a case containing explosives indicat- 
ing the size, weight, kind, strength, 
date, and place of manufacture 
(Du Pont) 



Cases of spar (Eng.). Intersecting 
veins of quartz. (Bainbridge) 

Cash (Som.). Soft shale or bind in 
coal mines. (Gresley) 

Cashy blaes (Scot). Soft coaly blaes 
with little coherence. ( Barrowman ) 

Casing. 1. (Corn.) A partition or 
brattice, made of casing plank, in a 
shaft. 2. (Pac.) Zones of material 
altered by vein action, and lying be- 
tween the unaltered country rock 
and the vein (Raymond). See also 
Capel, Gouge, and Selvage. 

3. Steel or iron tubing used to case 
an oil or gas well. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

4. (Ohio) A local term applied to 
thin slabs of sandstone that split 
out between closely spaced joints. 

Casing clamps. Instruments generally 
manufactured from' wrought iron, 
and used for raising or 16wering 
casing. They are made in two 
pieces held by heavy bolts, which fit 
into corresponding holes, on the 
sides of the clamps. In Canada, 
heavy wooden clamps are used in- 
stead of iron ones. (Mitzakis) 

Casing cutters. Instruments used in 
oil fields for cutting casing prior to 
raising it to the surface, after the 
completion of a well. (Mitzakis) 

Casing dog. In well baring, a fishing 
instrument provided with serrated 
pieces or dogs sliding on a wedge, 
to grip severed casing; also called 
Bull dog ; Casing spear. (Nat. Tube 

Casing elevators. In well-boring, a de- 
vice consisting of two semi-circular 
clamps, with a chain link on either, 
that are hinged together at one end 
and secured by a latch at the other. 
Used for raising and lowering cas- 
ing. See also Casing dog. (Nat. 
Tube Co.) 

Casing fitting. A fitting threaded 
with a casing thread. (Nat. Tube 

Casing head. 1. A fitting attached to 
the top of the casing of a well to 
separate oil and gas, to allow pump- 
ing, and cleaning out well, etc. It 
may have several lateral outlets, 
through which the flow of the oil 
can be controlled and led away to 
reservoirs by mean of pipes 2. In 
well boring, a heavy mass of iron 
screwed into the top of a string of 
casing to take the blows produced 
when driving the pipe. Also called 
Drive head. (Nat Tube Co.) 

Casing-head gas. Natural gas ri?h in 
oil vapors. So named as it Is usu- 
ally collected, or separated from the 
oil, at the casing head. Frequently 
called Combination gas or Wet gas. 

Casing of a reef (Aust). The abnor- 
mal vein stuff abutting on the solid 
reef (Duryee). See also Casing, 2. 

Casing shoe. A circular steel instru- 
ment having a cutting edge, fixed to- 
the bottom of each column of casing,. 
to strengthen the casing, when 
driven into the ground. (Mitzakis) 

Casing spear. An instrument used 
for recovering casing which has ac- 
cidently fallen into the well. The- 
"bull dog," which is the most simple- 
form of casing spear, consists of a 
steel body tapered at the top, on 
which slide two steel segments with: 
serrated edges. When lowered in- 
side the casing to be recovered the- 
steel segments are pushed upward,, 
along the narrow part of the body, 
but when raised, the segments re- 
main stationary, and the weight of 

. the casing forces the thicker part to 
exercise a pressure on the segments 
forcing them outward. The greater 
the pull, the greater is the corre- 
sponding lateral pressure (Mit- 
zak'is). Also called Casing dog. 

Casiterita (Mex.). The tin oxide, cas- 
siterite. (Dwight) 

Casquillo (Mex.). 

A blasting cap. 

Cassel brown; Cassel earth. A brown; 
pigment of varying permanence, con- 
sisting of impure lignite. (Web- 

Casserole. A small round dish with- 
a handle ; usually of porcelain. Usedl 
in chemical laboratories. (Webster) 

Cassinite. A feldspar from Delaware- 
county, Penn., containing geveral 
per cent of baryta. (Century) 

Cassiterite. Tin oxide, SnOs. Con- 
tains 79 per cent tin. The mineral 
from which practically all tin Is- 
obtained. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Cast. 1. The form of a fossil preserved 
in some substance which has filled 
the space left by the fossil. (Lowe) 
2. To form in a particular shape- 
by pouring molten metal into a mold 
and letting it harden. 3. To form, 
by throwing up earth; to emit or 
give out (Webster) 

Cast-after-cast (Corn.). The throwing: 
up of ore from one platform to an- 
other successively. See also Sham- 
bles. ( Raymond > 



Castanite. A chestnut-brown hydrous 
ferric sulphate, Fe 2 Oa2SO 8 .lOH 2 O. 

Castaways. Sterile veinstone. 

Castellano (Mex.). 1. A small furnace 
about 48 inches high, 10 inches 
square, used for lead smelting. Prob- 
ably introduced by the Spaniards. 
2. An ancient Spanish coin. (Halse) 

Castellanos powder. A kind of blast- 
ing powder containing nitroglycerin 
and either nitrobenzene or a picrate, 
mixed with other materials. (Web- 

Casteth (Derb.). Said of a shaft when 
air issuing from it on a cool or 
frosty morning contains visible 
vapor. (Hooson) 

ast gate. In founding, the channel 
through which the metal is poured 
into a mold. (Century) 

Casthole (Derb.). A prospect hole not 
exceeding about nine feet deep, the 
depth from which waste material 
may be thrown by hand. (Hooson) 

Oast house. The buildin in which 
pigs or ingots are cast. (Raymond) 

Castigar (Mex.). To smooth or plane 

surfaces of rocks or boards. 

Castillite. An impure variety of bor- 

nite, containing zinc, lead, and silver 

sulphides. (Dana) 

Castillo (Mex.). 1. The frame of a 
stamp mill. 2. A hoist; a pulley 
frame. (Halse) 

Casting. Pouring or drawing fused 
metal from a blast furnace, cupola, 
crucible, converter, or ladle into 
molds. (Raymond) 

Casting copper. Impure copper better 
suited for casting into various forms 
than for drawing into wires or roll- 
ing into sheets. (Weed) 

Casting ladle. An iron ladle with 
handles, used to pour molten metal 
into a mold. (Century) 

Casting over. A quarryman's term for 
an operation consisting 'of making a 
cut with a steam shovel, which, in- 
stead of loading the material on 
cars, moves it to one side, forming 
a long ridge. (Bowles) 

Casting pit. The space in a foundry 
in which the molds are placed and 
the castings made. In the Bessemer 
and open-hearth steel works it is the 
space utilized for casting the molten 

steel into the cast-iron ingot-molds. 

Casting plate. A casting table used In 
glass making. (Webster) 

Cast-iron. Iron which has been cast, 
that is melted and run into a mold 
in which it assumes the desired 
form. Most cast-iron is pig iron 
which has been remelted in a cu- 
pola furnace. Iron made from ore 
by smelting in the blast furnace is, 
in fact, cast-iron and its properties 
are not altered by remelting, but it 
is commonly known as pig iron, or 
pig. (Century) 

Castor. Same as Castorite. 

Cast, or fusible porcelain. Same as 
Cryolite glass. Called also Hot-cast 
porcelain. (Standard) 

Castorite. A transparent variety of 
pelalite that crystallizes in the 
monoclinic system. (Dana) 

Cast scrap. Cast-iron scrap. 

Cast steel. 1. Steel which has been 
rendered homogeneous by remelting 
in crucibles or pots. (Century) 
2. Any malleable compound of iron 
produced by fusion, including both 
Bessemer and open-hearth steel, as 
well as crucible steel. (Standard) 

Cast-weld. To weld by heating as if 
for casting, as to cast-weld rails. 

Caswellite. A bronze, copper-red, al- 
tered mica that is closely related to 
phlogopite. ( Standard ) 

Cat; Catch earth (So. Staff.). A hard 
fire clay. (Gresley) 

Cata. 1. (Sp.) A mine denounced, 
but unWorked. (Raymond) 

2. (Mex.) A prospect-hole, or pit 

3. (Braz.) A placer. (Halse) 

Cataclasm. A breaking or rending 
asunder ; a violent disruption. 

Cataclastic. Having a fragmental tex- 
ture due to crushing during dynamic 
metamorphism : said of certain 
metamorphic rocks (La Forge). 
Compare Autoclastic. 

Cataclinal. Extending in the direction 
of the dip : said of a valley. ( Stand- 

Cataclysm. 1. Any overwhelming flood 
of water ; especially, the Noachian 
deluge. 2. Any violent and exten- 
sive subversion of the ordinary phe- 
nomena of nature; an extensive 
stratigraphic catastrophe. (Stand- 


Cataelysmal. See Cataclysmic. 

Cataclysmic. J. Accompanied with 
violet disruption. (Lowe) 
2. Pertaining to or of the nature of 
a cataclysm ; characterized by a 
cataclysm or cataclysms. (Stand- 

Cataeorte (Colom.). A prospecting 
trench ; a ditch. ( Halse ) 

Catalan forge. A forge, with a tuyere, 
for reducing iron ore, with char- 
coal, to a loup of wrought iron; a 
bloomery. See also Champlain 
forge. (Raymond) 

Catalysis. Berzelius describes it as a 
decomposition and new combination 
produced among the proximate and 
elementary principles of one or more 
compounds by virtue of the mere 
presence of a substance or sub- 
stances which do i^ot of themselves 
enter into the reaction. (Ingalls, 
p. 194) 

Catalytic. An agent employed in catal- 
ysis, as platinum black, -aluminum 
chloride, etc. (Webster) 

Cat and clay (Eng.). Straw and clay 
worked together, laid between laths 
in building mud walls. (Webster) 

Catapleite. A light-yellow to yel- 
lowish-brown, hydrous silicate, 
H 4 (Na z Ca)ZFSi,On, crystallizing in 
thin tabular hexagonal prisms. 

Catar; Catear. 1. (Sp.). To search 
for minerals. 2. (Colom.). To pan; 
to dolly. (Halse) 

Catarinite, A native alloy of iron and 
nickel, Fe*Ni. (Standard) 

Catastrophe. 1. In geology, a sudden, 
violent change in the physical con- 
ditions of the earth's surface; a 
cataclysm. ( Standard ) 
2. In mining, a disaster in which 
many lives are lost or much property 
damaged, as by a mine fire, explo- 
sion, inrush of water, etc. 

Catawbrite. A name given by O. 
Lieber to a rock in South Caro- 
lina that is an intimate mixture of 
talc and magnetite. (Kemp) 

Cat bank (Eng.). An iron loop placed 
on the* underside of the center of a 
flat corf bow (bucket handle), in 
which to insert the hook. (G. C. 
Green well) 

Cat block. A pulley block. 

Catchall. A tool for extracting broken 
implements from drilled wells. 

Catch basin. A reservoir to catch and 
retain surface drainage. (Webster) 

Catch earth. See Cat 

Catcher. .1. (Eng.). A safety or dis- 
engaging hook for prevention of 
overwinding. 2. (Leic.). See Cage 
shut 3. Strong beams In mine 
shafts to catch the rods of pumps In 
case of a breakdown, (Gresley) 

Catches. 1. Catches or rests placed on 
shaft timbers, to hold the cage when 
It is brought to rest at the top, bot- 
tom, or any intermediate landing. 
Also called Latches, Chairs, Keeps 
or Dogs. 2. Stops fitted on a cage 
to prevent cars from running off. 

3. (Mid.) Projecting blocks of wood 
attached to pump spears to prevent 
damage in case of a breakdown. 

Catchment area. An Intake area and 
all parts of the drainage basin which 
drain into it (Meinzer) 

Catchment basin. The entire area 
from which drainage Js received by 
a reservoir, river, or the like. (Web- 

Catch pin ( Eng. ) . A strong oak or Iron 
pin fixed over and to the ends of 
the beam of a pumping engine, 
which, in the event of a broken 
spear, prevents damage to the top 
or bottom of the cylinder. See 
also Spring beams. (G. C. Green- 

Catch pit A reservoir for saving tail- 
ings from reduction works (C. and 
M. M. P.). A catch basin. 

Catch scaffold (Eng.). A platform In 
a shaft a few feet beneath a work- 
Ing scaffold to be used In case of 
accident. (Gresley) 

Cat dirt (Derb.). 1. A hard fire clay. 
2. Coal mixed with pyrite. 3. A 
kind of earthy scoria not unlike 
lava. (Min. Jour.) 

Cateador (Mex.). Prospector (Dwight) 

Catear (Sp.). To search for new 
mines. (Min. Jour.) 

Cateo (Sp. Am.). Prospecting. (Halse) 
Catero (Sp.). A prospector (Halse) 

Cat face. A miner's term for glisten- 
ing balls or nodules of pyrite in the 
face of coal. 

Cat-faced block (N. Y. and Penn.). A 
bluestone quarryman's term for a 
mass of waste situated between two 
closely spaced open joints. (Bowles) 



Cat gold. An early name for gold- 
colored mica. ( Chester j 

Cathead. 1. A small capstan. 2. A 
broad-bully hammer. See also Bully. 

3. (Prov. Eng.) A nodule of iron- 
stone containing fossils. (Stand- 

Cathode. The negative terminal of an 
electric source, or more strictly, the 
electrode by which the current 
leaves the electrolyte on its way 
back to the source. (Webster) 

Cat hole. A small hole dug in rock for 
the point of a tripod leg of a ma- 
chine drill. (Gillette, p. 99) 

Catlinite; Indian pipestone. A red clay 
found in southwestern Minnesota 
and formerly used by the Indians 
for making pipes. (U. S. Geol. 

Catoctin. A monadnock or residual 
mountain or ridge which preserves 
on its summit a remnant of an. old 
peneplain. (La Forge) 

Catogene. A "general term for sedi- 
mentary rocks, since they were 
formed by deposition from above, as 
of suspended material. Compare 
Anogene; Hypogene. 

Catrake. An hydraulic brake or con- 
troller of a Cornish pumping engine, 
first introduced by Boulton and 
Watt. (Gresley) 

Catrines (Mex.). A general name 
given by Indians to foreigners, and 
includes Spaniards (gachupines), 
French (gavachos) and Germans, 
English, and North Americans 
(gringos). (Halse> 

Cats (-Scot.)* Burnt clay used for 
tamping in wet strata. (Barrow- 

Cat salt. A granulated salt formed 
from the bittern or leach brine used 
for making hard soap. (Century) 

Cat's brain. Sandstones traversed in 
every direction by little branching 
veins of calcite. (Power) 

Cat's-eye. A greenish, chatoyant, va- 
riety of chrysoberyl. (Dana) 

Cat's-head (Ireland). A nodule of 
hard gritstone in shale (Century). 
Compare Cathead, 3. 

Cat silver. A name sometimes given 
to a variety of silvery mica. (Cen- 

Cat's quartz. 1. Same as Cat's-eye. 
8. A variety of quartz containing 
fibers of asbestos. (Standard) 

Cat-stane. 1. (Scot). A conical cairn 
or monolith supposed to mark the 
locality of a battle. ' 2. One of the 
upright stones which supports the 
grate in a fireplace. (Century) 

Cattermole process. A flotation proc- 
ess in which a quantity of oil, vary- 
ing from 4 to 6 per cent and 2 per 
cent soap was added to a flowing 
pulp, to oil the sulphides and make 
them stick together, forming large 
and heavy granules. These gran- 
ules are heavy enough to fall to 
the bottom and remain in a pulp cur- 
rent while the gangue is washed 
away. ( Megraw, p. 15 ; T. J. Hoover,. 
P. 10) 

Catty. 1. An East Indian and Chi- 
nese weight of about 1$ pound* 
Avoir., or 604.8 grams. (Webster) 
2. (Straits Set). A gold weight 
which equals 2.9818 Ibs. troy. 

Cauce (Mex.). A river channel; bed 
of a stream or river. (Dwight) 

Cauf (No. of Eng). A coal bucket or 
basket. (C. and M. M. P.). See- 
also Corf. 

Cauk. 1. (Eng. Scot). Chalk; lime 
stone. 2. An English miner's term 
for barite, or heavy spar (Century). 
See Cawk, 1 and 2. 

Cauld (Scot). A dam in a river; a 
weir. (Century) 

Cauldron; Cauldron bottoms (So. 
Wales). The fossil remains of the 
"casts" of the trunks of sigillaria 
that have remained vertical above 
or below the coal seam (C. and M. 
M. P.). See Bell-mold. 

Caulk. A variation of Calk. 
Crunch. See Canch. 

Caunter-lode (Corn.). A vein cours- 
ing at a considerable angle to 
neighboring veins. (Raymond) 

Caustic. Capable of destroying the 
texture of anything or eating away 
its substance by chemical action; 
burning; corrosive. (Webster) 

Caustic ammonia. Ammonia as a gas 
or in solution. 

Caustic lime. Calcium hydroxide, Ca- 
(OH) 2 , or slaked lime. 

Caustic potash. Potassium hydroxide.. 

Caustic silver. Silver nitrate, AgNO_ 
Caustic soda. .Sodium hyroxide, NaOH. 



Care. 1. A natural cavity, recess, 
chamber, or series of chambers and 
galleries beneath the surface of the 
earth, within a mountain, a ledge of 
rocks, etc.; sometimes a similar 
cavity artificially excavated. 2. Any 
hollow cavity. 3. A cellar or under- 
ground ^oom. 4. The ash pit in a 
glass furnace. (Standard) 
5. The partial or complete falling in 
of a mine. Called also Cave-in. 

Cave deposits. Irregular deposits of 
material in the caves generally 
found in limestone. (Duryee) 

Cave earth. A deposit of sand, soil, 
etc., washed into caves. v( Webster) 

Cave hole. A depression at the sur- 
face, caused by a fall of roof in the 
mine. (Greene) 

Cave-in. See Cave, 5. 
Cavel. A stone mason's ax. 

Cave man. One of a race of men of 
the early Stone Age, who dwelt 
largely in caves. (La Forge) 

Cave pearl. A pearly Concretion, in 
composition like true pearl, formed 
in limestone caves by the agincy of 
water. (Webster) 

Caver. (Derb.). 1. One who steals 
ore or coal at a mine.. 2. An officer 
who guards a mine. (Standard) 

Cavern. A large natural underground 
cavity or cave; a den; any cavity. 

Cavern limestone*. Any limestone 
abounding in caverns, especially the 
Carboniferous limestone of Ken- 
tucky. (Webster) 

Cavernous. Containing cavities or 
caverns, sometimes quite large. 
Most frequent in limestones and 
dolomites. (Roy. Com.) 

Cavil. 1. (No. of Eng.). A lot, drawn 
quarterly by a miner for his work- 
ing place in the mine. (Gresley) 
2. To draw lots at stated periods, 
by miners to determine the places in 
which they will work for the follow- 
ing period. (Power) 

Cavilling rules (No. of Eng.). Rules 
or by-laws in reference to cavils 
and wages. (Gresley) 

Caving. 1. The falling in of the sides 
or top excavations. (Raymond) 
2. A system of mining developed in 
the Lake Superior district. See 
Caving system. 

Caving by raising. See Chute Caving. 

Caving system. A method of mining 
in which the ore, the support of a 
great block being removed, is 
allowed to cave or fall, and in fall- 
ing is broken sufficiently to be 
handled; the overlying strata sub- 
sides as the ore is withdrawn. There 
are several varieties of the system. 
See Block caving; Top slicing and 
cover caving; Top slicing combined 
with ore caving. 

Cawk. 1. (Eng.) Sulphate of barium 
heavy spar. (Raymond) 
2. (Scot.). Chalk; limestone (Stand- 
ard). Also spelled Cauk. 

Cayuse. An Indian pony. A common 
term in Western United States. 

Cazar (Mex.). To ram with a piece 
of timber. (Dwight) 

Cazeador ( Sp. ). Amalgamator. 

Cazo (Sp.). A caldron in which 
amalgamation is effected by heating ; 
used in Mexico and South America 
(Raymond). Any large copper or 
iron vessel. (Dwight) 

Cebar. 1. (Sp.). To melt rich ores, 
or lead bullion, etc., in the smelting 
furnace. To. add small quantities 
of material, from time to time, to 
the bath in a furnace. Generally, 
to feed any kind of metallurgical 
machinery or process. (Dwight) 
2. C. el barreno, to prime a drill 
hole. 3. C. la bomba, to prime a 
pump. (Halse) 

Cebo (Sp.). 1. The second addition of 
mercury, to the torta in the patio 
process. 2. A charge for a smelt- 
ing furnace. 3. Priming, as of gun- 
powder. 4. (Colom.) Calcium Car- 
bonate deposited in veins. 5. 
(Mex.) Metal de cebo, very rich 
silver ore smelted in a refining fur- 
nace. (Halse) 

Cedarite. A fossil resin resembling 
amber, somewhat widely distributed 
in the alluvium c-f the Saskatche- 
wan River in Cam da. See also Suc- 
cinite. (Bacon) 

Cedazo (Mex.). Screen or sieve. See 
also Criba. (Dwight) 

Ceja (Mex.). In vanning with horn 
spoon or miner's pan, the heaviest 
streak or concentrate that appears 
at the edge. (Dwight) 

Celasa (Mex.). A cage. (Dwight) 

Celestite. Strontium sulphate, SrSO. 



CelL A single jar or element of a 
voltaic battery. There are many 
types, and varieties. 

Cellar stone. Small, irregular, rock 
fragments. (Bowles) 

Cellular pyrite. Marcasite. (Power) 

Cement. 1. The material that binds 
togetluer the particles of a frag- 
mental rock. It is usually calcare- 
ous, siliceous, or ferruginous. 2. The 
word is also used in gold-mining 
regions to describe various consoli- 
dated, fragmental aggregates, such 
as breccia, conglomerate, and the 
like, that' are auriferous. (Kemp) 

3. A substance used in a soft pasty 
etate to join stones or brick In a 
building, to cover floors, etc., which 
afterwards becomes hard like stone ; 
especially a strong mortar made 
with lime or a calcined mixture of 
clay and limestone. See also Port- 
land cement. (Webster) 

4. A finely divided metal obtained 
by precipitation. 5. The substance 
in which iron is packed in the proc- 
ess of cementation. (Standard) 

Cementation. 1. A process of causing 
a chemical change in a substance by 
heating it while embedded in a pow- 
dered mass of another substance, as 
. In making steel by heating wrought 
iron in charcoal until it is carbu- 
rized, or in making so-called malle- 
able iron by heating cast iron in a 
bed of red hematite until it is partly 
decarburized. (Standard) 

2. The process of obtaining a metal 
by precipitation from a solution, as 
copper from a solution of blue vit- 
riol by means of metallic iron. 

3. The process by which sediments, 
or sands, are consolidated into hard 
rock. Used in oil-well practice. 

Cementation-box. The box of wrought 
iron in which case hardening is ef- 
fected. (Century) 

Cement copper. Copper precipitated 
from solution. (Raymond) 

Cement deposits. The Cambrian con- 
glomerates occupying supposed old 
beaches or channels. Gold bearing 
in the Black Hills. (Ore Dep., p. 

Cement gold. Gold precipitated in fine 
particles from solution. (Raymond) 

Cement gun. A mechanical apparatus 
for the application of cement to 
the walls or roof of a mine, or for 
the application of stucco to the 
walls of buildings. 

Cementing furnace. A furnace used 
in the process of cementation. (Cen- 

Cementing material. See Cement, 1, 
3 and 5. 

Cementing oven. An oven used for the 
same purpose as a cementing fur- 
nace. (Century) 

Cementite. Iron combined with car- 
bon as it exists in steel before 
hardening. ( Standard ) 

Cement mill. A mill for crushing and 
grinding cement stone; also a mill 
for grinding the cinder after if 
comes from the kiln. 

Cemento ( Sp. ) . 1. Hydraulic lime 01 
cement. 2. In geology, the cement- 
ing material of a conglomerate or 
breccia. 3. A brown deposit ob- 
tained in the precipitation tank by 
the addition of iron sulphate in the 
chlorination process. (Halse) 

Cement rock. An argillaceous lime- 
stone used in the manufacture of 
natural hydraulic cement. Contains 
lime, silica, and alumina in varying 
proportions, and usually more or 
less magnesia. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Cement silver. Silver precipitated 
from solution, usually by copper. 

Cement steel. Steel made by cementa- 
tion ; blister steel. (Standard) 

Cement stone; Cement rock. Any rock 
which is capable .of furnishing .ce- 
ment when properly treated. (Cen- 

Cendrada. 1. (Mex.) The cupel- 
hearth of a furnace in which silver 
is refined or rich lead eupellefl. 
Made of finely-pulverized clay or 
other absorbent earth, mixed with 
ashes of bone or wood. (D wight) 

2. (Sp.) Ashes or cinders at the 
bottom of a furnace, and valuable 
for use in other smelting operations. 

3. (Chile) The crucible of a cop- 
per smelting furnace. (Halse) 

Cendradilla (Mex.). A small reverba- 
tory furnace for smelting rich silver 
ores in a rough way. Also called 
Galcme. (C. and M. M*. P.) 

Cenicero (Sp.). Ashpit; ash hole. 

Cenido (Mex.). Narrowed. (Dwlght) 

Cenizas (Sp.). Ash; c-ader; (7. de 
hueso, bone ash. (Halse) 



Cenozoic. The latest of the five eras 
into which geologic time, as re- 
corded by the stratified rocks of the 
earth's crust, is divided; it extends 
from the close of the Mesozoic era 
to and including the present. Also 
the whole group of stratified rocks 
deposited during the Cenozoic era. 
The Cenozoic era includes the 
periods called Tertiary and Quatern- 
ary in the nomenclature of the 
U. S. Geological Survey ; some Euro- 
pean authorities divide it, on a dif- 
ferent basis, into the Paleogene and 
Neogene periods, and still others ex- 
tend the Tertiary period to include 
the whole. (La Forge) 

Center country (Aust). The rock be- 
tween the limbs of a saddle reef. 

Center cut. The bore holes, drilled to 
include a wedge-shaped piece of 
rock, and which are fired first in a 
heading, tunnel, drift, or other 
working place. -(Du Pont). See 
also Center shot. 

Centering; Centreing. A substructure, 
usually of timber or planks, on 
which a masonry arch or vault is 
built, and on which it rests until 
complete and therefore self support- 
ing, (Webster) 

Center of gravity. That point in a 
body or system of bodies through 
which the resultant attraction of 
gravity acts when the body or sys- 
tem of bodies is in any position ; that 
point from which the body can be 
suspended or poised in equilibrium 
in any position. (Webster) 

Center of mass. A point in a body, or 
system of bodies, such that the sum 
of the moments of the component 
particles about any plane through 
the point equals zero. (Webster) 

Center of symmetry. In crystallog- 
raphy, in general, the point in which 
the axes or planes of symmetry in- 
tersect; in the normal group of the 
triclinic system, which has neither 
planes nor axes of symmetry, the 
point with respect to which equiva- 
lent opposite faces are symmentrical. 
(La Forge) 

Center shot. A shot in the center of 
of the face of a room or entry 
(Steel). Also called Center cut. 

Centigrade. Consisting of a hundred 
divisions. The centigrade thermom- 
eter has zero, 0, as the freezing 
point of water and 100 as the boil- 
ing point. To convert centigrade 
thermometer readings to Fahrenheit 
readings multiply the former by 1.8 
and add 32. (Goesel) 

Centigram. A weight equal to one 
hundredth part of a gram, or 0.15432 
of a grain. See also Gram. (Web- 

' ster) 

Centner (Ger.). A commercial hun- 
dred weight in several continental 
countries, now generally fixed at 50 
kg. or 110.23 IDS. (Webster) 

Centric. In geology, having the mate- 
rial more or less arranged either 
radially or concentrically around 
centers, a crystal often forming the 
center: said of rock texture. 

Centrifugal force. A force directed 
outward when any body is con- 
strained to move in a curved path; 
flying away from the center. (Web- 

Centrifugal pump. A form of pump 
which displaces fluid by whirling it 
around and outwardly by vanes ro- 
tating rapidly in a closed case. 

Centripetal pump. A pump with a 
rotating mechanism that gathers a 
fluid at or near the circumference 
of radial tubes and discharges it at 
the axis. (Standard) 

Cen-tro (Mex.). Center. (Dwight) 

CentroclinaL In geology, an uplift of 
strata which gives them a partial 
quaquaversal dip. (Standard) 

Centrosphere. In geology, the central 
portion of the terrestrial globe. 

CentrosymmetricaL In mineralogy, 
having symmetry around a center, 
but without plane or axis of sym- 
metry. (Standard) 

Cepillo (Mex.). A brush; C. chico, a 
shaper; C. grande, a planer. 

Cepo (Mex.). 1. A notch in which 
timber is fixed. (Dwight) 
2. The cylindrical post in the bot- 
tom of an arrastre upon which the 
vertical post revolves. (Halse) 

Ceramic. Of or pertaining to pottery 
(including porcelain and terra- 
cotta) or its manufacture, fictile 
art, or ceramics in general. (Stand- 

Ceramics. 1. That department of 
plastic art which includes the pro- 
duction of all objects formed by 
molding, modeling, and baking clay, 
such as terrn-cotta, and pottery in 
general; fictile art. 2. The objects 
so made. (Standard) 



Ceramist. A person devoted to the 
ceramic art, whether as a manu- 
facturer, a designer and decorator, 
or as a student or connoisseur. 

Ceramites. A term used by M. E. 
Wadsworth to include all fictile 
ceramic minerals. (Power) 

Cerargyrite ; Horn silver. Silver 
chloride, AgCl. Contains 75 per 
cent silver. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Ceratophyre. See Keratophyre. 

Cerca (Chile). Bed r^ck. Sometimes 
spelled Circa. (Halse) 

Ceresine. A trade name for refined 
ozocerite. (Mitzakis) 

Cerite. A hydrous silicate of cerium 
and allied metals occurring generally 
in brown masses. Hardness, 5.5; 
specific gravity, 4.86. See also Air 
lanite. (Dana) 

Cerium. A rare metallic element re- 
sembling iron in color and luster, 
but is soft, malleable and ductile. 
Symbol, Ce; atomic weight, 140.25. 
Specific gravity, 6.7. (Webster) 

Cerium metals. A group of related 
rare earth metals including cerium, 
lanthanum, praseodymium, and neo- 
dy mium. ( Webster ) 

Cermak-Spirek furnace. ' An automatic 
reverberatory furnace ,of rectangular 
form divided into two sections by 
a longitudinal wall. Used for roast- 
ing zinc and quicksilver ores. (In- 
galls, p. 125) 

Cernidero (Colom.) The place where 
the screening and washing operation 
takes place in placer mines. (Halse) 

Cernidor. 1. (Mex.). Moving screen; 
trommel. (Dwight) 
2. (Colom.). A buddler. (Halse) 

Cernidos (Peru). Small ore remain- 
ing on a $ to in. screen. (Pfordte) 

Cernir (Sp.) To screen or separate. 

Ceroid. Waxlike. (Hitchcock) 

Cerracho (Peru). Mercury that col- 
lects on the top of the furnace 
charge. (Halse) 

Cerraz6n (Colom.). A portion of a 
placer deposit abounding in large 
stones. (Halse) 

Cerro. 1. (Sp.). A hill or mountain. 

2. (Colom.). Mina de cerro, a placer 
mine near mountain tops or on high 
table-lands where water is scarce. 

Certain rent. Same as Dead rent. 

Ceruleum. A blue pigment, consisting 
of protoxide of cobalt, mixed with 
stannic acid and sulphate of cal- 

Ceruse. A name sometimes applied to 
white lead. (Ure) 

Cerusita (Mex.). Cerussite (Dwight) 

Cerussite. Lead carbonate, PbCO s . 
Contains 77.5 per cent lead. (Dana) 

Cervantite. An orthorhombic anti- 
mony oxide, SbzO*. Infusible before 
the blowpipe. (U. S. Geol. Surv..) 

Cesio (Mex.). Caesium. (Dwight) 
Cesta. (Sp.). A basket ; C. de minero 
a miner's baske/. (Halse) 

Ceylonite; Ceylanite. A dark variety 
of spinel in wliich iron is present. 
From Ceylon. (Dana) 

Chabazite. A hydrous silicate, essen- 
tially of calcium and aluminum. 

Chacra. 1. (Bol.;. AU inheritance of 
gold (Lock) 

2. (Peru). A small tract of land 
owned by an Indian miner. 3. An 
Indian village. (Halse) 

Chacuaco (Mex.) A cupel furnace 
with absorbent hearth. (Dwight) 

Chacurruscar (Peru). To mix several 
kinds of ore. (Dwight) 

Chad (Eng.). Gravel; small stones 
which form the bed of a river. 

Chadacryst. An inclosed crystal; the 
smaller crystal of a poikilitic fabric. 
See also Oikocryst (Iddings, p. 

Chadger (Derb.). Anything made fast 
to a hoisting rope by a noose, as a 
large rock or piece of ore that can- 
not be placed in a bucket. (Hooson) 

Chafery. A forge fire for reheating. 
(From the Fr. Chaufferie.) (Ray- 
mond ) 

Chaffee work. A local term used in 
Colorado for annual labor on a min- 
ing claim. (Duryee) 

Chaflan (Mex.). An inclined winze; 
bevel. (Dwight) 

Chain. 1. A unit of measurement used 
in surveying principally and equal 
to 66 feet. Called Gunter's chain. 
Usually divided into 100 links, each 
link being 7.92 in. long. 2. 'A series 
of links or rings, usually of metal, 
connected or fitted into one another. 

3. A mechanical combination con- 



sistlng of two or more links. 4. A 
circuit as of a galvanic battery. 

5. In chemistry, a number of atoms 
united serially. (Webster) 

6. (or saw) The portion of the ma- 
chine that does the cutting in the 
work of undercutting coal at the 
face of an entry. (Morris v. O'Gara 
Coal Co., 181 Illinois App., p. 312) 

Chain-breast machine. A coal-cutting 
machine, so constructed that a se- 
ries of cutting points attached to a 
circulating chain work their way 
for a certain distance under a seam ; 
when the limit is reached, the ma- 
chine is withdrawn and shifted to 
one side, where another cut is put 
in. (Power) 

Chain-brow way. An underground in- 
clined plane worked by an endless 
chain. (Gresley) 

Chain grate. A feeding device for fur- 

Chainman. 1. Either of the two men 
necessary to use a chain or tape in 
surveying. (Webster) 
2. See Chain runner. 

Chain pillar. A pillar left to protect 
the gangway and airway, and ex- 
tending parallel to these passages. 

Chain road. An underground haulage 
way operated by an endless chain 
system . ( Gresley ) 

Chain runner; Chain boy; Chain man 
( Scot. ) . A person in charge of, and 
who accompanies, cars, trips, or 
trains in mechanical haulage. (Bar- 

Chain tongs. A pipe-fitter's tool; a 
lever with a serrated end provided 
with a chain to embrace the pipe. 
(Nat. Tube Co.) 

Chainwall (Scott). 1. A system of 
working by means of wide rooms 
and long narrow pillars, sometimes 
called Room and ranee. 2. A long 
narrow strip of mineral left un- 
worked, e. g., along the low side of 
a level. (Barrowman) 

Chairs. Movable supports for the cage 
arranged to hold it at the landing 
when desired. Also called Catches, 
Dogs, Keeps. (Steel) 

Chalcanthite. A hydrous copper sul- 
phate, CuSO 4 -h5H 2 O. Blue vitriol. 
(U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Chalcedony. A transparent or more 
generally translucent cryptocrystal- 
line quartz. It often lines or fills 
cavities in rocks. (U. S. Geol. 

Chalchihuitl (Mex.). Any green pre- 
cious stone (D wight). According to 
G. F. Kunz, the precious Chalchihuitl 
is jadgite. Also spelled chalcMff&iie 
and chalchuhuite*. 

Chalphuite. A bluish-greeu turquoise 
found in New Mexico, and, according 
to W. P. Blake, the same as Chal- 
chihuitl. (Dana) 

Chalcitcs. 1. A term used by M. E. 
Wadsworth to include lime, mortar, 
cement, etc., used as building ma- 
terials. (Powe-) 

2. A decomposition product of either 
iron or copper pyrites, hence de- 
scribed as iron sulphate (green vit- 
riol), copper sulphate (blue vitriol), 
or iron oxide (colcother). (Stand- 

Chalcocite. A copper sulphide, 
Contains 79.8 per cent copper. Cop- 
per glance. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) The 
mineral is the characteristic and 
most important product of the down- 
ward enrichment of copper ores and 
the chief source of copper in the Ray 
and Miami (Ariz.) districts. (Ran- 

Chalcodite. A scaly mica-like bronze 
colored variety of stilpnomelane. 

Chalcomenite. A hydrous cupric sele- 
nlte, CuSeO-h2H 2 O. Occurs in 
small blue monoclinic crystals. 

Chalcomorphite. A vitreous hydrous 
calcium-aluminum silicate. (Stand- 

Chalcophanite; Hydrofranklinite. A 
hydrous manganese-zinc oxide (Mn,- 
Zn)O.2MnO 2 .2H,O. (U. S. Geol. 

Chalcophyllite. A highly basic arse- 
nate of copper, 7CuO.As a O B .14H a O, of 
various shades of green, occurring in 
tabular crystals or foliated masses. 

Chalcopirita (Mex.). Chalcopyrite. 

Chalcopyrite. A sulphide of copper 
and iron, CuFeS. Contains 34.5 
per cent copper. Copper pyrites, 
yellow copper ore. (U. S. Geol. 

Chalcopyrrhotite. A brownish, brass- 
yellow iron-copper sulphide, Fe<CuS. 

Chalcosiderite. A light siskin -green 
hydrous copper-iron, phosphate, 
CuO.SFeaOt^PzOeSHjO. Occurs in 
sheaf-like crystalline groups as in 
crustations. (Dana) 

744010 O 47- 




Chalcosina (Mex.). Sulphide of cop- 
per; chalcocite. (Dwlght) 

Chalcostibite. A lead-gray copper-an- 
timony sulphide, Cu,S.SbaSt. GaUed 
also Wolfsbergite. (Dana) * 

Chalcotrichite. A variety of cuprite 
in which the crystals are slender 
and hair-like, (Kansome) 

Chalder (Scot). A measure of weight 
The Perth chalder was 5 tons, the 
River Forth chalder 80 cwts., the 
Hurlet chalder 2 tons (Barrowman). 

Chalder wagon (No. of Eng.). See 

Chaldron. Thirty -six bushels. In 
Newcastle 53 hundredweight avoir- 
dupois. Chaldron wagons, contain- 
ing this quantity, copvey the coal 
from the mine to the place of ship- 
ment. ( Ray mond ) 

Chalk. 1. A fine-grained, soft, white, 
friable variety of limestone com- 
posed of the shells of various ma- 
rine animals. (La Forge) 
2. To mark with chalk. (Webster) 

Chalking deal (Eng.). A flat board 
upon which Is kept an account of 
the work done by the miners in a 
certain district (G. C. Green well). 
A bulletin board. 

Chalking on (No. of Eng.). Keeping 
an account of the number of tubs 
(cars) sent out of a stall or room. 

Chalupa (Mex.). A hoist; a skip, 

Chalybeate. Impregnated with salts 
of iron. (Webster) 

Chalybite. See Siderite. 

Chamba (Colom.). A pit or trench, 

Chamber. 1. See Breast ; Room ; Stall. 
2. See Springing. 3. A body of ore 
with definite boundaries apparently 
filling a preexisting cavern. 4. A 
powder room in mine. (Webster) 

Chamber and pillar (Penn.). See 
Breast and pillar. 

Chamber-and-pillar system. See Sub- 
level stoping. 

Chamber deposit. A cave filled with 
mineral (Power). See also Cham- 
ber, 3. 

Chamber dust. See Fluedust. 

Chambered lode. So called when a 
portion of the wall of a lode is fis- 
sured and filled with ore (Power). 
See also Chamber, 3. 

Chambered vein. A mineral vein fill- 
ing large areas of space in ruptured 
rocks. (Standard). A synonym for 
Stockwork and applied to mercury 
deposits at New Almaden (Ore Dep., 
p. 425). See also Chambered lode. 

Chambering. See Springing. 

Chamber kiln. A brick or tile kiln 
having chambers or compartments, 
sometimes so arranged that they can 
be heated successively. (Century) 

Chamburgo (Colom.). A dyke or dam 
for retaining water at placer mines. 

Chamfer. 1. A small groove or fur- 
row. 2. To cut at an angle or bevel. 

Chamois. A soft, pliant leather pre- 
pared originally from the skin of 
the chamois, but now also from the 
skin of a goat or sheep (Webster). 
Used for separating excess mercury 
from gold amalgam. 

Chamosite; Chamois! te. A compact or 
oolitic greenish-gray to blnck hy- 
drous aluminum silicate. Contains 
iron (FeO) with but little MgO. 

Chamotte. 1. (Fr.). Burned clay used 
by zinc smelters. (Ingalls, p. 228) 
2. The refractory portion of a mix- 
ture used in the manufacture of fire- 
brick, composed of calcined clay or 
of reground bricks. (Standard) 

Champa (Peru). Turf. (Halse) 

Champion lode. The main vein as dis- 
tinguished from branches (Ray- 
mond). The term is of Cornish ori- 
gin, and is little used in the United 
States. Also called Mother lode; 
Master lode. (Century) 

Champlain forge; American forge. A 
forge for the direct production of 
wrought iron, generally used IK the 
United States instead of the Catalan 
forge, from which it differs in using 
only finely-crushed ore and In work- 
ing continuously. (Raymond) 

Chamuscar (Peru). A superficial 
roasting or calcination, to facilitate 
the grinding of ore. (DwighO 

Chanca (Peru and Chile). Ore sorting 
and spalling. (Halse) 

Chancadora (Sp.). Ore breaker. 

Chancados (Peru). Ores spalled to a 
uniform size. (Pfordte) 



Cnancadura (Chile). Crushing with a 
rock breaker. (Halse) 

Chancar (Peru and Chile). To cob 
ores. (Halse) 

Chance. 1. In coal mining: The op- 
portunity a shot has to break the 
coal. 2. The opportunity to put In 
a shot in a good position. (Steel) 

Chance-Clan* process. An industrial 
process for recovering sulphur from 
waste containing sulphides. It com- 
prises two steps: (a) Treatment of 
sulphide with carbon dioxide, form- 
ing HiS, and (b) oxidation of BUS to 
water and sulphur by air In the 
presence of n catalytic, as ferric 
oxide. (Webster) 

Chance measure (Eng.). Any seam or 
bed of coal or other rock occupying 
an unusual or foreign position in 
the strata. (Gresley) 

Change day. The day when a gang of 
miners is transferred from day 
shift to night shift, or the reverse. 

Change house. A special building at 
mines or other works where laborers 
may wash, or change their clothes. 
Also called Dry house, Changing 
house, Moorhouse. 

Changer and grather (No. of Eng.). 
A man whose duty it is to keep the 
pump buckets and clacks In working 
order about a colliery. (Gresley) 

Changing bronze. The process of 
changing tuyeres, plates, monkey, 
etc., at blast furnaces. (Willcox) 

Changing house (Corn.). See Change 

Chafigkul (Sumatra). A miner's ham- 
mer. (Lock) 

Channel. 1. The deeper part of a 
river, harbor or strait where the 
current flows. 2. A closed course or 
conduit through which anything 
flows, as a tube, or duct; a gutter 
or trough. 3. Gravel from being 
the material of which the river bed 
is composed. 4. In metallurgy, a sow 
or runner. 5. A cut along the line 
where rock or stone is to be split 

Channel bed (Scot). -A bed of gravel. 

Channeler. A machine for cutting 
stone in rock excavation where 
smooth sides are desired (Gillette, p. 
661). A channeling machine. 

Channeling machine. See Channeler. 

Chanos (Chile). Pieces of metallic 
iron or copper, reduced in blast fur- 
naces, and which solldfy in the fore- 
hearth. (Halse) 

Chanquires (Peru). Ore sorters. 

Chap. 1. (Scot) A customary and 
rough mode of judging, by sound, of 
the thickness of coal between two 
working places, by knocking with a 
hammer on the solid coal. 2. To- 
examine the face of the coal, etc.,. 
for the sake of safety, by knocking: 
on it lightly. (Gresley) 
3. A blow, rap, or knock. (Web- 

Chapa (Mex.). 1. A metal plate. 2. A 
lock. 3. Foliated structure. 

Chapapate (Cuba). A kind of asphalt 
or bitumen. Also called Mexican 
asphalt (Century) 

Chapapote (Mex.). Mineral pitch; 
asphaltum. (Halse) 

Chaparral (Sp,). A thicket of dwarf 
evergreen oaks; any dense impene- 
trable , thicket composed of stiff, 
thorny shrubs, or dwarf trees. 
Characteristic of Mexico and South- 
western United States. (Webster) 

Chapeau de fer. A 'French term for an 
oxidized iron outcrop; gossan or 
iron hat (Weed) 

Chapelet. 1. A machine for raising 
water, or for dredging, by buckets 
on an endless chain passing between, 
two rotating sprocket wheels. 2. A 
chain pump having buttons or disks 
at intervals along its chain ; pater- 
noster pump. 3. A device for hold* 
ing the end of heavy work, as a 
cannon, in a turning lathe. (Stand- 

Chapeo (Port). Gossan. See oUo 
Colorados. (Halse) 

Chapman shield. A pair of vertical 
plates of sheet iron or steel arranged 
with a ladle between them, which 
can be moved longitudinally along 
the front of the furnace. Its main 
purpose is to protect the laborer 
from the furnace heat (Ingalls, 
p. 494) 

Chaqueta (Mex.). A furnace jacket 

Chaquires (Peru). Ore carriers in 
mines. (Dwight) 



Char. 1. To reduce to charcoal or 
carbon by exposure to heat. (Web- 

2. (Corn.). To work by the day. 
(Crofutt). See also Chare. 

3. (Scot). Coke; more usually, 
calcined ironstone. (Barrowman) 

Charbon roux (Fr.) Brown charcoal, 
produced by an incomplete carbon- 
ization of wood. (Raymond) 

Charco (Mex.). A pool of water. 

Charcoal. 1. Amorphous carbon pre- 
pared from vegetal or animal sub- 
stances ; coal made by charring wood 
in a kiln or retort from which air is 
excluded. 2. To asphyxiate with 
charcoal fumes. (Webster) 

Charcoal furnace, or oven. A furnace 
in which charcoal is made by the dry 
distillation of wood or other sub- 
stance. (Webster) 

Charcoal iron. Iron made in a furnace 
in which charcoal is used as a fuel. 

Charcoal pit. A charcoal furnace in 
the form of a pit, usually conical in 
shape. It is made by piling up wood 
and covering it with earth* and sod. 

Charcoal plate. Charcoal iron coated 
with tin (Standard). The best 
grade of tin plate. See also Tin 

Charcdn (Colom.). A large pond or 
tank of water. (Halse) 

Chare; Char. To work by the day 
without being hired regularly ; to do 
odd jobs or chores. (Webster) 

Charge. 1. The explosive loaded into 
a bore hole -for blasting; also any 
unit of an explosive, as a charge of 
nitroglycerin or a charge of deto- 
nating composition in the blasting 
cap. (Du Pont) 

2. To put the explosive into the hole, 
to arrange the fuse, or squib, and 
to tamp it (Steel) 
8. The materials introduced 1 at one 
time or one round into a furnace. 

Chargeman (Mid.). A man specially 
appointed by the manager to fire 
shots and to look after the men who 
drill the holes. (Gresley.) A shot- 

Charger (Corn.). An augerlike im- 
plement for charging horizontal 
bore holes for blasting. (Raymond) 

Chargeur (Belg.). A woman or girl 
who loads coal into cars in the 
mine. (Gresley) 

Charging. 1. The loading of a bore 
hole with explosives. (Du Pont) 
2. The feeding 'of a blast furnace. 

Charging box. A box in which ore, 
scrap, pig-iron, fluxes, etc., are con- 
veyed to the furnace by means of 
a charging machine. (Century) 

Charging machine. A machine for de- 
livering coal, ore, or metals to a fur- 
nace, gas retort, or coke oven. (Cen- 

Charging scale. A scale for weighing 
the various materials used in a blast 
furnace. (Century) 

Chark. 1. To burn to charcoal; to 
char; to coke, as coal. 2. As a 
noun, charcoal, coke, cinder. (Web- 

Charnockite. A name given by T. H. 
Holland to an ancient series of hy- 
persthenic gneisses in India and 
only intended for local use. (Kemp) 

Char-oven. A furnace fo** charring 
turf. (Century) 

Charque (Bol.). Native copper in 
large wavy plates. (Halse) 

Charqueador (Mex.). 1. The striker 
in two-handed drilling. 2. The 
helper who, under the old system, 
sorted the material from ground 
worked down by the miner. See 
also Achicador. (Dwight) 

Charquear (Mex.). To dip out water 
from pools within a mine/ throwing 
it into gutters or pipes which will 
conduct it to the shaft. See also 
Achicar. (Dwight) 

Charqueo (Sp.). Filling the baskets 
by hand. ' (Min. Jour.) 

Charring. The expulsion by heat of 
the volatile constituents of wood, 
etc., leaving more or less pure vege- 
tal carbon. (Raymond) 

Charter (Mid.). The tonnage price 
paid to contract miners. (Gresley) 

Charter master (Staff.). A contractor 
who engages to work a seam, or 
sometimes a small colliery, at a ton- 
na'ge price for the owner, or owners, 
the charter master finding and pay- 
ing the underground labor (Red- 
mayne). See also Butty, 2. 

Chase; Chess the ropes (Eng.). To 
run the cages up and down the shaft 
after the winding engine has been 
standing for some time, to see that 
all is right before men are allowed 
to get into the cage. (G. C. Green- 



Chaser. An edge wheel revolving in 
a trough to crush asbestos mineral 
without destroying the fiber (Web- 
ster). Also called Edge runner, and 
used in the pottery industry, and for 
fine crushing of ore. 

Chasha (Russ.). A disintegrator for 
gold-bearing gravelly clays; similar 
to an arrastre except that it disin- 
tegrates instead of crushes. 

Chasing. 1. Following a vein by its 
range or direction (Duryee). 
2. Act or art of ornamenting metals 
by means of chasing tools. 3. The 
process of finishing up the surface 
of castings by polishing and remov- 
ing small imperfections. (Webster) 

Chasing the vein (Derb.). Following 
the vein along the surface by means 
of cast holes or prospect pits. (Hoo- 

Chasm. 1. A yawning hollow or rent, 
as in the earth's surface; any wide 
and deep gap; a cleft; fissure. 

Chatfn <Sp.). A kind of coarse dia- 
mond. (Halse) 

Chatoyant. Having a luster resem- 
bling the changing luster of the eye 
of the cat at night. (George). See 
also Cat's-eye. 

Chat-roller. An ore-crushing machine, 
consisting of a pair of cast-iron 
rollers, for grinding roasted ore. 

Chats. 1. (Northumb.) Small pieces 
of stone with ore (Raymond). 
(Eng.) A low grade of lead ore. 
Also middlings which are to be 
crushed and subjected to further 
treatment (Ure). The mineral and 
rocks mixed together which must be 
crushed and cleaned before sold as 
mineral. Chats are not the same as 
tailings, as the latter are not thrown 
aside to keep for future milling. 
(Cleveland & Aurora Mineral Land 
Co. v. Ross, 135 Missouri, p. -110) 
2. Loosely used in Missouri for tail- 
ings or waste product from the con- 
centration of lead and zinc ore. 

Chatter mark. One of a series of short 
curved cracks on a glaciated rock 
surface. The individual cracks are 
transverse roughly to the striae, but 
the course of a series of chatter 
marks is parallel to the striae. 

Chaya (Chile). A wooden dish used 
in alluvial raining; a batea. (Halse) 

Cheek. 1. A piece of tin bearing a 
stamped number. This is placed 
upon the mine cars to indicate which 
miner loaded the car. (Steel) 
2. A ticket by which a person or 
thing may be identified. 3. An im- 
perceptible crack in 'steel caused by 
uneven quenching and cooling. 

4. (Eng.). A fault. (Gresley) 
9. A wall. A variation of cheek. 

Check battery. A battery to close the 
lower part of a chute acting as a 
check to the flow of coal, and as a 
stopping to keep the air in the 
breasts. (Chance) 

Check brakes (Aust). An arrange- 
ment for automatically checking 
the speed of skip running down an 
incline when unattached to a roue. 

Check clack (Scot). A fixed valve in 
a rising main other than a delivery 
valve. (Barrowman) See also 
Check valve. 

Checker arches. Fire brick supports 
built of archbrick or keys to support 
the checker work on the second, 
third, or fourth pass of hot-blast 
stoves. (Willcox) 

Checkerboard system. See Bord-and- 
pillar method. 

Checker coal. Anthracite coal that 
occurs as rectangular grains. . (O. 
and M. M. P.) 

Checkerwork. In a regenerative fur- 
nace, a structure of firebrick so built 
up that the bricks alternate with 
open spaces, permitting the passage 
of heated gases. (Webster) 

Check grieve (Scot). A person who 
checks the weight of mineral on be- 
half of the landlord (Barrowman). 
Compare Check weigher. 

Checking. Temporarily reducing the 
temperature or the volume of the 
air blast on -a blast furnace. (Will- 

Check number. A number assigned to 
each miner by which his coal is 
identified, and under which its 
weight is entered on the coal bulle- 
tin (Steel). See also Check, 1. 

Check-off. A method of collecting 
union dues, fees, and fines by with- 
holding them from the miner's 
wages. (Steel) 



Check-out (Scot). The meeting of the 
roof and floor, the coal seam being 
thereby cut off (Barrowman). To 
pinch out. 

Check puller. A person who takes the 
miner's checks from the cars and 
calls the number on them to the 
weighman. (Steel) 

Check valve. An automatic nonre- 
turn valve; or a valve which per- 
mits a fluid to pass in one direction, 
but automatically closes when the 
fluid attempts to pass in the oppo- 
site direction. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Check viewer (Eng.). A man em- 
ployed by the lessor to see that the 
provisions of the lease are duly ob- 
served. (G. C. Green well) 

Checkweigher (Scot). One who takes 
account of mineral raised on behalf 
of the miners; a justiceman (Bar- 
rowman). A checkweighman. Com- 
pare Check grieve. 

Checkweighman (Aust). See Check- 

Cheeks. 1. The sides or walls of a 
vein. 2. Extensions of the sides of 
the eye of a- hammer or pick. (Ray- 

3. (Eng.). Projecting masses of 
coal. (Gr.esley) 

Cheese box. A name given to a cylin- 
drical still, used in the distillation 
of kerosene in the United States. 

Cheese clack (Scot). A temporary 
clack (valve) inserted between two 
pipes. (Barrowman) 

Cheeses (Derb.). Clay ironstone in 
cheese-shaped nodules. (Gresley) 

Cheese weights (Aust). The circular 
cheese-shaped weights used to keep 
guide ropes taut (Power) 

Cheestone (Derb.). A stone that by 
reason of a joint breaks further into 
the wall than usual. (Hooson) 

Chemawinite. A resin related to succi- 
nite, occurring on a beach on Cedar 
Laket near the mouth of the North 
Saskatchewan ; it has a specific 
gravity of 1.055, its color varies 
from pale yellow to dark brown, and 
it is soluble to the extent of 21 per 
cent in absolute alcohol. (Bacon) 

Chemical mineralogy. The investiga- 
tion of the chemical composition of 
minerals, their method of formation, 
and the changes they undergo when 
acted upon chemically. (Century) 

Chemical regeneration. A system of 
regenerative gas firing invented by 
Friedrich Siemens. (Ingalls, p. 

Chemist. A person versed in chemis- 
try; one whose business is to make 
chemical examinations or investiga- 
tions, or who is engaged in the op- 
erations of applied chemistry. (Cen- 

Chemistry. The science that treats of 
the composition of substances and 
of the transformations which they 
undergo. There are two main 
groups. (a) Organic chemistry, 
which treats of the hydrocarbons 
and their derivatives, and (b) in- 
organic chemistry treats of all other 
compounds, and of the elements. 
(Webster). See numerous text- 
books and dictionaries which have 
been published on this subject for 
details and definitions of chemical 

Chemist's coal (Scot.). An ancient 
term given to a particular kind of 
hard splint coal. (Gresley) 

Chemites. A word employed by M. B. 
Wadsworth to embrace all mineral 
chemical materials. (Power) 

Chenevixite. A massive to compact 
dark -green to greenish-yellow 
hydrous arsenatc, perhaps Cu r 
( FeO ) aAsiO.4- 3HiO. ( Dana ) 

Chenhall furnace. A gas-flred furnace 
for the distillation of zinc from 
zinc-lead ores. (Ingalls, p. 395) 

Chenot process. The process of mak- 
ing iron sponge from ore mixed with 
coal dust and heated in vertical 
cylindrical retorts. (Raymond) 

Cherkers (Forest of. Dean). See Cat- 
head, 3. 

Cherry coal. A soft noncaking coal 
which burns readily. (Webster). A 
deep black, dull, or lustrous bitu- 
minous coal, with a somewhat 
conchoidal fracture, readily break- 
ing up into cuboidal fragments. It 
ignites easily with a yellowish flame, 
making a hot, quick fire, and re- 
tains its shape until thoroughly con- 
sumed. Its specie gravity is much 
less than anthracite, about 1.30. 

Chert. A compact, siliceous rock 
formed of chalcedonlc or opaline 
silica, one or both, and of organic 
or precipitated origin. Chert occurs 
distributed through limestone, af- 
fording cherty limestones. Flint is 



a variety of <&ert. Chert is espe- 
cially common in the Carboniferous 
rocks of southwest Missouri (Kemp). 
See also Hornstone. 

Chesty copper. Same as Chessylite; 
azurite. (Century). 

Chessylite. A synonym for Azurite. 
(A. F. Rogers) 

Chest 1. A tight receptacle or box 
for holding gas, liquids, steam, as 
steam chest of an engine. (Webster) 
2. (Scot.). A tank or barrel in 
which water is drawn from the 
sump. (Gresley) 

Chesting (Scot.). Drawing water by 
means of a chest ,(Barrowman). 
See also Chest, 2. 

Chestnut coal. 1. In anthracite only 
Coal small enough to pass through 
a square mesh of one inch to one 
and one-eighth inch, but too large to 
pass through a mesh of five-eighths 
or one-half an inch. Known as No. 
5 coal. (Chance) 

2. (Ark.). Coal that passes through 
a 2-in. round hole and over a 1-in. 
round hole. (Steel* 

Chews; Chows (Scot.). Coal loaded 
with a screening shovel; middling- 
sized pieces of coal. (Barrowman) 

Chiastolite; Made. A variety of anda- 
lusite, aluminum silicate, AlaO.SiOa, 
in which carbonaceous impurities 
are arranged in a regular manner 
along the longer axis of the crystal, 
in some varieties like the X (Greek 
"chi"), whence the name (U. S. 
Geol. Surv.) 

Chicadero (Sp. Am.). A dyke, a dam 
(Lucas). See also Chamburgo. 

Chicar (Colom.). To bale water out 
of mines (Halse). A synonym for 

Chicken ladder. See Muesca. 

Chicuite (Sp.). See Chiquichuite. 

Chidder. (Aust). Slate and pyrite 
mixed. (Power) 

Chifladero (Mex.). An ore hopper. 

Chiflarse (Mex.). To waste itself (as 
the force of an explbsion, through a 
fissure in the rock). (Dwight) 

Chlfl6n (Mex.). 1. A narrow drift di- 
rected obliquely downward. 2. Any 
pipe from which issues water or air 
under pressure, or at high velocity. 

3. A strong draft of air. (Dwight) 
Chile. 1. (Peru) The greatest depth 

of a mine. (Dwight) 
2. A descending gallery following 
the dip of a vein. 3. (Mex.) A re- 
fractory clay. (Halse) 

Chilean mill; Edge runner. A mill 
having vertical rollers running in a 
circular enclosure with a stone or 
iron base or die. There are two 
classes: (a) those in which the 
rollers gyrate around a central axis, 
rolling upon the die as they go (the 
true Chilian mill) ; (b) those in 
which the enclosure or pan revolves, 
and the rollers, placed on a fixed 
axis, are in turn revolved by the 
pan. It was formerly used as a 
coarse grinder, but is now used for 
fine grinding. (Liddell) 

Chile bars. Bars of impure copper, 
weighing about 200 Ibs., imported 
from Chile, corresponding to the 
Welsh blister copper, containing 98 
per cent copper. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Chilenite. A soft silver-white amor- 
phous silver bismuth, AgJBi (Stand- 
ard). Bismuth silver. 

Chlleno (Mex.). A Chilian mill. 

Chile saltpeter. Sodium nitrate. 

Chill. 1. An iron mold or portion of 
a mold, serving to cool rapidly, and 
go to harden, the surface of molten 
Iron which comes in contact with It. 
Iron which can be thus hardened 
to a considerable depth is chilling 
iron, and is specially used for cast- 
iron railway car wheels requiring 
hardness at the rim without loss of 
strength in the wheel. (Raymond) 

2. The hardened part of a casting, 
as the tread of a car wheel. (Web- 

3. (Derb.) To test the roof with a 
tool or bar to determine its safety. 

Chilled casting. A casting which has 
been chilled, either by casting in 
contact with something which will 
rapidly conduct the heat from it, as 
a cool iron mold, or by sudden cool- 
ing by exposure to air or water. 

Chilled dynamite. The condition of 
the dynamite when subjected to a 
low temperature not sufficient to con- 
geal it, but which seriously affects 
the strength of the dynamite. (Du 

Chill hardening. See Chill. 

Chiluca (Mex.). A variety of por- 
phyry. (Dwight) 

Chlmenea (Sp.). 1. A chimney; 
smokestack. 2. A hearth; a fire- 
place. 3. A vertical shaft; a winze. 

4. (Peru). An ascending gallery fol- 
lowing the inclination of the vein. 



Chimming (Corn.). See Tossing. 

Chimney. 1. An ore shoot. Compare 
Chute, 2 (Raymond). 2. A steep 
and very narrow cleft or gully in the 
face of a cliff or mountain. 3. A 
smokestack. 4. A natural vent or 
opening in the earth as a volcano. 

5. (Eng.). A spout or pit in the 
goaf of vertical coal seams. (Ores- 

6. A term used in Virginia for lime- 
stone pinnacles bounding zinc ore 

Chimney rock. A chimney-shaped body 
of rock rising above its surround- 
ings, or partly isolated on the face 
of a steep slope. (Webster). See 
also Chimney, 6. 

Chimney shot (N. Y.). A local term 
applied to the effect of an over- 
charge of explosive in a line of drill 
holes, the effect being to throw the 
rock to some distance, forming a 
deep trench. (Bowles) 

Chimney work (Mid.). A system of 
working beds of clay ironstone, in 
patches 10 to 30 yards square, and 
18 or 20 feet in thickness. The bot- 
tom beds are first worked out, and 
then the higher ones, by the miners 
standing upon the fallen debris ; and 
so on upward in lifts. See also 
Rake (Gresley). Compare Over- 
hand stoping. 

China clay. Clay derived from decom- 
position of feldspar and suitable for 
the manufacture of china ware or 
porcelain. See Kaolin. 

China metal. Porcelain. (Webster) 

China stone. A semi-decomposed gran- 
ite, which has nearly the same com- 
position as china clay. (Ure) 

Chinese pump. Like a California 
pump, but made entirely of wood. 
(C. and M. M. P.) 

Chingr^e. 1. (Scot). A gravel free 
fro. dirt. See also Shingle. 2. 
That portion of the coal seam stowed 
away in the goaves to help support 
the mine roof. (Century) 

Chink. 1. A small rent, cleft or fis- 
sure of greater length than breadth. 

2. (Scot). A sharp, clear, metallic 
sound. (Century) 

Chinley coal (Eng.). Lump coal which 
passes over a screen; usually the 
best coal. (Q. C. Green well) 

Chino (Sp.). Iron or copper pyrites. 
(Min. Jour.) 

Chiolite. A snow-white fluoride of so- 
dium and aluminum, 5NaF.3AlP, 
crystallizing in the tetragonal sys- 
tem and also occurring in massive 
gra~ alar form. (Dana' 

Chipper (Derb.). One who chips the 
gangue from the ore. An ore 
dresser. (Hooson) 

Chippy. See Rock drill. 

Chiquichuite (Sp.). A willow basket, 
.without a handle, used for carrying 
ore, etc., out of mines. Sometimes 
spelled Chicuite. 

Chiquero (Sp.*). Cribbing or chocks 
used in timbering wide seams or 
lodes. (Halse) 

Chirls; Churrels (Scot). Coal which 
passes through a screening shovel; 
small coal free from dross or dirt. 

Chirt; Chirtt (Derb.). See Chert. 
Chisel. See Bit. 

Chisel draft. The dressed edge of a 
stone, which serves as a guide in 
cutting the rest. (Century) 

Chispa (Mex.). 1. A spark. 2. Ore 

containing visible gold. A nugget. 

3. Native silver in thin leaves. 

Chispeada (Batopilas, Mex. ) . Ore con- 
taining about 33 per cent native 
silver. (D wight) 

Chispiador (Peru). A gold washer in 
river placers. (Dwight) 

Chitter. 1. (Lane.) A seam of coal 
overlying another one at a short dis- 
tance. 2. (Derb.). A thin band of 
clay ironstone. (Gresley) 

Chiva (Mex.). A bar with a claw for 
drawing spikes (Dwight) 

Chiviar (Mex.). To hunt for broken 
ore in waste. (Dwight) 

Chiviatite. A foliated, massive, me- 
tallic, lead-gray sulphide of lead and 
bismuth, 2PbS.3Bi 2 S 3 . (Dana) 

Chloanthite. A nickel diarsenide, 
NiAs2. (Dana) 

Chloralluminite. A hydrous aluminum 
chloride, A1C1 8 +H 2 O, that occurs as 
a volcanic product. (Standard) 

Chloralum. An impure aqueous solu- 
tion of aluminum chloride used as 
an antiseptic.- (Webster) 



Chlorapatite. See Apatite. 

Chlorastrolite. Not a definite mineral 
but probably a mixture of zeolites. 
Found as small, light bluish-green 
pebbles, with finely radiated struc- 
ture, on Isle Royale, Lake Superior. 
Used as a gem. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Chlorate powder. A substitute for 
black powder in which potassium 
chlorate is used in place of potas- 
sium nitrate. This class of explo- 
sive has received little attention on 
account of greater sensitiveness to 
shock and friction. (Brunswig, p. 

Chloride. 1. A compound of chlorine 
with another element or radical. A 
salt of hydrochloric acid. (Web- 

2. To follow a thin vein or discon- 
tinuous ore deposit by irregular 
workings, intent only on extracting 
the profitable parts and with no re- 
gard for development; usually said 
of a lessee, sometimes of one who 
works another's mine without permis- 
sion. The term is said to have 
originated at Silver Reef in south- 
western Utah when the rich silver- 
chloride ores were being worked. 
The thin seams were followed by 
lessees with the least possible han- 
dling of barren rock, hence the 
miner became a chlorider, and his 
operations chloriding. The words 
were later extended to similar 
workers and their operations in 
other fields. <F. L. Hess) 

Chlorider. See Chloride, 2. 

Chlorides (Pac.). A common term for 
ores containing chloride of silver. 

Chloridize. To convert into chloride. 
Applied to the roasting of silver 
ores with salt, preparatory to amal- 
gamation. ( Raymond ) 

Chlorination process. The process first 
introduced by Plattner, in which 
auriferous ores are first roasted to 
oxidize the base metals, then sat- 
urated with chlorine gas, and finally 
treated with water, which removes 
the soluble chloride of gold, to 
be subsequently precipitated and 
melted into bars. (Raymond) 

Chlorine. An element, commonly iso- 
lated as a greenish-yellow gas, of an 
intensely disagreeable suffocating 
odor and exceedingly poisonous. 
Symbol, 01; atomic weight, 35.46. 
Specific gravity, 2.6. (Webster) 

Chlorine minerals. Minerals contain- 
ing chlorine, such as atacamite, bora- 
cite, apatite, carnallite, cerargyrlte, 
halite, mimetite, pyromorphite, sal- 
ammoniac, sylvite, sodalite, vanadi- 
nite, wernerite, etc. (A. F. Rogers) 

Chlorite. 1. A silicate of aluminum 
with ferrous iron and magnesium 
and chemically combined water, 
characterized by the green color 
common with silicates in which fer- 
rous iron is prominent. (Dana) 

2. A general name for the green, 
secondary, hydrated silicates, which 
contain aluminum and iron, and 
which are especially derived from 
augite, hornblende, and biotite. 
Chlorite is used as a prefix for vari- 
ous names of rocks that contain the 
mineral, such as chlorite schist. 
The name is coined from the Greek 
word for green. (Kemp) 

3. In chemistry, a salt of chlorous 
acid. (Webster) 

Chlorite slate. A schistose or slaty 
rock consisting largely of chlorite. 

Chloritic sand. Sand colored green by 
chlorite as a constituent (Com- 

Chloritic schist. Schist containing 
chlorite. (Hitchcock) 

Chloritiaation. Metamorphic altera- 
tion of other material into chlorite. 

Chlorocyanie. Consisting of chlorine 
and cyanogen combined. (Century) 

'Thloromelanite. A dark green, nearly 
black variety of jadeite. (Century) 

Chloropal. A green, opal-like hydrous 
silicate of iron, Fe 2 O..3SiO 2 .5H,O. 

Chlorophane. A variety of fluorspar 
which exhibits a bright green phos- 
phorescent light when heated. (Cen- 

Chlorophyr. A name given by A, 
Dumont v to certain porphyritic 
quartz diorites near Quenast, Bel- 

Chlorospinel. A variety of spinel, 
grass-green in color, due to the pres- 
sence of copper. Contains iron re- 
placing the aluminum ; MgO(Al,Fe)- 
O 3 . Also called Magnesium - iron 
spinel. (Dana) 

Chlorotile. A green, hydrated copper 
arsenate, Cu(AsO4) a .6H 2 O, that crys- 
tallizes in the orthorhomblc system. 



Cfhocar (Colom.). To break up the 
auriferous gravels, cement rock, 
etc., with water, using bars and 
other tools, in order that the loosened 
material may be conducted to the 
ground sluice. (Halse) 

Chock. 1. A square pillar for sup- 
porting the roof, constructed of prop 
timber laid up in alternate cross- 
layers, in log-cabin style, the center 
being filled with waste. Commonly 
called Crib in Arkansas (Steel). 
See Cogs, also Nog. 

2. A square pillar constructed of 
short rectangular blocks of hard- 
wood, for supporting the roof. 

3. Two blocks of hardwood placed 
across the rail or between rails to 
prevent tubs, cars, or wagons from 
running down incline. (Greenwell) 

Chock and block (Newc.). Tightly 
filled up. (Min. Jour.) 

Choclo de oro (Peru). A mass of 
native gold (say 1 oz. or more) in 
Its matrix. (D wight) 

Chocolate. A very fine-grained mica 
schist found in New Hampshire and 
used extensively in the manufacture 
of scythe stones, axe stones and 
knife stones. (Pike) 

Chocoldn (Mex.). 1. The part of the 
hole remaining in the rock after a 
blast. 2. A hitch cut in the rock. 

Chocu (Peru). A disease caused by 
inhaling fine uineral dust, as in a 
stamp mill. (Dwight) 

Chogs (York.). Blocks of wood for 
keeping pump-trees or other vertical 
pipes plumb (Gresley). See Col- 
lar, 6, and Collaring, 1. 

Choke crushing. A recrushing of fine 
ore due to the fact that the broken 
material cannot find its way from 
the machine before it is again 
crushed. See also Free crushing. 
(Richards, p. 98) 

Choke damp. 1. A mine atmosphere 
that causes choking, or suffocation, 
due to insufficient oxygen. As ap- 
plied to "air" that causes choking, 
does not mean any single gas or 
combination of gases. 2. A name 
sometimes given in England to car- 
bon dioxide. 

Cholla (Mex.). An opening or hollow 
space; a small space filled with soft 
ore. (Dwight) 

Chondrite. A meteoric stone charac- 
terized by the presence of chon- 
drules. (Webster) 

Chondrodite. One of the humite 
group. A basic fluosilicate of mag- 
nesium. (Dana) 

Chondmle. A peculiar rounded gran- 
ule of cosmic origin, usually con- 
sisting of enstatite or chrysotile. 
Occurs in meteorites. (Webster) 

Chonkole. A Malayan spade. (Lock) 

Chonolith. An injected igneous mass, 
so irregular in form and obscure as 
to relation to the invaded forma- 
tions, that it can not be properly 
designated as a dike, sill, or lacco- 
lithic form. (Daly, p. 84) 

Chop (Som.). A local term for fault 

Chorlo (Mex.). Tourmaline crystals. 

Chorometry. Land surveying. ( Stand- 

Chorrera (Mex.). An ore shcot; a run 
of loose rock. (Dwight) 

Chorro (Mex.). A spring of water 
found in mines. Jet or spout of 
liquid. (Dwight) 

Chorroeadero (Mex.). 1. A chute for 
ore. 2. Loose or running ground. 

Ohrlstmatite. A. butyraceous, green- 
ish-yellow to wax-yellow hydrocar- 
bon from Wettin, Saxony; it has a 
specific gravity of less than 1 and is 
soft at 55 to 60 C. (Bacon) 

Christobalite. A dull white silicon di- 
oxide (SiO 2 ), that crystallizes in the 
orthorhombic system, and is closely 
related to tridymite. (Standard) 

Chromatites. A term used by M. E. 
Wadsworth to include mineral color- 
ing matter, paints, pigments, etc. 

Chrome. Chromium; also, in dyeing, 
potassium dichromate. 

Chrome steel. See Chromium steel. 

Chrome garnet. A synonym for Uvaro- 
vite. (A. F. Rogers) 

Chrome iron ore. A synonym for Chro- 
mite. (A. F. Rogers) 

Chrome oeher. A clayey ocher colored 
green with chromium oxide. ( Stand- 

Chromite. A chromate of iron, FeO.- 
Cr a O 8 . Contains 68 per cent chromic 
oxide. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Chromium. A brilliant tin- white, com- 
paratively rare metal, hard, brittle, 
and refractory. Symbol, Cr; atomic 
weight, 52.0. Specific gravity, 6.8. 



Chromium steel. An iron-chromium al- 
loy that hardens intensely on sadden 
cooling, and is used for the manufac- 
ture of armor-piercing projectiles, 
safe-plates, and crushing machinery- 
It contains about 16 per cent chro- 
mium ; does not rust under ordinary 
conditions and is also called Stain- 
less steel. 

Chromometer. An instrument for de- 
termining the color of petroleum and 
other oils. (Standard) 

Chromowulfenite. A red variety of 
wulfenite, containing some chromi- 
um. (Chester) 

Chrysoberyl. A glucinum-aluminum 
oxide, G1O.A1 3 O, known as cat's-eye 
when it has a chatoyant luster. (U. 
S. Geol. Surv.) 

Chrysocolla. A hydrous copper silicate. 
Contains theoretically about 36 per 
cent of copper. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 
Generally green or blue-green. 

Chrysolite. An iron-magnesium sili- 
cate of a yellowish-green, sometimes 
brownish or reddish. A common 
mineral in basalt and diorite. Com- 
monly called Olivine. When used as 
a gem it is -called Peridot 

Chrysoprase. An apple-green chalce- 
dony, the color of which is due to 
nickel. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Chrysotile. Fibrous serpentine. See 
'also Asbestos. (U. S. Geol. Surv., 

Chua (Bol. and Chile) A testing sau- 
cer. (Lucas) 

Chuck. 1. That part of a machine 
drill which grips or holds the drill. 
(Gillete, p. 99) 

2. A device for holding an object 
so that it can be rotated, as upon 
the mandrel of a lathe or for fixing 
it in a drill-press, planer, etc. 

Chuck block; Chock block. The wooden 
block or board which is attached to 
the bottom of the screen so as to 
raise the depth of the issue and act 
as a false lip to the mortar, in 
stamp milling. (Rickard) 

Chuga (Mex.). See Perufia. 

Chulano (Mex.). An upper drill hole. 

Chulanista (Braz.). One who drills 
uppers. (Bensusan) 

Chumacera ( Mex. ) . A bearing for the 
shaft of a machine. (Dwight) 

Chumbe. 1. (Mex. and Bol.) Zinc- 
blende. 2. (Colom.) A strap of col- 
ored wool for carrying a sachel or 
purse. (Halse) 

(Thumb o. 1. (Port.) Lead. 2. (Braz.) 
Pyrite. (Halse) 

Chump (Eng.). To drill a shot hole 
by hand. (Gresley) 

Chumpe (Peru). See Chumbe. 

Chun (Derb.). A clay or soft gouge 
between two hard walls. (Hooson) 

Chunked-up. Built up with large 
lumps of coal to increase the capac- 
ity of a car. Also called Bnilt-up. 

Chunk mineral In Wisconsin, applied 
to masses of galena as broken out 
of the mine. (Power) 

Churchite. A hydrous phosphate of 
cerium. (Chester) 

Churn drill. 1. Also called Cable drill 
or Well drill. A portable drilling 
equipment usually mounted on four 
wheels and driven by gasoline, elec- 
tricity, or steam. Also applied to a 
stationary drill operated from* a 
derrick as in oil-well drilling. The 
drill head is raised by means of a 
rope or cable and allowed to drop, 
thus striking successive blows by 
means of which the rock is pulver- 
ized and the hole deepened. 

2. A long iron bar with a cutting 
end of steel, used in quarrying, and 
worked by raising and letting it fall. 
When worked by blows of a hammer 
or sledge, it is called a "Jumper." 

Churns (Forest of Dean). Ironstone 
workings in cavern-shaped excava- 
tions. A rough chamber-and-pillar 
system of working. (Gresley) 

Churumbela (Colom.). A micaceous 
and talcose schist. (Halse) 

Churusca (Bol.). Copper pyrites, 

Chute. (Sometimes written shoot) 
1. A channel or shaft underground, 
or an inclined trough above ground, 
through which ore falls or is "shot" 
by gravity from a higher to a lower 
level. (Raymond.) 2. (Penn.) A 
crosscut connecting a gangway with 
a heading. (Gresley.) 3. An in- 
clined water course, natural or arti- 
ficial, especially one through which 
boats or timber are carried, as In a 
dam. 4. A narrow channel with a 



free current, especially on the lower 
Mississippi Elver. (Standard) 5. 
A body of ore, usually of elongated 
form, extending downward within 
a vein (ore shoot). The two 
forms of orthography of this 
word are of French and English 
origin respectively. Under chute, 
the original idea is that of falling; 
under shoot, that of shooting or 
branching. Both are appropriate to 
the technical significations of the 
word. An ore shoot, for instance, 
may be considered as a branch of 
the general mass of the ore In a de- 
posit, or as a pitch or fall of ore 
(German, Erzfall). In England the 
orthography "shoot" is, I believe, 
exclusively employed, and this is 
perhaps the best as applied t# ore 
deposits, the other being unneces- 
sarily foreign. (Raymond) 

Chute caving. The method involves 
both overhand stoping and ore cav- 
ing. The chamber is started as an 
overhand stope from the head of a 
chute and is extended up until the 
back weakens sufficiently to cave. 
The orebody is worked from the top 
down in thick slices, each slice be- 
ing, however, attacked from the bot- 
tom and the working extending from 
the floor of the slice up to an Inter- 
mediate point. The cover follows 
down upon the caved ore (Young). 
Also called "Caving by raising" and 
"Block caving into chutes." 

Chute system. See Glory hole system. 

Chuza (Mex.). A catch basin for mer- 
cury. (Dwight) 

Chuzo (Chile). A pointed tool used 
in. washing gold in sluices, In ex- 
tracting borax in large pieces, etc. 

Clan6geno (Mex.). Cyanogen. 

Cianuro (Mex.). Cyanide. (Dwiglit) 

qielo (Mex.). 1. Roof; ceiling. 2. 
Trabajar de cielo, overhand stoping. 

C. I. F. A commercial transportation 
term meaning "Cost, Insurance, and 
Freight." It is intended to cover 
the cost of certain goods at point of 
destination. (Nat. Tube Co.) Usu- 
ally applied only to maritime freight 

Clffuairo; Civairo (Peru). Peacock 
colored. (Dwight) 

Cigiiena (Mex.). A windlass; a crank. 

Cllindros (Mex.). Rolls. (Dwight) 
Cizna (Mex.). Summit. (Dwight) 

Cimbra. 1. (Mex.). A center for an 
arch. (Dwight) 

2. (Colom.). Primitive stamps 
worked by manual labor. (Halse) 

Ciminite. A name derived from the 
Monti Cimini in Italy, and given by 
H. S. Washington to a group of 
lavas, intermediate between tra- 
chytes and basalts. They are por- 
pyritic in texture and are character- 
ized by the presence of alkali feld- 
spar and basic plagioclase, augite 
and olivine, with accessory magne- 
tite and apatite. Biotite and horn- 
blende are either absent or are in- 
significant They range from 54 to 
57 SiO 2 , 5-9 CaO, and 3-6 MgO. 
Compare Latite. (Kemp) 

Cimolite. A white, grayish or reddish 
hydrosilicate of aluminum, soft and 
claylike or chalklike in appearance. 

Cinabrio (Mex.). Cinnabar. (Dwight) 

Cincel. 1. (Peru) Native silver in 
large masses. (Dwight) 
2. (Colum.) A stone chisel used by 
the Indians. (Halse) 

Cincho (Mex.). 1. A belt or girdle. 
2. A horizontal timber used for 
wedging a stemple against a plank 
on the hanging wall. (Halse) 

Cincinnatian. In the usage of the U. 
S. Geological Survey, the third and 
youngest of the series of strata com- 
prised in the Ordovician system. 
Also the corresponding epoch. (La 

Cinder. 1. Slag, particularly from 
iron blast furnaces. (Raymond) 
2. A scale thrown off in forging 
metal. 3. Scoriaceous la'va from a 
volcano; volcanic scoria. (Webster) 

Cinder bank. Same as cinder dump. 
Also indicates an old dump as clis- 
tiguishecl from one in use. (Will- 

Cinder bed (Eng.) A stratum of the 
Upper Purbeck series, almost wholly 
composed of oyster-shells; and so 
named by the quarryrnen from its 
loose incoherent composition. ( Page ) 

Cinder block. A block closing the 
front of a blast furnace and con- 
taining the cinder notch. (Web- 



Cinder breakout. The stag within the 
furnace escaping through Hie brick- 
work. Caused by erosion, corrosion, 
or softening of brick by neat. 

Cinder coaL 1. (Eng-.) Coal altered 
by heat from an intrusion of lava. 

2. (Aust) A very inferior natural 
coke, little better than ash. ( Power ) 

Cinder oone. A volcanic cone com- 
posed of scoria. 

Cinder dock. A bed containing molds 
into which, in former practice, 
cinder was run, chilled, and then 
thrown into cars with forks, (Will- 

Cindef dump. A place where cinder 
ladles are emptied. (Willcox) 

Cinder fall The dam over which the 
slag from the cinder notch of a fur- 
nace flows. (Century) 

Cinder notch. The hole, about 5 or 
6 feet above the iron notch, and 3 
feet below the tuyeres, through 
which slag is flushed two to three 
timesr hetween casts (Willcox). 
See aUo Cinder tap. 

Cinder pig. Iron made from ores with 
admixture of some forge or mill- 
cinder (Raymond). See also Pig 

Cinder pit. Large pit filled with water 
into which molten cinder is run and 
granulated at cast or flush. (Will- 

Cinder plate. See- Bloomery. 

Cinder runner. A trough carrying 
slag from skimmer, or cinder notch, 
to pit or ladle. See also Cinder 
notch. (Willcox) 

Cinder snapper. A man who removes 
cinder skulls from cinder runners. 

Cinder tap; Cinder notch. The hole 
through which cinder is tapped from 
a furnace. Also called Lurmann 
front (Raymond) 

Cinder tub. A shallow iron truck 
with movable sides into which the 
slag of a furnace flows from the 
cinder runner. (Century) 

Cinder wool. A fibrous glass obtained 
by the action of a jet of air or steam 
upon molten slag as it flows from 
a blast .furnace. Commonly called 
Mineral\wooL (Century) 

Cinnabar. A vermilion-colored mer- 
cury sulphide, HgS, 86 per cent mer- 
cury. It is the common ore of mer- 
cury and occura as hexagonal crys- 
tals. See also Metacinnabarite. 
(U. S. GeoL Surv:) 

Cinnamite. Same as Cinnamon stone. 

Cinnamon stone. Esson4te; a variety 

of garnet. (Power) 

Cinta. 1. (Sp.), A surveyor's tape. 
2. (Mex.). A layer or band of min- 
eral in a vein. 3. (Colom.). Pay 
dirt in placers. (Halse) 

Cintarrfin (Sp. Am.). A bed of 
auriferous gravel of unusual thick- 
ness. (Lucas) 

Cinteada (Mex.). A banded or rib- 
boned structure of veins. (Halse) 

Cipolino marble. A white crystalline 
limestone traversed by veins of 
greenish mica; a favorite Italian 
marble. (Merrill) 

Circa (Latin). About; around; often 
used in English with numerals to 
denote approximate accuracy. ( Web- 

Circle cutting drill. Same as Ditcher. 

Circles '(Ches.). Wavy, undulating 
streaks of various colors frequently 
seen In the sides of shafts, on the 
pillars, faces, and roof of rock-salt 
mines. (Gresley) 

Circle sponts (Eng.). See Garland, 1. 

Circuit breaker. An automatic device 
for breaking an electric circuit at 
the highest current which it may be 
called upon to carry (Webster). 
See also Cut-out, 3. 

Circular cutting drill. Bee Ditcher. 

Circular nail. A anit of area used in 
measuring cross-sections of wires; 
0.7854 square mil (Standard). 'See 
also Mil. 

Circular polarization. A phenomena 
observed in a polariscope when two 
plane polarized rays, propogated in 
the same direction, have their vibra- 
tion direction* .at right angles to 
each other and differ by one-quarter 
of a wave-length in phase. (Dana) 

Circulation. 1, Phe movement of the 
air currents of a mine. (Roy) 
2. The act of moving in any course 
which brings the moving body to the 
place where its motion began. 



Cire-Perdue process. A process used 
in bronze casting; the lost-wax 
process. (Standard) 

Cirque. A steep-walled, amphltheatral 
recess in a mountain side, generally 
ascribed to glacial erosion. (Web- 

Cisco (Sp.). 1. Coal broken into small 
bits. 2. Coal dust. (Halse) 

Cispeado (Hex.). Ore of one-third 
silver and two-thirds calc spar. 

Cistern. 1. An artificial reservoir or 
tank for holding or storing water 
or other liquids. (Webster) 

2. The receptacle into which glass 
is ladled from the pots to be poured 
over the table in making plate glass 
or in casting glass ; a cuvette. (Cen- 

3. In metallurgy, a settling tank for 
liquid slag, pulp, etc. 

Citrate. A salt or ester of citric acid. 

Citrine; Citrine quartz. A yellow pel- 
lucid variety of quartz ; false topaz. 

Civa (Mex.). A stump of a candle. 

Civairo (Peru). A peacock color. See 
also Giguario. (Dwight) 

Clack (Corn.). A pump valve. (Ray- 

Clack door (Eng.). The opening Into 
the valve chamber to facilitate re- 
pairs and renewals without unseat- 
ing the pump or breaking the con- 
nections. (Chance). Also, an iron 
plate bolted to the pipe to close the 
opening. (Gresley) 

Clack-door piece (Eng.). A cast-iron 
pipe having an opening in the side 
for access to the clack or valve. 

Clack guard (Scot). A ring to, pre- 
vent undue opening of the clack. 

Clack lid (Scot). The flap of a clack 
or stationary valve. (Barrowman) 

Clack piece. The casting forming the 
valve chamber. (Chance) 

Clack seat. The receptacle for a valve 
to rest on. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Claco (Mex.). An old coin equal to 
i of a Mexican real. See also Tlaco. 

Cladgy. A variation of claggy. 

Claggy (Newc.). Adhesive. When 
the coal is tightly joined to the roof, 
the mine is said to have a claggy top 
(Raymond)* Also spelled Cladgy. 

Claggy top (Newc.). A mine roof to 
which coal adheres. (Min. Jour.) 

Claim. 1. The portion of mining 
ground held under the Federal and 
local laws by one claimant or asso- 
ciation, by virtue of one location and 
record (Raymond). Lode claims, 
maximum size 600 by 1,500 feet 
Placer claims 660 by 1320 feet A 
claim is sometimes called a "loca- 
tion." See Mining claims. 2. (So. 
Afr.) The portion of land upon a 
goldfield to. which a miner is legally 
entitled. A Transvaal claim has an 
area equal to 64,025 English square 
feet, and is about 155 feet along the 
strike of the reef, and 413 feet 
across the line of reef. (Skinner) 

Clam (Eng.). A bracket or support 
for a pump (Bainbridge). A clamp. 

Clamp. 1. A device for compressing 
and holding in position a piece or 
part, or holding or binding together 
two or more parts; usually with 
Jaws or cheeks, at least one of them 
movable, that may be set together 
or closed by some device for obtain- 
ing leverage. 2. (Eng.) A pile of 
cut and dried peat (Standard) 

3. A number of bricks piled up in a 
particular form for burning. (Web- 

4. A pile of ore for roasting, or of 
coal for coking. (Century) 

Clamping. The process of burning 
bricks in clamp. See also Clamp, .8. 

Clamp kiln. A kiln built of sods for 
burning lime. (Century) 

Clamshea A hinged, two leaved self- 
loading scoop used in dredges, coal- 
ore-, and ash-loaders, and hoisting 
machinery. (Century) . 

Clanger (Eng.). See Clauncher, 1. 

Clanny (Eng.). A safety lamp. in- 
vented by Dr. W. R. Clanny in 1813. 

Clapete. (Mex.). A clack valve, 

Clap sill. In hydraulic ^engineering, 
a miter sill; the bottom part of the 
frame on which lock gates shut; a 
lock sill (Century) 



Clarifying tank. A tank for clarify- 
ing cyanide or other solutions and 
frequently provided with a filtering 
layer of sand, cotton waste, matting, 
etc. (Clennell, p. 280) 

Clark process. A process for softening 
water by the addition of slaked lime, 
which precipitates calcium bicar- 
bonate by forming with it the insolu- 
ble normal carbonate. (Webster) 

Claro (Sp.). An open space on the 
lode, from which ore has been taken. 

Claroline. A mineral oil used as a 
solvent for natural gases. (Bacon) 

Clasolite. A rock composed of other 
rock fragments. See Clastic. 

Clasp. 1. A snugly fitting ferrule for 
connecting pump rods. (Gresley) 
2, Any of the various forms of 
catch, for holding together two ob- 
jects or parts of anything. (Web- 

Classifier. 1. A machine for separat- 
ing ore from gangue or for cleaning 
coal from slack. (Webster) 
2. A machine for grading the feed 
to concentrators so that each indi- 
vidual concentrator will receive its 
proper feed. Classifiers may be 
hydraulic (Richards) or surface- 
current box classifiers (spitzkasten). 
Classifiers are also used to separate 
sand from slime, water from sand, 
and water from slime. (Richards) 

Clastic. ' A descriptive term applied 
to rock formed from the fragments 
of other rocks ; f ragmen taL (Kemp) 

Clat. See Claut, 1. 

Clauncher. 1. (Eng.) rf A tool for 
cleaning blast holes (Bainbridge). 
Also called Clanger. 
2. (Derb.). A piece of stone, that 
has a joint back of it, which becomes 
loose and falls when the heading 
has been driven past it (Hooson) 

Clausthalite. Lead selenide, PbSe. 

Claut. 1. (Scot.). A scraper with a 
long handle. (Barrowman) 
2. Mud or rubbish heaped together. 

Clavar (Mex.). To nail; to drive a 
stake, (D wight) 

Clavo (Mex.). 1. Nail. 2. C. bueno, 
or rico, a rich pocket of ore. 3. C. 
de metal, an ore-shoot; pay-streak. 

Clavos. 1. (Sp.) Masses of ore, and 
of native metals. .(Davies) 

2. Iron ore; in Mexican mines, a 
mass of rich ore. (Standard) 

3. (Sp.) Inclusions of igneous rock 
in a sedimentary deposit (Halse) 

Clay. A natural substance or soft rock 
which, when finely ground and 
mixed with water, forms a pasty, 
moldable mass that preserves its 
shape when air dried; the particles 
soften and coalesce upon being 
highly heated and form a stony mass 
upon cooling. Clays differ greatly 
mineralogically and chemically and 
consequently in their physical prop- 
erties. Most of them contain many 
impurities, but ordinarily the/r base 
is hydrous aluminum silicate. (U. 
S. Geol. Surv.) 

Clay band (Wales). Argillaceous iron- 
stone in thin beds. (Gresley) 

Clay bank. 1. A bank of clay. 2. A 
dun yellowish color. (Webster) 

Clay course. A clay seam or gouge 
found at the sides of some veins. 
(C. and M. M. P.) 

Clay dam. 1. (Mid.) A stopping 
made of puddled and well-beaten 
clay, from I!2 in. to 36 in. thick, and 
rammed into the roof, floor, and 
sides of the excavation made to re- 
ceive it. 2. A stopping consisting of 
two walls of stout planks placed 18 
to 24 inches apart, and supported on 
the outside by upright props, the in- 
tervening space being filled with 
clay. (Gresley) 

Clayer (Scot). 'A rod for forcin & clay 
into joints of strata in wet shot 
holes (Barrowman). See also Clay 

Clay gall. A dry, curled "clay-shav- 
ing " resulting from the drying and 
cracking of mud which is later em- 
bedded and flattened hi a sand stra- 
tum. (Lahee, p. 86) 

Clay gouge. A thin seam of clay sepa- 
rating ore, or ore and rock. (Weed) 

Clay gun. See Mud gun. 

Clay hog <Mid.). See Wash fault 

Clay hole. A cavity, in a stone, filled 
with clayey or sandy material. 
(Gillette, p. 6) 

Claying. Lining a bore hole with clay, 
to keep the powder dry. (Gresley) 

Claying bar. A rod used for making 
a blast hole water-tight by driving 
clay into its crevices, in order to 
protect the charge. (Ceptrv\ 



Clay iron. An Iron rod used for ram- 
ming clay into wet drill holes 
(Webster). See Bull, 1; also Clay- 
ing bar. 

Clay-ironstone. Clayey carbonate of 
iron. A heavy compact or fine 
grained clayey looking stone, occur- 
ring in nodules and uneven beds 
among carboniferous and other 
rocks. It contains only 20 to 30 per 
cent of iron, and yet much of the 
iron produced by Great Britain is 
made from it. (Roy. Com.) 

Clay kiln. A kiln or stove for burn- 
ing clay. (Century) 

Clay marl. A whitish, smooth, chalky 
clay ; '4 marl in which clay predomi- 
nates. (Webster) 

Clay mill. A mill for mixing and 
tempering clay ; a pug mill. (Cen- 

Clay pan (Aust.). A shallow depres- 
sion covered with a clayey deposit 
which prevents the water from sink- 
ing quickly into the ground. (Web- 

Clay parting. Clayey material bound 
between a vein and its wall. Also 
called Casing and Parting. (Dur- 

Clay pit. A pit where clay is dug. 

Clay pocket. A clay-filled erosion cav- 
ity in a rock ledge. (Bowles) 

.Clay rock. A rock made up of fine 
argillaceous detrital material and 
chiefly that derived from the decom- 
position of the feldspars; indurated 
clay, sufficiently hardened to be in- 
capable of using as a clay without 
grinding, but not chemically altered 
or metamorphosed. (Century) Also 
called Clay stone. 

Clay shale. Shale composed wholly or 
chiefly of argillaceous material, 
which again becomes clay on 
weathering. (La Forge) 

Clay slate. An argillaceous rock hav- 
ing a slaty or fissile structure. It 
differs from clay shale in that it 
has been altered by metamorphism. 

Clay stone.- 1. (Aust.) A soft, earthy, 
feldspathic rock occurring in veins, 
and having the appearance of in- 
durated clay. (Power) 
2. One of the concretionary masses 
of clay frequently found in alluvial 
deposits, in the form of flat rounded 
disks either simple or variously 

united so as to give rise to curious 
shapes. They are sometimes almost 
as regular as if turned in a lathe. 

Clay-stone porphyry. An old and 
somewhat indefinite name for those 
porphyries whose naturally fine 
groundmass is more or less kaolin- 
ized, so as to be soft and earthy, 
suggesting hardened clay. (Kemp) 

dead (Eng.). To cover with planks. 
(G. C. Green well) 

Cleading. A lining or covering of 
board planks, as the lagging on a 
winding-engine drum. (Webster) 

Clean. 1. (No. of Eng.) Free from 
fire damp or other noxious gases. 

2. A coal seam free from dirt part- 
ings. (Gresley) 

3. To undergo or perform the proc- 
ess of cleaning; to clean up; to 
make a clean-up. (Webster) 

Cleaner (Scot.). A scraper for clean- 
ing out a shot hole. (Barrowman) 

Cleaner cell. A flotation cell in which 
the concentrates from the rougher 
cells are again treated for a further 
reduction in the amount of gangue 

Cleanser; Clanser (Eng.). An iron 
tube or shell, with which a bore 
hole is cleaned. (Gresley) 

Cleansing (So. Staff.). Clearing and 
making fit for traversing old gate 
roads; carrying out cuttings from 
the mine; clearing the sumps at 
bottom of shafts. (Min. Jour.) 

Clean toe. A sufficient shattering of 
the material that constitutes the 
toe, to make its entire removal pos- 
sible without excessive secondary 
blasting. Compare Toe, 1 and 2. 

Clean-up. 1. The operation of collect- 
ing all the valuable product of a 
given period or operation in a stamp 
mill, or in a hydraulic or placer 
mine. (Raymond) 

2. The valuable material resulting 
from a clean-up. (Webster) 

3. To load out all the coal a miner 
has broken. 4. An opportunity to 
clean up. (Steel) 

Clean-up man. 1. Usually a pensioner 
who keeps yard cleaned up, pulls 
weeds, and does odd jobs at blast 
furnaces. (Willcox) 
2. The man who performs the oper- 
ation described under Clean-up, 1. 



Cleap. A cleaving crosswise of. the 
bedding in a coal seam; a cleat. 

Clear. See Clean, 1 and 2. 

Clearance. 1. The space between the 
piston at tiie end of its stroke and 
the valve face, or the end of the 
cylinder. ( Ihlseng ) 
2. The space between the top or 
side of a car and the roof or wall. 

Clearer. 1. (Eng.) Miners who un- 
dercut the coal, working at distances 
of say three or four yards apart 
along the face. (Gresley) 
2. A reservoir (in salt making) into 
which brine is conveyed. 

Clear-melting. The process of keep- 
ing the glass in a molten condition 
for a time sufficient to permit the 
impurities or uncombined substances 
to settle. (Century) 

Cleat. 1. The main set of joints along 
which coal breaks when mined. 

2. A small piece of wood nailed to 
two planks to keep them together, or 
nailed to any structure to make a 
support for something else. (Steel) 
3.- (Mid.) A wooden wedge four or 
five inches square placed between 
the top of a post and the underside 
of a bar or cap. (Gresley) 
4. (Eng.) A piece (or pieces) of 
wood fastened to pump spears for 
the purpose of steadying them, and 
preventing them from wearing where 
they pass through the collaring, and 
to prevent the edges of the spear 
plates and bolts from injuring the 
pumps. (G. C. Green well) 

Cleavage. 1. In petrology, a tendency 
to cleave or split along definite, 
parallel, closely spaced planes, which 
may be highly inclined to the bed- 
ding planes. It is a secondary struc- 
ture, commonly confined to bedded 
rocks, is developed by pressure, and 
ordinarily is accompanied by at least 
some recrystallization of the rock. 
2. In crystallography, the property 
possessed by many crystalline sub- 
stances, of being rather easily split 
parallel to one or more of the cry- 
stallographic planes p3culiar to the 
substance (La Forge). Cleavage 
should not be applied to the fractur- 
ing of rocks, which is jointing. Sec 

dleavage plane. The planes along 
which the cleavage takes place. 
Compare Joint plane. 

744010 O 47 11 

Cleave (Scot). One of two or more 
divisions of a seam, usually Iron- 
stone. (Barrowman) 

Cleavings (Eng.). Divisions of beds 
of coal, in the direction of the lam- 
inae, either horizontal or inclined. 

Cleaving way (Corn.). A direction 
parallel to the bedding planes of a 
rock. Compare Quartering way. 
(Green well, p. 80) 

Cleavlandite. A white lamallar variety 
of albite. (Dana) 

Cledge (Eng.). Clay; stiff loam; also 
the upper stratum of certain beds of 
fuller's earth. (Webster) 

Cleek. 1. (Scot.) To load cages at 
the shaft bottom or at mid-workings. 
2. (Scot.) A haulage clip. (Gres- 

Cleek coal (Scot.). Coal as it comes 
from the mine (Barrowman). See 
also Run-of-mine. 

Cleeksman; Cleekie (Scot). An early 
term for the person who unhooked 
the baskets of coal at the shaft 
mouth. (Barrowman) 

Cleet (Derb.). See Cleat, 3. 

Cleugh; Clench. A cleft or gorge in a 
hill ; a ravine ; also a cliff or the 
side of a ravine. (Century) 

Cleve. (Eng.). A steep hillside; a 
cliff. (Standard) 

Cleveite. -A variety of urananite con- 
taining a large percentage of UOt, 
and also rich in helium. Contains 
about 10 per cent of the yttrium 
earths. (Dana) 

Cliff. 1. (Wales) Shale which is 
laminated, splitting easily along the 
planes of deposition. See also Bind, 
1 (Gresley), Also called Clift 

2. A steep slope; a precipice. (Web- 

3. The strata of rocks above or be- 
, tween coal seams. (Standard) 

Cliff glacier. A glacier which occupies 
a relatively small depression in the 
side of a mountain or in the escarp- 
ment of a plateau. (Century) 

Clift. 1. (Eng.)' Local term for shale 
(Redmayne). See also Cliff, 1. 
2. A cliff (Standard). See also 
Cliff, 2. 

Cliftonite. Carbon in minute cubic 
crystals (Dana). A form of graph- 
itic carbon occurring in cubic or 
cubo-octahedral crystals in the mete- 
oric iron of Youngdegin, West Aus- 
tralia. (Century) 



Clinch, or Clink bolts (Eng.). Cross 
bolts under spear bolts to prevent 
the pump rods from stripping. (G. 
C. Greenwell) 

Clinker. 1. The product of the fusion 
of the earthy impurities (ash) of 
coal during its combustion. (Ray- 

2. See Cinder coal, 1. 

3. A partially vitrified brick or mass 
of bricks. 4. Vitrified or burnt mat- 
ter thrown up by a volcano. 5. A 
scale of black oxide of iron formed 
when iron is heated to redness in 
open air. (Century) 

Clinker bar. A bar fixed across the 
top of an ash pit for supporting the 
rods used for clearing the fire bars. 

Clinker brick. A very hard-burned 
brick. (Ries) 

Clinkstone. See Phonolite. 

Clinoaxis. The diagonal or lateral 
axis in the monoclinic system which 
makes an oblique angle with the 
vertical axis. (Webster) 

Clinochlore. A silicate of aluminum 
and magnesium usually containing 
iron. Normally, H 8 Mg 6 Al 2 Si 8 Oi. 

Clinoclase. 1. Oblique cleavage. 2. A 
basic copper arsenate. See Clino- 

Clinoclasite. A hydrous copper arse- 
nate Cu 3 As 2 O 8 .3Cu ( OH ) i or 6CuO.- 
AS2O 8 3H 2 O. Color, internally, dark 
verdigris-green; externally blackish 
blue-green, and crystallizes in the 
monoclinic system. (Dana) 

Clinometer. A simple apparatus for 
measuring by means of a pendulum 
or spirit level and circular scale, 
vertical angles, particularly dips. 

Clinozoisite. An epidote without iron, 
having the composition of zoisite. 

Clinton ore. A red, fossil if erous, iron 
ore of the Clinton formation of 
the United States, with lenticular 
grains. Called also Dyestone, Fossil, 
or Flaxseed ore. (Standard) 

Clip. A device similar to a clamp but 
smaller and for the same purpose 
(C. M. P.). See olio Haulage clip. 

Clipper (Eng.). A hook for attaching 
the bucket to the cable. Used in 
shaft sinking. (Bainbridge) 

Clipper-off (Aust.). A boy who un- 
fastens the clip connecting a skip 
to a haulage rope. (Power) 

Clipper-on (Aust). A boy who fastens 
skips to a haulage rope with a clip. 

Clip pulley (Eng.). A wlieel contain- 
ing clips in the groove for gripping 
a wire rope. (Gresley) 

Cllvage (Peru). Cleavage. (D wight) 
Clive (Derb.). See Cliviss. 

Cliviss (Eng.). A bit of turned Iron, 
with a spring, for fastening a 
bucket to a rope (Bainbridge). Also 
called Clive; Clivvy. A variation 
of Clevis. 

Clivvy (Eng.). See Cliviss. A varia- 
tion of Clevis. 

Clod; Clot. 1, Soft shale or slate, in 
coal mines, usually applied to a 
layer forming a bad roof. (Ray- 

2. See Kettle bottom. A " clod of 
dirt " of greater or less diameter ; 
thin at the edges and increasing ir 
thickness to the middle. (Missouri 
& Illinois Coal Co. v. Schwalb, 74 
Illinois, App., p. 569). 

Clod coal (Scot.). Strong homogene- 
ous coal. (Barrowman) 

Clod tops (Forest of Dean). Clay or 
shale beds overlying seams of coal. 

Clog (Mid.). A short piece of timber 
about 3 by 6 by 24 inches fixed be- 
tween -the roof and a prop. (Gres- 

Clog pack (York.). See Chock, 1, and 
Nog, 1. 

. ). To chloridize. 


Close connected. 'Applied to dredges in 
which the buckets are each connect- 
ed to the one in front without any 
intermediate link. (Weatherbe) 

Closed basin. A districf draining to 
some depression or lake within Its 
area, from which water escapes only 
by evaporation. (Webster) 

Closed fault. See Fault. 

Closed fold. A fold in which the 
limbs (sides of the arch) have been 
compressed until they are parallel. 

Closed form. A crystal form In which 
all the faces havtng a like position 
relative to the planes, or axes, of 
symmetry yield an enclosed solid. 


Closed front. An arrangement of the 
blast furnace without a forehearth. 

Closed season. That portion of the 
year when placers cannot be worked 
by reason of shortage of water, due 
to drought or cold. 

Closed top. See Gup-and-cone. 

Close-grained. Having fine and closely 
arranged fibers, crystals, or texture. 

Close-jointed. A term applied to Joints 
that are very near together. (Dale) 

Close mold. A two-part flask filled by 
pouring through ingates. (Stand- 

Close place (Scot). A narrow drift 
without a separate air return. 

^Close-poling. The placing of poles or 
plank close together. See also Pol- 
Ing, 2. 

Close work. 1. Driving a tunnel or 

drifting between two coal seams. 2. 

(Scot). See Narrow work, 3. 
f Gresley) 

Closing apparatus (Eng.). Sliding- 
doors or other mechanical arrange- 
ment at the top of an upcast shaft 
for allowing the cages to pass up 
and down without disturbing the 
ventilation of the mine. (Gresley) 

Clot. Same as Clod. 

Clothing (Eng.). Brattice constructed 
of a coarse, specially prepared can- 
vas. (Gresley) 

Cloth oiL A name given to one of the 
distillates of crude petroleum 
(specific gravity, 0.875) which is 
used for oiling wood. (Mitzakis) 

Clotting. The sintering or semi-fusion 
of ores during roasting. (Raymond) 

Clour (Eng.). A small depression of 
roof extending into the coal. (G. 
O. Green well) 

Cloustonite. A mineral related to 
asphalt, occurring in patches in blue 
limestone and in blue flags at 
Inganess, Orkney. It is soluble in 
benzol and at a red heat, gives off a 
large amount of illuminating gas. 

Cloy. A plattic cement mixture: ap- 
plied to any clay not a natural clay. 

Clucking. The breaking of a rock by 
curved fractures that pass beyond 
the limit of the desired plane of 
separation. (Bowles) 

Clumper (Forest of Dean). A large 
mass of fallen stone. (Gresley) 

Chinch (Staff.). An English provin- 
cial term for any tough coarse clay. 

Clutch. A coupling for connecting two 
working parts, as shafts, shaft and 
pulley, permitting either to be 
thrown in or out at will, as by mov- 
ing a lever. (Webster) 

Clutch room (Aust). A chamber, gen- 
erally underground, in which there 
are friction clutches that control the 
different haulage ropes of the vari- 
ous districts. (Power) 

Coagulation. The state of a solute in 
a solvent, or of a colloidal gel, re- 
sulting from clotting or curdling ; the 
act of changing to a curd-like condi- 
tion. (Rickard) 

Coak. 1. Same as Coke. 2. Same as 
Calk. (Standard) 

Coal. A carbonaceous substance 
formed from the remains of vegeta- 
tion by partial decomposition (U. 
S. Geol. Surv.) A solid and more or 
less distinctly stratified carbona- 
ceous substance varying in color 
from dark-brown to black, brittle, 
combustible, and used, as a fuel ; not 
fusible without decomposition and 
very insoluble. In its formation the 
vegetal matter appears to have 
first taken the form of peat, 
then lignite, and finally bituminous 
coal. The latter by the loss of its 
bitumen has in some places been 
converted into anthracite or hard 
coal. Lignite gives a brown pow- 
der, coal a black. Lignites contain a 
large percentage of water and ash. 

Coal apple (Aust). A spheroidal form 
of coal occasionally found in certain 
seams. (Power) 

Coal backer (Eng.). A man who is 
engaged in carrying coal on his back 
from a ship to wagons. (Century) 

Coal balls (Lane.). Calcareo-carbon- 
aceous nodules, formed by the infil- 
tration of water carrying calcium 
carbonate from the shells of an over- 
lying shale, down into the bed of 
woody fragments where it segre- 
gates. (Power) 

Coal barge. A barge or lighter used 
in the transportation of coal by 
water. (Century) 



Coal basin. Depressions in the older 
rock formations, in which coal-bear- 
ing strata have been deposited. 

Coal bearer (Scot.). See Bearers, 1. 

Coal bearing (Scot.). The ancient 
custom of employing women to carry 
coal out of the mine. (Gresley) 

Coal bed. A bed or stratum of coal. 
Coal seam is more commonly used in 
the United States and Canada. 

Coal blacking. Iron founders' blacking 
made from powdered coal. (Web- 

Coal box (Aust.). Large bins for stor- 
ing coal. (Power) 

Coal brass. Iron pyrite in coal seams 
(Gresley). Commonly used in the 

Coal breaker. 1. A building containing 
the machinery for breaking coal 
with toothed rolls, sizing it with 
sieves, and cleaning it for market. 
( Raymond ) 

2. A machine for breaking coal. 

3. A person employed to break coal. 

Coal bunker. A place for storing coal, 
especially in steamships for furnace 

Coal car. A freight, car designed 
especially for carrying coal, usually 
made of iron, with a drop bottom. 

Coal carrier. One who or that which 
is employed carrying coal (Cen- 
tury). A railroad is a coal carrier. 

Coal chute. A trough or spout down 
which coal slides from a bin or 
pocket to a locomotive tender, or to 
vessels, carts, or cars. (Century) 

Coal clay. See Fire clay. 

Coal-cutting, machine. A machine 
worked by compressed air or elec- 
tricity, for undercutting or channel- 
ing a bed of coal. 

Coal digger. See Coal miner. 

Coal drawing (Eng.). The operation 
of raising coal at a colliery. Hoist- 
ing. (Gresley) 

Coal drop. A broad, shallow inclined 
trough down which coal is dis- 
charged from a wharf into the hold 
of a vessel. (Century). A coal 

Coal duns (Forest of Dean). Coal- 
measure shales. (Gresley) 

Coal dust. A finely divided coal. 
There is a diversity of opinion as 
to what the term " coal dust " 
means ; that is, how finely must coal 
be divided to be termed dust. Borne 
writers base the distinction on the 
point whether it can be carried to 
considerable distances by air cur- 
rents. Coal that will pass through 
100-mesh screens (100 wires to the 
linear inch) is frequently accepted 
as representing mine dust. For 
testing explosives at the Pittsburgh 
station coal passed through 100- 
mesh is taken as standard. In the 
foreign galleries the practice varies 
between this size and coal that 
passes through 200-mesh. 

For the consideration of coal dust 
as it affects mining, the writer pro- 
poses tentatively a definition based 
on the capacity of the dust to propa- 
gate flame in the incipient stages of 
an explosion, as determined at the 
Pittsburgh station under certain 
specific conditions. By this defini- 
tion, coal particles passing through 
a 20-mesh wire sieve (20 wires to 
the linear inch) will be termed dust. 
In the Pittsburgh gallery-tests, only 
partial flame propagation was ob- 
tained under the prescribed condi- 
tions with coal that passed through 
the 20-mesh and remained on a 40- 
mesh sieve, but the partial propaga- 
tion was sufficient to indicate that 
under slightly more severe condi- 
tions, namely, a larger initiating 
charge of black powder, the propaga- 
tion might be complete. (Geo. S. 
Rice, Bull. 20, U. S. Bur. Mines, 
p. 33.) This view was strengthened 
by subsequent large-scale tests in 
the Experimental mine, operated by 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines, near 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Coaler. 1. Anything wholly or chiefly 
employed in transporting or supply- 
ing coal, as a railway from coal- 
mining regions; also a person em- 
ployed in coaling vessels. (Web- 
2. See Coalers. 

Coalers (Colloq., U. S.). A financial 
term for the stocks of the anthracite 
coal-carrying railroads. (Standard) 

Coalescent. Joined together; running 
together. (Emmons) 

Coalette. A synonym for Briquet. 

Coal exchange. A market for the sale 
of coal ; especially a place for trans- 
actions in coal on a large scale. 



Coal face. The working face of a stall 
or room, composed wholly of coal. 

Coal factor. See Factor. 

Coal fauld (Scot). A storage place 
for coaL (Century). 

Coal field. A region in which deposits 
of coal occur. Also called Coal basin 
when of basin-like structure. (Web- 

Coal fitter (Eng.). A coal factor 
(Standard). See also Factor. 

Coal formation. A term generally un- 
derstood to mean the same as the 
coal measures. (Da vies) 

<Joal gat. Gas made from coal by dis- 
tilling bituminous coal in retorts, 
and used for lighting and heating. 

Coal getter (Eng.). One who cuts, 
holes, hews, or mines coal ' in the 
mine (Gresley). A coal miner. 

Coal fcaggor (No. of Eng.).' One who 
is employed in cutting or hewing 
coal in the mine (Gresley). A coal 

Coal heaver. One employed in moving 
or shoveling of coal, in loading or 
discharging coal ships, in shoveling 
coal from ships' bunkers to the fur- 
naces; a coal passer. (Century) 

Coalhengh. 1. {Scot.) A mound of 
refuse about old mines. (Gresley) 
3. (Scot.) A place where coal is 
dug; a coal mine. (Barrowman) 

Coal hewer (Eng.). A person who 
digs coal; a collier; a miner. .(Bar- 

Coal hill ( Scot. ) . Ground occupied at 
& pithead or mine mouth for colliery 
. purposes. (Barrowniau) 

Coal hole. A hole for coal as a trap 
or opening in a sidewalk; a com- 
partment for storing coal. (Web- 

Coal hulk. A vesel kept, usually at 
foreign stations for supplying steam- 
.. ers with coal. (Century) 

Coaling. 1. The process of supplying 
or taking coal for use as in coaling 
a steamer, etc. (Century) 
t. (Mid.). Engaged in mining coal. 

Coalition. 1. A voluntary joining of 
persons or parties, for the purpose 
of combining their resources, as in 
the support of some plan or policy 
relating to mining operations; a 

Coal land. Land of the public domain 
which contains coal beds. (U. S. 
Min. Stat, pp. 724-750) 

Coal master (Eng.). The owner or 
lessee of a coalfield or colliery. 

Coal measures. Those strata t>f the 
Carboniferous system which contain 

Coal metals (Scot.). Strata in which, 
coal seams occur. (Barrowman) 

Coal meter (Eng.). One appointed to 
superintend the measuring of coat 

Coal mine. Any and all parts of the 
property of a mining plant, on the 
surface or underground, which con- 
tributes, directly or indirectly under 
one management to the mining or 
handling of coal. (Spring Valley 
Coal Co. v. Greig, 226 Illinois, p. 
516; Hakason v. La Salle County 
Carbon Coal Co., 265 Illinois p. 167.) 
A colliery. See also Mine. a 

Coal miner. One who digs coal. (Roy. 

Coal oil. 1. The crude oil obtained by 
the destructive distillation of bi- 
tuminous coal. 2. That distillate ob- 
tained from such a crude oil which is 
used for illuminating purposes 
kerosene. 3. Crude petroleum. 

Coal passer. One whos-> duty it is to 
pass coal to the furnace of a steam 
engine. (Century) 

Coal pipe (Eng.). 1. The carbonized 
annular coating or bark of a fossil 
plant. 2. A very thin seam of coal. 
See also Coal shed. (Gresley) 

Coal. pit. 1. (U. S.) A place where 
charcoal is made. 2. (Eng.). A 
place where coal is dug. A coal 

Coal plant. A fossil plant found in 
association with or contributing by 
its substance to the formation of 
coal beds. Strictly speaking, any 
plant species, the residue of whose 
individuals has entered under nat- 
ural geological conditions, into the 
composition of coal. (Century) 

Coal pocket. A structure for the 
storage >f coal. (Century) 

Coal prints (No. of Eng.). Thin films, 
or patches, of coal-like matter inter- 
bedded with shale. (Gresley) 



Coal puncher; Pick machine. A coal 
cutter of the reciprocating type, 
used for undercutting and nicking 
coal. (Power) 

Coal rake (Derb.). A seam or bed of 
coal. (Gresley) 

Coal ree (Scot.). Same as Coal rith. 

Coalrith; Coal ree; Coal f auld (Scot.) 
A sale place for coal other than at 
a colliery. (Barrowman) 

Coal road. 1. An underground roadway 
or heading in coal. (G. and M. M. 


2. A railroad whose principal busi- 
ness is the haulage of coal, as from 
mine to industrial centers. 

Coal room (Scot). A working face in 
stoop-and-room workings. (Bar- 

Coal salad (Wales). A mixture of 
various sorts of coal. (Gresley) 

Coal seam. See Coal bed. 
Coal seat. Same as Fire clay. 

Coal shed (Eng.). A coal bed of only 
a few inches in thickness, and there- 
fore unworkable. - (Gresley) 

Coal-sheugh. See Sheugh, 2. 

Coal smits (York). Worthless, earthy 
coal. See also Coal smut. (Gres- 

Coal smut (Eng.). An earthy coal 
stratum at or near the surface. 
The outcrop of a coal seam (Gres- 
ley). Also called Blossom of coal. 

Coal stone (Eng.). A kind of cannel 
coal. ( Gresley ) 

Coal tar. A tar obtained by the de- 
structive distillation of soft or bitu- 
minous coal, as in the manufacture 
of coal gas. It i a complex mixture 
of hydrocarbons and other sub- 
stances. It is the source of many 
dyestuffs. (Webster) 

Coal-tar naphtha. The light oil pro- 
duced in the distillation of coal tar. 

Coal-tar pitch. The residuum from 
the distillation of coal tar. Most 
of the tar is run to soft pitch with 
a melting point between 60 and 80 
O. (Bacon) 

Coal trimmer. One who is employed 
to stow and trim or shift coal on 
board vessels, either as cargo or 
supply for furnaces. (Century) 

Coal vend. 1. (Eng.). The general 
sale of coal. 2. The limited quan- 
tity of coal to which each colliery 
was restricted by a former com- 
bination of coal operators on the 
Tyne. (Century) 

Coal wall (Scot). The coal face. 

Coal warrant (Wales). A kind of fire- 
clay forming the floor of a coal bed. 

Coal washery. See Washery. 

Coal washing. See Washing appa- 

Coal whipper. A laborer or a machine 
that raises coal out of the hold of a 
ship. (Webster) 

Coal work. 1. (No. of Eng.). Head- 
ings driven in coal. (Gresley) 
2. (Scot). A colliery. (Barrow- 

Coal workings. A coal mine with Ita 
appurtenances; a colliery (Stand- 
ard). Coal works. 

Coaly rashings. Soft dark shale, in 
small pieces, containing much car- 
bonaceous matter. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Coarse; Coose. A name given to a vein 
or the material from it when it is 
not rich, the mineral being only 
thinly disseminated through it 
(Power). Inferior, faulty. 

Coarse jigs. The jigs used to handle 
the larger sizes and heavier grades 
of ore or metal. (Weed) 

Coarse lode. One not rich. See also 
Coarse. (Skinner) 

Coarse metal. The regulus or copper 
matte obtained when smelting cop- 
per ore, containing 20 to 40 per cent 
copper. ( Webster ) 

Coarse roll. A large roll for the pre- 
liminary crushing of large pieces of 
ore, rock, or coal. Used in stage 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. A bureau 
of the United States Government 
charged with the topographic and 
hydrographic survey of the coast 
and the execution of belts of pri- 
mary triangulation, and lines of pre- 
cise leveling in the interior. 

Coaster (Corn.). One who picks ore 
from the dump or abandoned mines. 

Coave. A sled for transporting coal 
In mines. (Daddow) 



Cob. 1. (Corn.) To break ore with 
hammers, so as to sort out the valu- 
able portion. (Whitney) 
2. (Derb.) A small, solid pillar of 
coal left as a support for the roof. 

Cobalt. A tough, lustrous, nickel- 
white metal, related to and occur- 
ring with iron and nickel. Symbol, 
Co; atomic weight, 58.97. Specific 
gravity, 8.6. 

Cobalt bloom. See Erythrite. 
Cobalt glance. See Cobaltite. 

Cobaltina (Mex.). Oobaltlte. 
(D wight) 

Cobaltite. A sulpharsenide of cobalt, 

1 CoAsS. Contains 35.5 per cent of 

cobalt. Cobalt glance. (U. S. Oeol. 

Cobalt minerals. Minerals containing 
cobalt as hnnaeite, cobaltite'; 
erythrite; smaltite. 

Cobalt ocher. The mineral erythrite. 

Cobalt pyrites. See Linnaeite. 
Cobalt vitriol. See Red or Rose vitriol. 

Cobbed ore (Eng.). Ore broken from 
veinstone by means of a small ham- 
mer. (Hunt) 

Cobbing. 1. (Corn.) Breaking ore to 
sort out its better portions. See 
also Spall. (Raymond) 
2. Rubble, as from furnace bottoms, 
impregnated with copper. (Stand- 

Cobbing board. A flat piece of wood 
used in cobbing. (Century) 

Cobbing hammer. A short double- 
ended hammer for breaking min- 
erals to sizes. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Cobble. 1. (Penn.) In metallurgy of 
iron, an imperfectly puddled ball 
which goes to pieces in the squeezer. 

2. (Eng.)' Small lump coal (Gres- 
ley). See also Cob coal. 

3. See Cobblestones. 

Cobblestone. A smoothly rounded 
stone, larger than a pebble and 
smaller than a bowlder. (La Forge) 

Cobbling (Eng.). Cleaning the haul- 
age road of coal which has fallen 
off the trams. (Gresley) 

Cobcoal. A large round piece of coal. 

Cobre (Sp.). Copper; C. abigarrado, 
bornite; C. amarillo, chalcopyrite ; 
C. azul, azurite; C. ffris, gray copper, 
tetrahedrite ; C. negro, black or blis- 
ter-copper ; C. roseta, rose-copper, 
Ingot-copper; C. rojo, red oxide of 
copper; C. verfie, malachite; C. vir- 
gen, native copper. (Halse) 

Cobrizo (Sp.). Coppery; cupreous; 
copper-bearing. (Halse) 

Cob wall. A wall built of unburned 
clay, sometimes mixed with straw, 
or of straw, lime, and earth. (Cen- 

Cocarde ore. See Sphere-ore. 

Coccolith. A minute calcareous body 
found in chalk and deep-sea ooze% 
It is supposed to be the secretion of 
a unicellular plant. (Webster) 

Cocer (Sp.). To burn lime; to roast 
ore. (Halse). 

Cocha (Peru). A settling tank 
(Pfordte). Also a lenticular ore de- 
posit. (Halse) 

Cochano ( Venez. ) . A nugget. ( Halse ) 

Coche; Coehina (Mex.). A rock- 
crusher; a large anvil. (Dwight) 

Cochizo (Peru). Gray copper -ore 

Cockade ore. Cockscomb pyrite; a 
form of marcasite. (Power) 

Cockermegs (Eng.). Timber props to 
support the coal while undercut- 
ting (Gresley). Also called 

Ctckerpole. A piece of timber placed 
horizontally between two inclined 
pieces which abut against the roof 
and floor. (Gresley) 

Cockers. See Cockermegs. 
Cockerspraggs. Same as Cockermegs 

Cockhead (Derb.). A pack to support 
the roof. It consists of slack or 
waste and is about 12 ft. in width, 
surmounted by a few lumps of coal. 

Cockle. 1. (Corn.) Schorl or black 
tourmaline. ( Whitney ) 
2. Any mineral occurring in dark, 
long crystals, especially black tour- 
maline or schorl. (Webster) 

Cock metal. A soft alloy composed of 
two parts copper and one part lead. 
Used for making taps and cocks. 



Cocksohute (Welsh). Hard siliceous 

beds passing into conglomerates In 

the Coal Measures of South Wales, 

Cockscomb pyrites. A variety of mar- 

casite occurring in crestlike forms. 

Coco (Colom.). A cocoanut vessel in 

which to deposit auriferous sands. 

Cod (Newc.). The bearing of an axle. 


Code. 1. A unified and coordinated 
body of law; especially, reenact- 
ment, in improved and systematic 
form, of previously existing law, 
whether derived from statute, pre- 
scription, or judicial decisions. 2. 
A system of signals or of characters 
used to represent letters or words, 
or in any way to communicate in- 
telligence, as a cipher code, naval 
code, telegraphic code. See Tele- 
graph. 3. A system of rules and 
regulations generally approved and 
formally applied for conduct in par- 
ticular cases; as, the social code; 
the code of honor; the mining code. 

C6dlgo (Sp). Code of laws; C. de 
minas, mining code; law of mines. 

Cod piece (Aust.). A wooden fish- 
plate used for connecting the seg- 
ments of a curb in shafts. (Power) 

Coe (Eng.). A small cabin built over 
the shaft. (Hunt) 

Coefficient. In physics, a number com- 
monly used in computation as a fac- 
tor, expressing the amount of some 
change or effect -under certain con- 
ditions as to temperature, length, 
time, volume, etc., as the coefficient 
of contraction, depression, discharge, 
displacement, efficiency, efflux, elas- 
ticity, expansion, fineness, friction, 
hysteresis, inertia, leakage, mobility, 
reduction, refraction, resistance, 
rigidity, safety, and velocity. (Web- 

Coestead (Eng.). \A small building. 
See Coe. (Bainbridge) 

Coffee-pot lamp (Aust.). An ordinary 
coal miner's open oil lamp, similar 
in shape to a coffee pot. 

Coffer; Cofer. 1. (Derb.). To secure 
a shaft from leaking by ramming in 
clay behind the masonry or timber- 
Ing. 2. (Corn.). See Mortar, 2. 3. 
A rectangular plank frame, used in 
timbering levels. (Raymond) 
4. A floating dock; a caisson. 

Cofferdam. 1. A water-tight inclosure, 
as of piles packed with clay, from 
which the water is pumped to ex- 
pose the bottom (of a river, etc.) 
and permit the laying of founda- 
tions, building of piers, dams, etc. 

2. A double bulkhead, provided in 
tank steamers for the purpose of iso- 
lating the oil cargo from the engine 
an.d boiler space or from holds used 
for other cargo, and to prevent leak- 
age into the adjacent compartments. 

Coffering. The operation of securing 
the shaft of a mine from the ingress 
of water by ramming clay in be- 
tween the casing and the rock. 

Coffin (Corn.). An old open-mine 
wojrking, in which the ore is cast up 
from platform to platform. (Stand- 

Cog. 1. A rock intrusion. 2. To con- 
solidate as by hammering or rolling ; 
also to shape by rolling and re-roll- 
ing, as in the manufacture of iron. 

3. See Cogs,; Chock; Nog. 

Cog-and-mng gin. One of the earliest 
appliances for hoisting the coal and 
water from the mine. It was a 
windlass fitted with a cogwheel and 
pinion arrangement, and worked by 
a horse in much the same way as 
horse-gins are worked. (Gresley) 

Cogedor (Sp.). A collector; a sampler. 

Cogger (Eng.). One who builds cogs 
(Gresley). See Cogs. 

Cogging; Coggin (So. Staff.). The 
propping of the roof in longwall 
stalls. (Gresley). See also Cogs; 

Cogollos (Colom.). The superficial 
part of an ore deposit; C. de las 
vetas, an outcrop. (Halse) 

Cogs. See Nogs; only cogs are not 
squared, but simply notched where 
they cross each other. The interior 
of a structure of this kind and the 
spaces between the timber are usually 
filled with gob. They are called also 
Cobs, Corncobs, etc. (Raymond) 

Cohesion. That force by which mole- 
cules of the same kind or of the 
same body are held together, so that 
the body resists being pulled to 
pieces. (Rickard) 

Cohetazo (Mex.). A shot with a 
match, squib or detonator inserted. 



Cohete (Mex. ). A blasting cartridge, 
a rocket; applied to a blast within 
a mine or outside. (O. and M. 
M. P.) 

Coil drag. A tool to pick up pebbles, 
bits of iron, etc., from the bottom of 
a drill hole. (Raymond) 

Coin silver (U. S.). The alloy of 
silver and copper which in the 
United States is accepted as the legal 
standard of fineness for the silver 
coinage, counting 90 per cent of the 
former metal to 10 per cent of the 
latter. (Standard) 

Coir. Cocoanut-husk fiber (C. and 
M. M. P.) Used in certain metal- 
lurgical processes. 

Cok (Mex.) Coke. (Dwight) 

Coke. Bituminous coal from which the 
volatile constituents have been 
driven off by heat, so that the fixed 
carbon and the ash are fused to- 
gether. Commonly artificial, but 
natural coke is also known. (U. S. 
Geol. Gurv.) 

Coke coal (No. of Bng.). Carbonized 
or partially burnt coal found on the 
sides of dikes (Gresley). See 
also Natural coke. 

Coke drawer. A mechanical device for 
drawing coke from an oven. (Ful- 
ton, p. 187) , 

Coke iron. Iron made in a furnace 
using coke as a fuel. (Webster) 

Coke oven. An oven used in the 
manufacture of coke. See Beehive 
oven; also By-product oven. Web- 

Coke-oven tar. Coal tar produced in 
by-product coke ovens in the manu- 
facture of coke from bituminous 
coal. (Bacon) 

Coke plate. Coke-smelted or puddled- 
iron coated with tin (Standard). 
See also Tin plate. 

Coke scrubber. An apparatus filled 
with coke moistened with oil, used 
to purify street gas, which is forced 
through it. (Century) 

Coke tower.. A high tower or con- 
denser filled with coke, used in the 
manufacture of hydrochloric acid to 
give a large surface for the union 
of a falling spray of water with the 
rising hydrochloric acid gas. (Cen- 

Coke wharf (Aust). A platform onto 
which coke is pushed when dis- 
charged from an oven. (Power) 

Cokey (Joplin, Mo.). A shoveler; a 

Cokey herder (Joplin, Mo.). A fore- 
man of a shovel gang. 

Coking coal. The most important of 
the bituminous coals, which burns 
with a long yellow flame, giving off 
more or less smoke, and creates an 
intense heat when properly attended. 
It is usually quite soft, and does 
not bear handling well. In the fire 
it swells, fuses, and finally runs to- 
gether in large masses, which are 
rendered more or less porous by the 
evolution of the contained gaseous 
hydrocarbons. (Chance) 

Coking plate. A plate at the door of a 
furnace which uses bituminous coal, 
on which fresh coal is placed and 
allowed to coke before being spread 
on the fire. (Century) 

Coking stoker. A mechanical stoker 
or device for firing a furnace which 
permits the coal to coke before feed- 
ing it to the grate, thus burning 
the fuel with little or r\r> smoke. 

Col ( Fr.). A saddle or gap across a 
ridge or between two peaks ; also, in 
a valley in which streams flow both 
ways from a divide, that part of the 
valley at the divide, especially if the 
valley slopes rather steeply away 
from the divide. (La Forge) 

Cola. 1. (Mex.) That part of a vein 
which terminates in depth; tail-end 
of a vein. 2. (Colom.) The lower 
end of a placer mine. The lower 
end of a gjround sluice. 3. (Sp.) 
The bottom layer of slag below 
the charge in a smelting furnace. 

Coladera (Mex.). A coarse screen. 

Coladero. 1. (Sp.) A winze. 2. 
(Colom.) Any chute or pass for ore". 

Colander shovel. An. open wirework 
shovel used for taking salt crystals 
from an evaporating brine. (Cen- 

Colas (Sp.). Tailings from a stamp 
mill or any wet process. (C. and 
M. M. P..) 

Cold bed. A platform in a rolling 
mill on which cold bars are stored. 

Cold blast. Air forced into a furnace 
without being previously heated 
(Raymond). See Gayley process. 



Cold chisel. A chisel of tempered steel, 
used in cutting cold metal. (Stand- 

Cold-drawn. Drawn while cold or 
without the application of heat, as 
cold-drawn steel tubing. (Webster) 

Cold furnace (No. of Eng.). A drift 
driven into an upcast shaft to con- 
vey the return air into it instead 
of passing it over the furnace fire. 
This is done to prevent the ignition 
of the gas in the return air. (Gres- 

Cold nose. (Western U. S.). A mining 
expert who underrates the value of 
mineral properties. ( Standard ) 

Cold pit (Leic.). A downcast shaft. 
Called cold because the fresh or 
cold air comes down it. (Gresley) 

Cold-roll. To roll while cold or with- 
out the application of heat. (Web- 

Cold-short. Brittle when cold; ap- 
plied chiefly to iron and steel (Ray- 
mond). Compare Red-short. 

Cold-shot. 1. Small round particles of 
iron sometimes found in the chilled 
part of an iron casting. (Standard) 
2. Chilled by the mold in casting, 
or imperfect through such chilling. 

Cold-stoking. In glass making, the 
operation of lowering the tempera- 
ture of the oven until the glass at- 
tains the proper consistency for 
blowing. This operation follows 
that of clearing. (Century) 

Cold test. A name given to a test ap- 
plied to lubricating oils in order to 
ascertain their power of withstand- 
ing low temperatures without solidi- 
fying or depositing paraffin. (Mitza- 

Colemanite. A hydrous borate of cal- 
cium, 2CaO . 3B 2 O 8 . 5H 2 O. The com- 
monest source of borax in the United 
States. (U. S. Geol, Surv.) 

Colero (Mex.). A boss in charge of 
peones. (Dwight) 

Colgantes (Mex.). Hangers for sus- 
pending sets in shafts. (Halse) 

Colgar el cana!6n (Sp. Am.). To pre- 
pare the sluice for washing; C. el 
mineral, to open a vein by driving 
levels; metal colgado, ore in sight; 
ore reserves. (Halse) 

Colina (Mex.). A small hill. (Dwight) 

Colindantes (Mex.). Neighboring min- 
ing properties, not more than 100 
meters apart. (Dwight) 

Collado (Sp.). A hill. (Min. Jour.) 

Collar. 1. See Cap. 2. The collar of 
a shaft is the horizontal timbering 
around the mouth. (Raymond) 

3. (No. of Eng.) The mouth of a 
mine-shaft. (Gresley) 

4. The mouth or opening of a bore 
hole. (Du Pont) 

5. A flat ring surrounding anything 
closely. (Steel) 

6. (Scot.) A frame to guide pump 
rods; the fastening of pipes in a 
shaft. (Barrowman) 

Collar crib (No. of Eng.). A strong 
polygonal wooden frame fixed in a 
shaft, upon which the crib or wood 
tubbing is bedded. (Gresley) 

Collared. Designating a drill hole in 
rock when the hole has gained suffi- 
cient depth to hold the drill from 
slipping. (Gillette, p. 120) 

Collaring (Eng.). Timber framing for 
supporting pump trees in a shaft. 
See also Chogs. (Gresley) 

Collar launder (Eng.). The pipe at 
the top of a lift of pumps for carry- 
ing water to a cistern. (Bain- 

Collar of shaft (Aust.) v The first 
wooden frame round the top of a 
shaft (Power). See Collar, 2 and 3. 

Collecting rope (Aust.). An endless 
rope used for bringing skips from 
where they are left by the main 
haulage system to the bottom of the 
shaft. (Power) 

Collier (Eng.). 1. Strictly speaking a 
man who mines coal with a pick 
though commonly applied to anyone 
who works in or about a colliery. 

2. A steam or sailing vessel carry- 
ing a cargo of coal. (Gresley) 

3. A coal merchant or dealer in coal. 

Collier's coal. A certain weight of 
coal allowed periodically (once in a 
month or six weeks) by the owners 
to the men employ on the works. 

Collier's lung. See Anthracosis. 

Collier's ton (Eng.). A weight of 
often several cwt. in addition to the 
standard ton of 2,240 Ibs. In former 
times as much as 28 c ,vt. was reck- 
oned as one ion. (Gresley) 

Colliery (Eng.). 1. A place where coal 
is mined, including its machinery 
and plant (Gresley). See also Coal 
2. The coal trade. (Standard) 



Colliery bailiff (Derb). The superin- 
tendent of the colliery. (Min. 
Jour. ) 

Colliery consumption. The amount of 
fuel consumed In generating steam 
and for other purposes in and about 
a colliery. (Gresley) 

Colliery warnings (Eng.). Tele- 
graphic messages sent from signal- 
service stations to the principal 
colliery centers to warn managers 
of mines when sudden falls of the 
barometer occur. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Collimate. 1. To bring into line, as 
the axes of two lenses or of two 
telescopes ; also to make parallel, as 
refracted or reflected rays. 2. To 
determine or correct the direction 
of the line of sight (of a telescope) 
by use of a colHmator, or by vertical 
reflection from the surface of a basin 
of mercury. (Standard) 

Collimation axis. The straight line 
passing through the optical center of 
the object glass (of a transit) and 
the horizontal rotation axis perpen- 
dicular to the latter. (Webster) 

Collimation plane. The plane described 
by the Collimation axis during the 
revolution of a transit. (Webster) 

Collimator. A fixed telescope with 
spider-lines in its focus, used to ad- 
just a second telescope by looking 
through it in a reverse direction 
with the latter, so that images of 
the spider-lines are formed in the 
focus of the second telescope, as if 
they originated in a distant point. 

Collision waves. Two waves that are 
propagated in opposite directions 
through the burned gases, and orig- 
inating ut the point where two ex- 
plosion waves meet. (Mellor, Chemi- 
cal Statistics and Dynamics, p. 491. 

Collodion. A solution of gun-cotton in 
ether and alcohol. It is deposited 
as a film on the evaporation of the 
ether, and Is used as a coating for 
wounds and for photographic plates. 

Colloid. A state of matter , supposed 
to represent a degree of subdivision 
into almost molecular dimensions, 
dispersed in a solvent. Colloidal 
particles possess the property of 
carrying electric charges, and also of 
failing to diffuse through a mem- 
brane, this being the original dis- 
tinction between colloids and crys- 
talloids. (Rickard) 

Collom washer (Lake Sap.). / 'va- 
riety of jig. (Raymond) 

Collophanite. A dull, colorless or snow- 
white hydrous calcium phosphate, 
Ca.PaO.+HaO. (Dana) 

Colluvial. Consisting of alluvium in 
part and also containing angular 
fragments of the original rocks. 
Contrasted with Alluvial and Di- 
luvial. (Century). Also, talus and 
cliff debris; material of avalanches. 
(Watson, p. 241) 

Cologne earth. An earthy, peaty mass 
of lignite, ^OT partly fossilized 
wood, of a deep brown color, occtus 
ring in an irregular bed of from 80 
to 50 feet thick, near Cologne. 

Cololite. In geology, a substance ap- 
pearing to be the petrified intestines 
of fishes or their contents, but more 
probably formed of worm casts. 
Frequently found in the lithographic 
slates of the OSlite. (Century) 

Colophonite. A coarse garnet of the 
variety andradite. So called by rea- 
son of its resinous luster and color, 

Color (Sp.). 1. Color. The shade or 
tint of the earth or rock which indi- 
cates ore. 2. A particle of metallic 
gold found in the prospector's pan 
after a sample of earth or crushed 
rock has been "panned out." Pros- 
pectors say, e. g., "The dirt gave 
me so many colors to the panful." 

Coloradoite. A native telluride of mer- 
cury, found in Colorado. (Century) 

Colorados. 1. (Sp.). Ores impreg- 
nated with oxide of iron, and in a 
state of decomposition. See also 
Gossan. (Raymond) 

2. (Mex.). The region of a mineral 
vein which includes the oxidized 
portion. (Dwight) 

3. (Peru and Chile). Oxidized sil- 
ver ores colored by copper or in 
which malachite or azurite predomi- 
nates. (Halse) 

Colors (Interference). In optical min- 
eralogy, the colors of doubly refract- 
ing substances as seen in polarized 
light (A. F. Rogers) 

Colote (Mex.). A special basket used 
for handling earth, etc., by cargo- 
dor es ; is slung on the back, and 
usually provided with a short tail- 
rope for quick dumping. (Dwight) 



Colpa. 1. (Peru) Iron sulphate. 2. 
(Mex.) A natural mixture of sul- 
phate and peroxide of iron (Col- 
cothar) in the patio process, and 
sometimes used in lieu of magistral. 

3. (Peru) An ore containing ga- 
lena, tethrahedrite and native sil- 
ver (Dwigbt). Any mixture of ores 
for smelting purposes. 

Colpas (Chile). Lump-ore. (Dwight) 

Colrake. A shovel used to stir lead 
ores during washing. (Raymond) 

Columbia group. A series of fluviogla- 
cial marine and estuarial deposits 
of sand and gravel,- overlying the 
Lafayette formation along the At- 
lantic coast of the United States 
south of New York, formed in the 
Pleistocene during the final glacial 

Columbite. A variable columbate and 
tantalate of iron and manganese 
containing preponderant columbium 
and grading into tantalite, in which 
tantalum preponderates. (U. S. 
Geol. Surv.) 

Columbium. A metallic element of 
steel-gray color and brilliant luster. 
Tantalum, which it closely resem- 
bles chemically, is usually asso- 
ciated with it. Symbol, Cb; atomic 
weight, 93.1. Specific gravity, 7.06 
to 8,4. (Webster) 

Column. 1. The rising main or length 
of pipe conveying the water from 
the mine to the surface. 2. See Mo- 
tive column: 3. A solid core cut 
from a bore-hole. (Gresley) 

4. A kind of ' supporting pillar. 

5. The water above the valve. In a 
set of pumps. (Green well) 

Columna (Mex.). A standard for a 
cable-tramway ; column ; vertical 
damper. (Dwight) 

Columnar structure. 1. A mineralogi- 
cal structure made up of slender 
columns, as in some amphibole. 
2. A structure common in dikes, 
sills, and lava sheet?, consisting of 
parallel, more or less regular, pris- 
matic columns, generally transverse 
to the rock 5. (La Forge) 

Column pipe. The large cast-iron (or 
wooden) pipe through which the 
water is conveyed from the mine 
pumps to the surface (Chance). A 
mounting pipe ; a rising main. 

Columns-of-ore. Deposits of ore in 
lodes having a small lateral, but 
considerable vertical extent (Dur- 
yee). An ore-shoot 

Comagmatic. Having certain chemical 
or mineral characters in common 
and hence regarded as derived from 
a common parent magma ; consangu- 
ineous; said of igneous rocks in a 
district or region, but not necessarily 
including all igneous rocks of the 
district. (La Forge) 

Comagmatic region. An area in which 
the igneous rocks of the same gen- 
eral geologic age hav certain dis- 
tinguishing characters in common 
and are regarded as comagmatic; a 
petrographic province. (La Forge) 

Comalillo. 1. (Mc^.). A damper in a 
furnace-flue. (Dwight) 
2. A double-hearthed reverberatory 
furnace for making maffistral. 

Comanche series. The Lower Cretace- 
ous series of limestones covering 
nearly all Mexico, and most of Tex- 
as. (Standard) 

Comb. The place, in a fissure which 
has been filled by successive deposi- 
tions of mineral on the walls, where 
the two sets of layers thus deposited 
approach most nearly or meet, clos- 
ing the fissure and exhibiting either 
a drusy central cavity, or an inter- 
locking of crystals. (Raymond) 

Combed veins. See Banded veins; 
also Comb. 

Combination gas. Natural gas rich in 
oil vapors. Wet gas. Also called 
Casing-head gas. 

Combination longwall. See Longwall 

Combination of subslicing and stoping. 
See Sublevel stoping. 

Combination shot. A blast made by 
dynamite and permissibles or per- 
missible explosives and blasting 
powde.r in the same hole. It is bad 
practice and in many States is pro- 
hibited by law. (Du Pont) 

Combination stoping. See Combined 
and underhand stoping. 

Combined carbon. That portion of the 
carbon in iron or steel which is not 
visible as graphite, and is supposed 
to be alloyed or chemically combined 
with the iron. (Raymond) 

Combined overhand and underhand 
stoping. This term signifies the 
workings of a block simultaneously 
from the bottom to its top and from 
the top to the bottom. The modifi- 
cations are distinguished by the sup- 
port used open stopes, stull-sup- 
ported stopes or pillar-supported 



slopes (Young). Also known as 
Combined stopes, Combination stop- 
ing, Overhand stoping and milling 
system, and Back and underhand 
stoping milling system. 

Combined shrinkage stoping and block 
caving. Also called Overhand stop- 
ing with sh/inkage and simultaneous 
caving. In this method the ore- 
body is worked from the top down 
In successive layers of much greater 
thickness than in top slicing. The 
mass of ore is weakened by a series 
of shrinkage stopes, which are ex- 
tended up between the ribs, pillars, 
or blocks, which are subsequently 
caved. The intervening blocks are. 
undercut and caved as in block cav- 
ing. The cover follows the caved 
ore, (Young) 

Combined side and longwall stoping. 
See Overhand stoping. 

Combined stopes. See Combined and 
underhand stoping. 

Combined top slicing and shrinkage 
toping:. In this method the orebody 
in worked from the top down In suc- 
cessive slices. In the working of 
each slice the unit is worked as a 
shrinkage stope. The broken ore 
serves to give lateral support to the 
sides of the unit and also serves as a 
working platform from which the 
back is reached. After working a 
unit the cover is caved. No timber 
mat is used. (Young.) Also known 
as the Kimberly method. 

Combining weight That proportional 
weight, referred to some standard* 
and for each element fixed and 
exact, by which an element unites 
with another to form a distinct 
compound. The combining weights 
are either identical with, or are some 
multiples or submultiples of, the 
atomic weight. (Webster) 

Combo (Peru). A sledge for breaking 
ore. (Halse) 

Combustible. Capable of undergoing 
combustion; inflammable. (Web- 

Combustible shale. A synonym for 


Combustion. The action of fire on in- 
flammable materials; the act or 
process of burning. Chemically con- 
sidered, it is a process of rapid oxi- 
dation caused by the union of the 
oxygen of the air, which is the sup- 
porter of combustion, with any ma- 
terial that is capable of oxidation. 

Combustion chamber. A space over or 
in front of furnace where the gases 
from the fire .become more thor- 
oughly mixed and burnt. (Web- 

Combustion furnace. A long, narrow, 
portable furnace used .in the combus- 
tion method. (Webster) 

Combustion method. A method for the 
quantitative determination of car- 
bon, hydrogen, etc., by combustion 
of the substance with air, oxygen, or 
some solid oxidizing material as 
copper oxide, and absorption or col- 
lection of gaseous products. It is 
extensively used for the analysis of 
organic compounds, and also for the 
determination of carbon in iron and 
steel. (Webster) 

Combustion tube. A tube capable of 
standing considerable heat, used in 
the combustion method. (Webster) 

Come-along. A gripping device as for 
stretching wire, consisting of two 
Jaws so attached to a ring that they 
are closed by putting on the ring. 

Comendite. A variety of rhyolite, con- 
taining phenocrysts of sanidine, 
quartz, and aegirite, in a granophy- 
ric and spherulitic groundinass con- 
taining hornblende and some blue 
soda-amphibole, together with zir- 
con, magnetite, titanite, tridymite, 
and plagioclase. The name was 
given by Bertolis, an Italian geolo- 
gist, from a locality on the island of 
San Pietro, Sardinia. Compare Pai- 
sonite. (Kemp) 

Comer (Mex.). To eat; C. Alevantc, 
to break or stope ore; Comer los 
pilares, to take out the last vestiges 
of mineral from sides and pillars 
of a mine ; to rob pillars. (Dwight) 

Comerse los pilares (Sp.). The same 
as comer los pilares, figuratively, to 
abandon a mine. (Min. Jour.) 

Comet (Wales). A hand lamp with 
a long, torchlike flame. (Gresley) 

Come water. The constant or regular 
flow of water in a mine proceeding 
from old workings or from water- 
bearing rocks. (Gresley) 

Comlllo (Sp.). A reverberatory fur- 
nace. (Min. Jour.) 

Coming up to grass;.* Coming up to day. 
(Eng.). A common term used by 
miners for the word basset, or out- 
crop. (Gresley) 



Comminute. To reduce to minute par- 
ticles, or to a fine powder; to pul- 
verize; triturate. (Webster) 

Common iron. Thp poorest quality of 
commercial iron. (Standard) 

Communication road (Scot). An 
underground road between two coal 
mine shafts. (Barrowman) 

Commutator. 1. A device for reversing 
the direction of an electric current, 
as through the primary circuit of an 
induction coil. 2. An attachment 
for the armature of a dynamo tor 
commutating or rectifying the in- 
duced currents in the armature con- 
ductors. (Webster) 

Commuting transformer. A trans- 
former resembling a dynamo but 
with a revolving Commutator, the 
other parts being stationary (Web- 

Como beds. In geology, a thin series 
of beds extending from Wyoming 
along the east base of the Rocky 
Mountains into Colorado, containing 
a rich land fauna of mammals and 
reptiles. They are referred either 
to the Upper Jurassic or Lower Cre- 
taceous. ( Standard ) 

Compact. Closely or firmly united or 
packed; solid; dense; as a compact 
texture in rocks. (Webster) 

Company. 1. (Eng.) A number of 
butty colliers, or partners who work 
in a stall or room. (Gresley) 
2. An association of persons for a 
joint purpose, especially for carry- 
ing on a commercial or industrial 
enterprise. (Webster) 

Company man. A man who works for 
the company by the hour or by the 
day, such as track layers, timber- 
men, drivers, and cagers, as distin- 
guished from miners who work un- 
der contract, as by the ton, yard, 
etc. He also brushes down the 
walls and roof when apparently dan- 
gerous; loads the loose rock and 
debris into cars and pushes them out 
to the haulage way. ( Spring Valley 
Coal Co. v. Chiaventone, 214 Illinois, 
p. 314; Tygett v. Sunnyside Coal Co., 
140 Illinois App., p. 79; Hammett v. 
Victoria American Fuel Co., 236 Fed- 
eral, p. 527; Paietta v. Illinois Zinc 
Co., 257 Illinois, p. 14) 

Company store. A store, selling grocer- 
ies and general merchandise, owned 
and run by an industrial company 
(Webster). This type of store Is 
common in mining and lumber 

Compartimiento (Sp.). Compartment 
of a shaft; C. de aire, a brattice 
(Halse). An air passage. 

Compartment. A separate division or 
section of anything (Webster). 
Mining shafts usually are divided 
into two or more compartments or 
sections, separated by framed tim- 
bers nnd planking. 

Compass. 1. An instrument for de- 
termining directions, usually by the 
pointing of a magnetic needle free 
to turn in a horizontal plane, as, for 
example, the ordinary surveyors 
compass though sometimes having 
a clinometer attached. Also, a dip- 
compass, for tracing magnetic iron 
ore, having a needle hung to move 
in a vertical plane. (Raymond) 
2. An instrument for describing cir- 
cles, transferring measurements, etc. 

Competent. In geology; 1. Combining 
sufficient firmness and flexibility to 
transmit pressure, and by flexure 
under thrust, to lift a superincum- 
bent load : said of strata or of rock 
structure. 2. Able to transport de- 
bris of a given size: said of water 
streams. ( Standard ) 

Complementary forms. In crystallog- 
raphy, two forms which, combined 
geometrically, produce a form with 
higher symmetry. (A. F. Rogers) 

Complementary rocks. A term sug- 
gested by W. C. BrSgger for the 
basic rocks, which, usually in the 
form of dikes, accompany larger in- 
trusions of more acidic types, and 
"complement" them in a chemical 
sense. Compare Lamprophyre, Oxy- 
phyre, and Radial dikes. (Kemp) 
The diverse differentiation prod- 
ucts of one common magma. ( Stand- 

Complex. In mineralogy, containing 
many ingredients ; compound or com- 
posite. Some geologists use the 
word as a noun to indicate a com- 
plex set of rocks folded together, or 
intricately mixed, involved, compli- 
cated, or enlarged. (Roy. Com.) 

Complex fold. A fold which is cross 
folded, that is, one of which the 
axial line is folded. {Leith, p . 105\ 

Complex steel. An alloy steel con- 
taining more than two alloying ele- 
ments, such as high-speed tool steel 
(Hibbard). It contains more ele- 
ments than quaternary steel. 



Componer con madera (Mex.). To 
timber a mine. (Dwight) 

Composite. Made up of separate parts 
or elements; combined or com- 
pounded; not simple. (Standard) 

Composite dike. A dike formed by two 
intrusions of different ages into the 
same fissure. (Kemp) 

Composition. 1. An aggregate, mix- 
ture, mass, or body formed by com- 
bining two or more substances; a 
composite substance. (Webster) 
2. The chemical constitution of a 
rock or mineral. (Power) 

Composition face. In contact twin 
crystals, the face of actual contact. 
It may or may not be the twinning 
plane. (Standard) 

Composition metal. A yellow alloy of 
copper, zinc, etc., used for sheathing 
vessels. ( Standard ) 

Composition plane. The plane by 
which the two individuals of a con- 
tact twin crystal are united in their 
reverse positions (Dana). Also 
called Composition face. 

Compound. 1. A distinct substance 
formed by the union of two or more 
ingredients in definite proportions by 
weight (Webster) 

2. A lubricant applied to the inside 
and outside of ropes, preventing oor- 
rosion and lessening abrasion of the 
rope when in contact with hard sur- 
faces. (C. M. P.) 

3. The walled or fenced inclosure 
of a European residence or factory 
in India, China, or the Malayan set- 
tlements; also, a similar inclosure 
containing a group of native houses 
(Standard). A term also used in 
Transvaal for the living quarters of 
the Kaffir miners. 

Compound cradle. An apparatus com- 
posed of three tiers of blanket 
tables, a shaking table and a quick- 
silver riffle for catching gold. 

Compound twins. In crystallography, 
individuals of one group united ac- 
cording to two or more different 
laws. (Standard) 

Compound vein. 1. A vein or lode con- 
sisting of a number of parallel fis- 
sures united by cross fissures, 
usually diagonally. (Shamel, p. 

2. A vein composed of several 
minerals. (Power) 

Compound ventilation (No. of Eng.). 
The system of dividing or splitting 
the air, and of ventilating the work- 
ings of a coal mine by giving to each 
district or panel a separate quan- 
tity of fresh air, and conveying the 
return air to a main air course 
direct from each panel. (Gresley) 

Compresora de aire (sp.). An air com- 
pressor. (Lucas) 

Compressed. Pressed together; com- 
pact; reduced in volume by pres- 
sure. (Webster) 

Compression. 1. In steam practice, 
the action of the piston in compress- 
ing the steam remaining in the 
cylinder, after the closure of ex- 
haust valves, into the clearance- 
space. (Ihlseng) 

2. Also the point in the cycle of 
operations, at which compression 
occurs; the period during which 
compression occurs. (Webster) 

Compression efficiency. The ratio of 
the work required to compress iso- 
thermally all the air delivered by 
an air compressor to the work ac- 
tually done within the compressor 
cylinder, as shown by indicator 
cards, and may be expressed as the 
product of the volumetric efficiency 
(the intake pressure and the hy- 
perbolic logarithm of the ratio of 
compression), all divided by the in- 
dicated mean effective pressure with- 
in the air cylinder or cylinders. 
(A. I. M. E., Bull. 140, p. Ivii) 

Compressor. See Air compressor. 

Compromiso (Sp.). A private engage- 
ment or undertaking; also a joint- 
stock undertaking. (Min. Jour.) 

Compuerta (Mex.). A sluice gate. 

Comun (Peru). Average ore. (Halse) 

Concert trader; Concert tr ado ra (Sp.). A 
buddle; an ore concentrator. 

Concentrados (Mex.). Concentrates. 

Concentrar metal (Mex.) To con- 
centrate ore. (Dwight) 

Concentrate. 1. To increase the 
strength by diminishing the bulk as 
of a liquid or an ore; to intensify 
or purify by getting rid of useless 
material (Webster). To separate 
metal or ore from the gangue or as- 
sociated rock. (Murray's Diet.) 



2. That which has been reduced to 
a state of purity or concentration by 
the removal of foreign, nonessential, 
or diluting matter (Century). A 
product of a process of concentra- 
tion, as in chemistry or metallurgy 
(Standard). The product of con- 
centration (in mining). Used In 
plural form as "arrangements for 
treating the concentrates were com- 
plete" -(Murray). Concentrates are 
called "ore" at Joplin, Mo.; 
"mineral" at Michigan copper mines, 
and "tailings" at Black Hawk, 

Concentrating plant. See Concen- 

Concentration. 1. The removal by me- 
chanical means of the lighter and 
less valuable portions of ore. (Ray- 
mond). See Ore dressing. 
2- The act of increasing the strength 
of solutions by evaporating part of 
their water. 

Concentration table. A table on which 
a stream of finely crushed ore and 
water flows downward and the 
heavier metallic minerals lag behind 
and flow off in a separate compart- 
ment. (Weed) 

Concentrator. An apparatus in which, 
by the aid of water or air and spe- 
cific gravity, mechanical concentra- 
tion of ores is performed (Ray- 
mond). Also applied to the entire 
plant containing the various con- 
centrating devices, or machinery. A 
concentration plant. 

Concentric. That which has a common 
center with something else. (Web- 

Conchoidal. Shell-shaped. The more 
compact rocks such as flint, argil- 
lite, felsite, etc., break with concave 
and convex surfaces and are there- 
fore said to have a conchoidal frac- 
ture. (Roy. Com.) 

Concordant injection. An igneous 
mass injected along bedding planes. 
(Daly, p. 63) 

Concreci6n (Mex. ). Concretion. 

Concrete. A mixture of sand, gravel, 
pebbles, or stone chippings, with ce- 
ment or with tar, etc., used for side- 
walks, roadways, floors, foundations, 
etc. (Webster) 

Concretion. A spheroidal or discoidal 
aggregate formed by the segregation 
and precipitation of some soluble 
mineral like quartz or calcite around 
a nucleus, which is often a '\ 

Concretionary. Tending to grow to- 
gether. Particles of like chemical 
composition, when free to move, 
come together and form nodules of 
various sizes and shapes which are 
called concretions. Clay and iron- 
stone nodules, balls of iron pyrite, 
turtle-stones, etc., are good exam- 
ples. Some greenstones exhibit con- 
cretionary structure. (Roy. Com.) 

Concussion table. See Percussion table. 

Condenser. A vessel or chamber in 
which volatile products of roasting 
or smelting (e. g., mercury or zinc 
vapors) are reduced to solid form by 
cooling, or in which the fumes of 
furnaces, containing mechanically 
suspended as well as volatile me- 
tallic matters, are arrested. (Ray- 
mond). The function of the con- 
denser is often performed by the 
introduction of cold water, or as in 
distillation, by placing the condenser 
in another vessel through which a 
current of cold water passes. Con- 
densers of special form are largely 
used in those oil fields where salt 
water is employed for the genera- 
tion of steam. (Mitzakis) 

Condensing lens. A lens for producing 
convergent light. (Luquer, p. 9) 

Conduct (Aust). See Cundy, 2. 

Conductor. 1. A substance capable of 
readily transmitting electricity, heat 
or the like. 2. A person who con- 
ducts or leads; a guide. (Webster) 

3. See Guides, 1. 

4. A wooden cylinder 12 to 18 ft. 
long used in America when sinking 
a new oil well. The conductor, 
which has a slightly greater diame- 
ter than that of the first string of 
casing, is inserted in the drill hole, 
and extends from the bottom of the 
first casing to the floor of the der- 
rick. The object of the conductor is 
to guide the casing, great care being 
taken to secure its absolute ver- 
tically in the first place. (Mitzakis) 

Conducta. 1. (Sp.) A convoy for the 
safe transportation of bullion or 
coin overland. (Hanks) 
2. (Mex.) A bullion train. The 
bullion carried. (Dwight) 

Conduction. Transmission through, or 
by means of a conductor. Distin- 
guished, in the case of heat, from 
convection and radiation. (Webster) 

Conductivity. Quality or power of 
conducting or of receiving and trans- 
mitting, as of heat, electricity. 



Conduit. 1. An artificial channel, as 
a canal, aqueduct or pipe for con- 
veying water or fluid. 2. A tube or 
trough for receiving, and protecting 
electric wires, as telephones, etc. 

Conduit hole, A flat or nearly hori- 
zontal hole drilled for blasting up 
a thin piece in the bottom of a level. 
(G. and M. M. P.) 

Conduit pipe. Wrought-iron pipe used 
as armor for electric wires (Nat. 
Tube Go.). A tubular conduit. 

Conc-in-cone. 1. A curious structure, 
occasionally found in clay rocks, 
whereby two opposing and interlock- 
ing sets of cones or pyramids are 
developed, with their axes parallel 
and their bases in approximately 
parallel surfaces. (Kemp) 
2. Coal exhibiting a peculiar fibrous 
structure passing into- a singular 
toothed arrangement of the particles 
is called Cone-in-cone coal, or cry- 
stallized coal. (Gresley) 

Confining bed. A water-tight bed 
above or below a stratum containing 
artesian water. (Lowe) 

Confluence. A Junction or flowing to- 
gether of streams; the place where 
streams meet. (Standard) 

Confluent. 1. A stream that unites 
with another; a fork or branch of 
a river : especially applied to streams 
nearly equal in size, and distin- 
guished from affluent. 2. Flowing 
together so as to form one stream. 

Conformability; Conformity. The mu- 
tual relation of conformable beds. 
(La Forge) 

Conformable. When beds or strata lie 
upon one another in unbroken and 
parallel order, and this arrangement 
shows that no disturbance or denu- 
dation has taken place at the local- 
ity while their deposition was going 
on, they are said to be conformable. 
But if one set of beds rests upon 
the eroded or the upturned edges 
of another, showing a change of con- 
ditions or a break between the for- 
mations of the two sets of rocks, 
they are said to be unconformable 
(Roy. Com.) 

Congenial. A term applied to rocks in 
which lodes become ore bearing. 

Conglomerado (Mex.). Conglomerate. 

744010 O 47 12 

Conglomerate. An aggregate of round- 
ed and water-worn pebbles and bowl- 
ders cemented together into a co- 
herent rock (Kemp, p. 88). De- 
posited by streams or waves, gen- 
erally with some sorting and strati- 
fication. Compare Breccia. 

Congo. 1. (Colom.) Fragments of 
iron-ore, which accompany gold in 
placers; a coarse black sand. ft. 
Iron oxide in ore veins. (Halse) 

Congruent forms. In crystallography 
two forms which may each be de- 
rived from the other by rotation 
about an axis of symmetry. (A. P. 

Coniagas. The name of a mine in the 
Cobalt district, Ontario. It is de- 
rived from the respective chemical 
symbols, Co, Ni, Ag, and As. 

Conical drum. The drum of a wind- 
ing engine, constructed in the form 
of two truncated cones placed base 
to base, the outer ends being usually 
the smaller in diameter. It may 
also be a single cone. 

Conical refraction. The refraction of 
a ray of light at certain points of 
double-refracting crystals, so that on 
emerging from the crystal it widens 
from an apex into a hollow cone 
(external conical refraction), or on 
entering diverges Into a cone and Is- 
sues as a hollow cylinder (internal 
conical refraction). (Standard) 

Conichalcite. A pistachio-green to 
emerald-green hydrous calcium-cop- 
per a r sen ate, perhaps (Cu,Ca)As- 
CMCu.Ca) (OH),+iHaO, occurring 
reniform and massive, resembling 
malachite. (Dana) 

Conkling magnetic separator. A con- 
veying , belt which passes under 
magnets, below which belts run at 
right angles to the line -of travel 
of the main belt The magnetic 
particles are lifted up against these 
cross belts and are thus remove 

Connarite. .A hydrous nickel silicate 
perhaps, H4NlSiOio ; found In fragile 
grains- having a yellowish or greeu 
color. (Dana) 

Connate water. Water which was de- 
posited simultaneously with the 
deposition of solid sediments, and 
which has not since Its deposition 
existed as surface water or atmos- 
pheric moisture, (Meinzer) 



Connecting. The operation of joining 
adjacent electric blasting cap wires 
to each other, to connecting and 
leading wires, in such a way that 
an electric current will flow through 
with the least possible resistance. 
(Du Pont) 

Connecting rod (Eng.). A rod con- 
necting a crank pin with a beam, 
erosshead, piston rod, or piston as 
in a steam engine. .(Webster) 

Connecting wire. A wire of smaller 
gauge than the leading wire used 
for connecting the electric blasting- 
cap wires from one bore hole to 
those of an adjoining one. (Du 

Conoscope. A form of polariscope used 
for examining crystals in convergent 
polarized light. (Webster) 

Consanguinity. The genetic relation- 
ship of those igneous rocks which 
are presumably derived from a com- 
mon parent magma. (Kemp) 

Consequent. 1. Pertaining to or char- 
acterizing the earth movements 
which result from the external 
transfer of material in the process 
of gradation; contrast with Ante- 
cedent. ( Standard ) 

2. Having a course or direction de- 
pendent on, or controlled by, the 
geologic structure or by the form 
and slope of the surface: said 
chiefly of streams and drainage. 
(La Forge) 

Consertal. An arrangement in which 
irregularly shaped crystals in juxta- 
position are closely fitted together, 
or conserted. (Iddings, p. 223) 

Conservation. A conserving, preserv- 
ing, guarding, or protecting; a keep- 
ing in a safe or entire state; pre- 
servation, as of mineral resources. 

Conservation of energy. One of the 
fundamental laws that whenever a 
change in mode of manifestation of 
energy takes place, the total amount 
of energy remains a constant. 

Consey (Scot). An underground 
branch road in stoop-and-room 
workings. (Gresley) 

Consideration. 1. A recompense as for 
service; a fee or compensation. 2. 
An act or process of considering; 
continuous and careful thought; 
examination; deliberation. (Web- 

3. (Aust.). An extra payment given 
to men working under unfavorable 
conditions, e. g., in a wet place. 

Consistency. 1. The degree c-t solidity 
or fluidity of bituminous materials. 

2. Condition of standing or adher- 
ing together; existence, firmness, 
solidity. (Webster) 

Constantan. An alloy of equal parts 
of nickel and copper: used chiefly 
in electrical instruments on account 
of its constant resistance. (Stand- 

Construction account. An account in 
mining finance to which all con- 
struction expenses are charged. 
Many of the Lake Superior copper 
mines summarize their finances so 
that the cost of operation is divided 
into two classes, one being for gen- 
eral working expenses and the other 
for construction, sometimes classed 
as capital account. It includes new 
buildings and machinery on surface 
and frequently new mine openings. 

Constructional. In geology, owing its 
form, position, direction, or gen- 
eral character to building-up proc- 
esses, such as accumulation by 
deposition or by volcanic extrusion. 
(La Forge) 

Construction way. A temporary way 
or road employed for the transporta- 
tion of the materials used in the 
construction of a railroad. (Cen- 

Consume. To use up ; expend ; waste ; 
as in the chemical and mechanical 
loss of mercury in amalgamation. 

Consumido (Mex.). The mercury con- 
sumed and lost in an amalgama- 
tion process. '(Dwight) 

Contact. 1. The place or surface 
where two different kinds of rocks 
come together. Although used for 
sedimentary rocks, as the contact 
between a limestone and sandstone, 
it is yet more especially employed 
as between ingeous intrusions and 
their walls. The word is of wide use 
in western mining regions on ac- 
count of the frequent occurrence of 
ore bodies along contacts. (Kemp) 
2. (So. Afr.) A lode of great 
length and between two kinds of 
rocks, ope of which is generally an 
igneous intrusive. (Skinner) 

Contact bed. In geology, a bed lying 
next to (in contact with) a forma- 
tion of different character. (Cen- 



Contact deposit A mineral deposit 
found between two unlike rocks, 
usually applied to an ore body at the 
contact between a sedimentary rock 
and an igneous rock (Weed). A 
contact lode or vein. 

Contact goniometer. A cardboard or 
metal protractor for the measuring 
of crystal angles. 

Contact lode. See Contact, 2; Con- 
tact deposit ; Contact vein. 

Contact metamorphism. A general 
term applied to the changes which 
take place along a contact (of an in- 
truded igneous rock and the enclos- 
ing rocks into which it has been 
thrust) such as recrystallization of 
limestone, or the formatton of the 
typical silicate minerals (Farrell). 
Metamorphism produced by the heat 
of an igneous intrusion. Also called 
Thermometamorphism, or Local 

Contact minerals. Minerals formed by 
contact metamorphism. (A. F. 

Contacto (Mex.). Contact (Dwight) 

Contact process. A process for the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid, based 
on the catalytic action of finely di- 
vided platinum. It is conducted by 
passing the well-dried and purified 
burner gases through the contact ap- 
paratus, at a temperature of 350 C. 
and absorbing the sulphur trioxide, 
formed by the direct union of sul- 
phur dioxide and oxygen, in water. 

Contact twin. The simplest type of 
twin, in which two portions of a crys- 
tal appear to have been united along 
a common plane after one portion 
hns been rotated 180 relative to 
the other. The plane of contact 
(plane of union or the composition 
face) may or may not be the twin- 
ning plane (Butler). See also Jux- 
taposition twin. 

Contact vein. A variety of fissure 
vein, between different kinds of rock 
occupying a typical fracture from 
faulting, or it may be a replace- 
ment vein formed .by mineralized 
solutions percolating along the sur- 
face of the contact where the rock is 
usually more permeable and there 
replacing one or both of the walls 
by metasomatic process (Shamel, 
p. 143). Also called Contact de- 

Contador. 1. (Sp.) An accountant; 
auditor; clerk. 2. A mechanical 
counter or indicator; a meter for 
measuring water, gas, or electricity. 

Contaminate. To make impure by 
contact or admixture, as by a sub- 
stance that performs the function, in 
an ore-pulp, along with oil, of pro- 
moting the emnlsification or the de- 
emulsification of the oil, and there- 
by exerts an influence upon the 
making of froth for the flotation of 
minerals. (Rickard) 

Contemporaneous. Existing together 
or at the same time. (Webster) 

Content. That which is contained; 
the thing or things held by a re- 
ceptacle or included within speci- 
fied limits (Webster). Often used 
in mining, as ore-content mineral- 
content, copper-content, etc. 

Contiguous. In actual contact; also 
near, though not in actual contact 

Continental basin. A region in the in- 
terior of a continent comprising one 
or several closed basins. (Webster) 

Continental deposits. Sedimentary 
deposits laid down within a general 
land area and deposited in lakes or 
streams or by the wind, as con- 
trasted with marine deposits, laid 
down in the sea. (Ransome) 

Continental glacier. A type of glacier 
covering an entire continent, or a 
large portion of it; an ice sheet, as 
the ice cap of Greenland. (Stand- 

Continental plateau. A broad pro- 
tuberance of the surface of the litho- 
sphere, coinciding approximately 
with a continent, but including also 
a continental shelf. Contrasted 
with Ocean basin. (Webster) 

Continental process. Same as the 
German process. 

Continental shelf. A submarine plain 
of variable width forming a border 
to nearly every continent, as the sub- 
marine part of a continental plateau. 

Continuous charge. A charge of ex- 
plosive that occupies the entire 
drill hole except for the space at 
the top required for stemming. 

Continuous coal cutter. A coal min- 
ing machine of the type that cuts 
the face of the coal without being 
withdrawn from the cut (Steel) 



Continuous kiln. 1. See Running kiln. 
Also called Draw kiln. 2. A kiln 
in which the waste heat from the 
hot brick chambers is used to heat 
the wares in other compartments 
still to be burned. (Ries) 

Continuous process of distillation. A 
petroleum distillation process in 
which the crude oil flows slowly by 
gravitation through a series of stills 
or retorts each placed slightly lower 
than the preceding one. Each still 
has a carefully maintained tempera- 
ture, and yields, therefore, continu- 
ously a product of given volatility. 

Contorted. Bent or twisted together. 
Used where strata are very much 
folded or crumpled on a consider- 
able scale. If on a small scale they 
are said to be corrugated. (Roy. 

Contortion. The folding, and bending 
to which rock strata have been sub- 
jected. (Oldham) 

Contour. 1. The outline of a figure 
or body; periphery. 2. The outline 
of the surface of the ground with 
respect to its undulation (Webster). 
3. An imaginary line on the surface 
of the ground, every point of which 
is at the same altitude. (La Forge) 

Contour interval. The difference in 
elevation between consecutive con- 
tour lines. (Webster) 

Contour line. See Contour, 3. 

Contour map. A map showing the 
configuration of the surface by 
means of contour lines drawn at 
regular intervals of elevation as one 
for every twenty feet, a crowding 
of the contour lines indicating steep- 
ness. (Webster) 

Contour race. A water-course follow- 
ing the contour of the country. 

Contra (Sp.). The person who car- 
ries away the material dumped at 
the mouth of a sbaft; C. canon, 
drift in country rock, parallel with 
drift on vein ; C. cielo, top of a drift ; 
a raise; C. mina, countermine; a 
communication between mines, or a 
tunnel communicating with a shaft ; 
C. pozo, a raise; C. sena, bell-signal. 
(Dwight). C. tiro, an auxiliary 
shaft contiguous, to a main shaft, 
to serve as a footway, or for ven- 
tilation. (Mln. Jour.) 

Contraction. Shrinking. Rocks in 
'passing from a vitreous to a crys- 
talline texture shrink considerably, 

which may account for the sub- 
sidence of certain areas. The whole 
globe of the earth has shrunk by 
cooling. (Roy. Com.) 

Contraction vein. A vein formed by 
the filling of a space caused by con- 
traction' due to the drying or cool- 
ing of the surrounding rock. 

Contrafuerte (Sp. Am.) Part of a 
lode left intact. (Lucas) 

Contraguia (Mex.). A movable guide 
pulley over shaft. (Dwight) 

Contra-lode. See Cross course. 

Contranatural (Mex.). A vein having 
a contrary dip to other veins of the 
same system. (Halse) 

Contrata (Sp.). A deed, contract, or 
agreement. (Halse) 

Contratanque (Mex.). A second set- 
tling tank. (Halse) 

Contratiro (Mex.). An auxiliary 
shaft to serve as a footway, or for 
ventilation. (Halse) 

Contratista (Mex.). A contractor. 

Contrato (Mex.). A pact or agreement 
between 'parties to perform some 
act; a contract. (Dwight) 

Control assay. An assay made by an 
umpire to determine the basis on 
which a purchaser shall pay the 
seller for ore. See also Umpire. 2. 

Convection. A process of transmis- 
sion, as of heat, by means of cur- 
rents in liquids or gases, resulting 
from changes of temperature or 
other causes. (Webster) 

Convenio (Sp.). A legal agreement. 
(Min. Jour.) 

Convergent light. Light tending to 
one point or focus. (Webster) 

Converse lock joint. A joint, for 
wrought pipe, that is made up with 
a cast-iron hub. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Converter. 1. An electric transformer 
(Standard). 2. A vessel in which 
metals or other materials are 
changed or converted from one 
shape or condition to another. 
Specifically an oval-shaped vessel or 
retort, hung. on an axis, made of 
iron and lined with some refractory 
material, in which molten pig-iron 
is converted by the Bessemer process 
into steel (Century). Also used 
in converting copper matte. 



Converting. See Bessemer process. 
The process was applied to the 
metallurgy of copper by Pierre Man- 
lies. Air is blown through molten 
copper matte in the presence of 
free silica. The iron is oxidized to 
FeO which forms a slag with the 
silica; the sulphur is oxidized and 
goes off as SO* (Liddell) 

Converting coal (Mid.). A local name 
given to coal suitable for steel-mak- 
ing purposes at Sheffield. (Gresley) 

Conveyer; Conveyor. 1. One who or 
that which conveys, transports, or 
transfers; specifically, any mechan- 
ical contrivance for conveying ma- 
terial in the working of mills, ele- 
vators, etc., such as endless chains, 
etc. (Standard) 

Convoy (Eng.). A wooden brake for- 
merly aplied to one of the wheels of 
a coal wagon. (G. C. Green well) 

Convulsion. A sudden and violent dis- 
turbance of the order of the rocks; 
a terrestrial catastrophe ; cataclysm. 

Cooler arch. An opening of truncated- 
cone shape in tuyere .breast of fur- 
nace. The tuyere cooler is placed in 
it (Willcox) 

Cooling. Applied to minerals having 
the taste of saltpeter. (Dana) 

Cooling floor. A floor upon which hot 
ore is placed for the purpose of cool- 
ing. (Rickard) 

Cooling tower. A device for cooling 
the water used in a steam condenser 
or refrigerating plant. (Century) 

Coom (Scot.). 1. Wooden centering 
for an arch; hence the roof of a 
mine or roadway is said to be 
coomed when it is arch-shaped. 
*. Soot; the dust of coal. (Barrow- 

Coor (Eng.). A period of six or eight 
hours' work by miners, making four 
or three periods to the day of 
twenty-four hours. See Core, 1. 
(Bainbridge). A Shift. 

Coorongite. A South Australian 
elaterite, or mineral caoutchouc. 

Goose. See Coarse lode. 

Copador (Mex.). Blacksmith's fuller. 

Copajira (Bol.). Acid water in mines. 

Copal. An oxygenated hydrocarbon; 
a fossil resin. (Dana) 

Cop a 1111 o (Mex.). Zincblende, 

Copaline. Same as Copalite. 

Copalite. An oxygenated hydrocarbon 
resembling copal, from the blue clay 
of Highgate, near London, England. 

Cope. 1. (Derb.) To contract to mine 
lead ore by the dish, load, or other 
measure. 2. The upper part of a 
flask, separable from the lower part. 
See also Drag, 3. (Raymond) 

3. An exchange of working* places 
between miners, sometimes spelled 
Coup. (C. and M. M. P.) 

4. (Derb.). A duty or royalty paid 
to the lord or owner of a mine. 

Copela. (Sp.) 1. A cupel. 2. The test 
of a cupelling furnace. (Halse) 

Copelar (Sp.). To assay by cupella- 
tion. (Halse) 

Copelilla (Mex.). Lead carbonate. 

Copella (Sp.). Dry amalgam remain- 
ing in the bag after draining. 

Coper (Derb.). One who contracts to 
mine lead ore at a fixed rate (Ray- 
mond). A Derbyshire miner. 

Copi. Gypsum, general!^ weathered. 

Copiapite. A basic ferric sulphate, 
perhaps 2Fe a O s .5SO.18H J O (Dana). 
Also called Yellow copperas, and 

Coping.. 1. The top or cover of a wall 
usually made sloping to shed water. 

2. In marble works the process of 
trimming the edges of slabs of 
stone (Bowles). See also Coping 

Coping machine. A machine, consist- 
ing of a gearing and a carborundum 
wheel for cutting and trimming 
marble slabs, as for base boards, 
tile, etc. (Bowles) 

Copos (or Pasillas) (Sp.). In amal- 
gamation, little globules into which 
the quicksilver forms, when the 
process is too quick. (Min. Jour.) 

Coppel. Same as cupel. (Standard) 

Copper. A common metal of reddish 
color, ductile, malleable, and very 
tenacious. One of the best conduc- 
tors of heat and electricity. Sym- 
bol, Cu; atomic weight 63.57. Spe- 
cific gravity, 8.93. (Webster) 



Copperas. Ferrous sulphate. Also 
called Green vitriol. 

Copperasine. A sulphate of iron and 
copper resulting from the decompo- 
sition of chalcopyrite. (Standard) 

Copperas stone. A synonym for Pyrite, 
from which copperas Is often made. 

Copper barfilla (Bol.). Native copper 
in granular form mixed with sand. 
See Coro-Coro, also Barrilla. 

Copper bath. A solution of copper salt, 
as the sulphate used in electroplat- 
ing. (Standard) 

Copper bottoms. A metallic product 
of very indefinite composition, made 
(usually) in reverberatory furnaces 
by smelting rich cupriferous sub- 
stances without sufficient sulphur to 
quite satisfy the copper present. 
(Peters, p. 227) 

Copper glance. See Chalcocite. 

Copperization. Impregnation with 
copper, or some preparation contain- 
ing copper. (Century) 

Copper loss. Electric energy wasted in 
the copper conductors of a dynamo, 
motor or conducting system. (Web- 

Copper minerals. Minerals containing 
copper, as atacamite, azurite, bornite, 
bournonite, brochantite, chalcanthite, 
Chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chrysocolla, 
copper, covellite, cuprite, enargite, 
malachite, melaconite, olivenite, 
stannite, tetraheclrite, and others. 

Copper nickel. See Niccolite. 

Copper pickers (Mich.). Laborers 
who sort vein material in which 
there is more or less native copper. 
(Sanders, p. 89) 

Copper plates (Aust. and Pac.). The 
plates of amalgamated copper over 
which the auriferous ore is allowed 
to flow from the stamp battery, and 
upoji which the gold is caught as 
amalgam. (Raymond) 

Copper powder. A bronzing powder 
made by saturating nitrous acid 
with copper, and precipitating the 
latter by the addition of iron. The 
preciptate is then thoroughly 
washed. (Century) 

Copper pyrite. Same as Chalcopyrite. 

Copper rain. Minute globules thrown 
up from the surface of molten 
copper, when it contains but little 
suboxide. (Raymond) 

Copper slate. Slate impregnated with 
copper minerals. (Duryee) 

Copper smoke. The gases from the 
calcination of sulphide copper ore 
(Raymond). Sulphur dioxide Is an 
important constituent. 

Copper sulphate. See Chalcanthite. 

Copper uranite. See Uranite; Torber- 

Copper vitriol. See Chalcanthite. 


Coprolite. A piece of petrified dung; 
a fossil excrement. Such remains 
are found in many geological forma- 
tions. (Webster) 

Copt (Aust). A capsized or broken 
skip. (Power) 

Coquimbite. A granular, massive, hy- 
drous ferric sulphate, Fe^SCMi-H 
9HO. (Dana) 

Coquina (Sp.). A coarse-grained, po- 
rous, friable variety of limestone, 
made up chiefly of fragments of 
shells of living or recently extinct 
species of mollusks and of coral, ce- 
mented together as rock. (La 

Coracite. An alteration product of 
uraninite partly changed to gum- 
mite. (Standard) 

Corahuari (Peru). A green copper 
ore. (Halse) 

Coral. The solid secretion of coral 
polyps, composed almost wholly of 
calcium carbonate, which forms 
reefs and treelike and globular 
masses. (La Forge) 

Coral limestone. A limestone composed 
of coral fragments. Such a rock is 
much used in the Bermuda Islands. 

Coralline. Pertaining to, composed of, 
or having the structure of corals ; as 
coralline limestone. 

Coralloidal. Like coral, or consisting 
of interlaced flexuous branchings. 

Coral mud. The sediment or mud 
formed by the disintegration of 
coral. (Century) 

Coral ore, A curved, lamellar variety 
of liver-colored cinnabar from Idria, 
Austria. (Standard) 

Coral rag (Eng.). The upper mem- 
ber of the Middle Oolite, so called 
because it consists, in part, of con- 
tinuous beds of corals, for the most 
part retaining the position in whick 
they grew, and sometimes forming 
masses 15 feet thick. (Page) 



Coral zone. The depth of the sea at 
which corals abound. (Century) 

Corbond. An irregular mass or "drop- 
per" from a lode. (Raymond) 

Cord. A cubic measure used especially 
for wood cut for fuel. It is, now 
legally in the United States, a pile 
8 ft. long, 4 ft wide and 4 ft. high, 
or 128 cu. ft. (Webster) 

Cordeau. A trade name for a type of 
detonating fuse consisting of tri- 
nitrotoluene inclosed in a lead tube. 

Corder (Eng.). The man who makes 
and repairs corves (small cars). 

Cordierite. A magnesium-iron-alumi- 
num silicate. Sometimes used as a 
gem. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) A syno- 
nym of lolite or dichroite, employed 
as a prefix to those rocks that con- 
tain the mineral, as cordierite- 
gneiss. (Kemp) 

Cordillera. Strictly, a continuous 
chain or range of mountains. Gen- 
erally, a whole mountain province, 
including all the subordinate moun- 
tain ranges and groups and the inte- 
rior plateaus and basins. Specifi- 
cally, (capitalized), the great moun- 
tainous region of western North 
America, lying between the Central 
Lowland and the Pacific Ocean, and 
extending from central Mexico into 
Alaska ; also called Cordilleran 
Province. (La Forge) 

Cordirie process. The refining of lead 
by conducting steam through it, 
while molten, to oxidize certain me- 
tallic impurities. (Raymond) 

Cordite. An explosive of nitroglycerin 
and a dope, used chiefly as a pro- 
pellant. (Standard) 

Cord of ore. About seven tons, but 
measured by wagon loads, and not 
by weight. The expression "cord" 
is a term used in some parts of 
Colorado, U. S., and applied only 
to low-grade ore; the smelting ore 
is reckoned by the ton. (Milford) 

Cordon (Mex.). A rib or band of ore 
in a vein (Halse). Feeder. 

Core. 1. (Corn.) A miner's under- 
ground working-time or shift (Ray- 
mond). Also spelled Coor. 

2. A cylinder-shaped piece of rock 
produced by a core-drill. (Steel) 

3. The central part of a rope form- 
Ing a "cushion for the strands. In 
wire ropes it is sometimes made of 
wire, but usually it is of hemp, jute, 

or some like material. (O. M. P.) 

4. The portion of a mold which 
shapes the interior of a hollow cast- 
ing, or which makes a hole through 
a casting. (Webster) 

5. A cone or V-shaped mass of rock 
that is first blasted out in driving 
a tunnel. (Bowles) 

Core bit. A hollow cylindrical boring 
bit for cutting out a core in earth 
boring or rock drilling (Webster). 
In operation it is attached to and 
forms part of the core drill. 

Core box. The box in which the core, 
or mass of sand producing any hol- 
low part of a casting is made. 

Core drill. A diamond or other hollow 
drill for securing cores (C. M. P.) ; 
(Bowles v. Virginia Soapstone Co., 
115 Virginia, p. 699). See also 
Diamond drill; Adamantine drill; 
Shot drill, and Calyx. 

Core iron. A strengthening iron 
grate in a core. See Core, 4 (Web- 
ster). A term used in foundry prac- 

Core lifter. An instrument used to 
bring up the core left by an annular 
bit in- a boring. (Standard) 

Core sand. A sand suitable for mak- 
ing cores: composed of sand, clay 
and horse-dung. (Standard) 

Core snatcher. A company man who 
collects and takes care of drill cores 
when the drilling is being done by 

Corf bater; Corf bitter (No. of Eng.). 
A boy who cleans the dirt or mud 
off corves. See Corf, 1. (Gresley) 

Corf; Corfe; Corve; Cauf (the last 
incorrect). 1. (Newc.) A large 
basket used In hoisting coal; from 
the Germ. Korb. 2. A wooden frame- 
to carry coal. 3. A sled or low 
wagon for the same purpose. (Ray- 

When used for bringing up the 
rock from a sinking shaft the 
corves are made without wheels, 
and are more like a basket. In 
early days corves were wicker 
baskets, having wooden bows or 
handles: they held about 4| cwt. of 
coal (Gresley). See Hutch, 1. 

Corf bow (Eng.). The handle of a 
corf. (Bainbridge) 

Coribronce (Mex. and Bol.). Chalcopy- 
rite. (Dwight) 

Corindon; Corundo (Mex.). Corun- 
dum. (Dwight) 



Corinthian process. See Carinthian 

Cork fossil. A variety of amphibole 
or hornblende, resembling cork. It 
is the lightest of all minerals. 

Cormano (Mex.) A loading chute. 

Cornamusa(Peru). An earthen retort 
with a movable cover. (Dwight) 

Cornbrash (Eng.). A local name for 
certain beds in the Oolite forma- 
tion. It signifies a coarse frag- 
mentary rock which breaks up 
easily, and yields a soil useful for 
growing corn (Oldham). Also called 

Cornea (Peru). Horn silver. (Dwight) 

Cornean (Eng.). An igneous rock, so 
called from its tough, compact, and 
horn-like texture; known also as 
Aphanite. (Page) 

Corner break. The separation of a 
block of stone from a solid ledge 
by breaking it simultaneously along 
two faces meeting at a corner. 

Corner rackings (Scot.). Triangular 
pieces of wood inserted in the cor- 
ners of rectangular shafts to fix the 
barring. (Barrowman) 

Corners (Wales). Bands of clay Iron- 
stone. (Gresley) 

Cornet; Cornett (Fr.). In assaying, 
a metallic bead flattened out and 
made into a roll for treatment with 
acid. (Webster) 

Corning (Scot.). Mealtime. (Barrow- 

Corning table. See Bilharz table. 

Cornish diamond. A quartz crystal 
from Cornwall. (Webster) 

Cornish engine. A single-cylinder, 
single-acting beam engine using 
steam expansively and regulated by 
an hydraulic control (Webster). 
See Cornish pump. 

Cornish mining ton. A ton of 21 
hundred weight of 112 pounds each, 
or 2,352 avoirdupois pounds. (Web- 

Cornish pump. A pump operated by 
rods attached to the beam of a 
single-acting, condensing beam-en- 
gine. The steam, pressing down the 
piston in the vertical steam cylinder, 
lifts the -pump rods, and these subse- 
quently descend by their own weight. 

Cornish stone. China-stone or kaolin 

Cornstone. A reddish or bluish-red 
concretionary limestone. Its decom- 
position is said to produce a good 
soil for the cultivation of corn, be- 
ing so different from the cold, stiff, 
clayey soils formed over the marls 
(Oldham). Also called Cornbrash. 

Cornubianite. A name coined by 
Boase from the classic name for 
Cornwall, England, to describe a 
contact hornfels, consisting of an- 
dalusite, mica and quartz. It was 
proposed as a substitute for the 
earlier but indefinite term proteo- 
lite. Bonney suggests restricting 
cornublanite to tourmaline horn- 
fels. (Kemp) 

Cornwallite. An emerald-green, mas- 
sive, hydrous copper arsenate, Cvu- 
As 2 O 8 .2Cu(OH),+H 2 O. (Dana) 

Coro-coro. A dressed product of 
copper-works in South America, con- 
sisting of grains of native copper 
mixed with pyrite, chalcopyrtfe, 
mispickel, and earthy minerals 
( Raymond ) . See Copper barrilla ; 
also Rarrilla. 

Corona. 1. (Sp.) The boring bit or 
crown of a diamond drill. 8. C. 
cortante, a cutting ring used in shaft 
sinking through watery strata. 3. 
The crown wheel of a Chilean mill. 
4. (Colom.). A wooden bevel wheel 
used in a native mill. (Halse) 

Coronadite. A manganate of lead and 
manganese. (Mn,Pb),MnsO T . Re- 
sembles psilomelane in general as- 
pect. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Corpa (Peru). 1. An ore containing 
galena, gray copper and native sil- 
ver. 2. Sulphate of iron. (Dwight) 

Corporal (Mid.). A district foreman 
in charge of the underground haul- 
age ways. (Gresley). 

Corpnscle. See Electron. 

Corral. 1. (Mex.) A stableyard or an 
inclosure. (Dwight) 
2. A complete set of props; crib- 
timbering. (Halse) 

Corrasion. The wearing away of the 
surface of the earth through the 
friction of solid material trans- 
ported by water or air. It is one 
form of erosion. (La Forge) 

Correa. 1. (Mex.) A leather strap. 

2. Metal de correa, nearly pure cas- 
siterite. 3. Horizontal timbers which 
tie the rafters of a roof together. 



Oorredero (Colom.). The bed of an 
ancient river ; a former channel of a 
tream. (Halse) 

Corrego (Port.). 1. A ravine. 2. An 
alluvial channel. 3. (Braz.) A 
stream where auriferous gravel is 
washed. (Halse) 

Correlate. To put in relation with 
each other; to connect as by the 
disclosure of a mutual relation. 

Correlation. The determination of the 
equivalence in geologic age and strat- 
igraphic position of two formations 
or other stratigraphic units in sepa- 
rated areas; or, more broadly, the 
determination of the contempora- 
neity of events in the geologic his- 
tory a of two areas (La Forge). Fos- 
sils constitute the chief evidence in 
problems of correlation. 

Correo (Sp.). 1. A post man. 2. Post 
office. 3. Mail. (Halse) 

Corrido. 1. (Sp.) The strike of a 
vein. (Dwight) 

2. Metal C., alluvial ore; Oro C., 
alluvial gold. (Halse) 

Corriente. 1. (Peru) All the opera- 
tions required for extracting metal 
on a large scale from one class of 
ore. (Dwight) 

2. (Sp.) Current, as of a stream; 
C. de aire. an air current (Halse) 

Corrode. To eat away by degrees as 
by acids, caustics or other chemicals. 
To act corrosively; to undergo cor- 
rosion. (Webster) 

Corroded crystals. Phenocrysts that 
after crystalization are more or less 
reabsorbed or fused again into the 
magma. (Kemp) 

Corroding-lead. Refined lead suffi- 
ciently pure for the corroding pro- 
cess, by which white lead is manu- 
factured. (Raymond) 

Corrois (Fr.). Clay walls built to 
isolate a gob-fire. (Gresley) 

Corrosion. The process of wearing 
away, disintegrating or destroying 
by the gradual separation of small 
parts or particles, especially by the 
action of chemical agents, as an 
acid ( Century ) . Compare Corrasion. 

Corrosive. Anything that corrodes 
especially a chemical agent, as an 
acid; anything that wears away or 
disintegrates. (Century) 

Corrosive sublimate. Mercuric chlor- 
ide, HgCl 2 . Called also Bichloride 
of mercury. It is a virulent poison. 

Corrugated. When beds on a small 
scale are much wrinkled, folded or 
crumpled, they are said to be cor- 
rugated. On a larger scale they are 
said to be contorted. (Roy. Com.) 

Corsite. A name applied by Zirkel 
to the orbicular or spheroidal diorite 
from Corsica; synonym for Napo- 
leonite. (Kemp) 

Cortada. 1. (Colom.) A straight cut 
made to connect two bends of a river 
in order to work the bed of the 
river as a placer at the intermediate 
bend. 2. (Chile) A cut or drift 
on a vein. 3. Any working driven 
to cut a vein; a crosscut (Halse) 

Cortador de lefia (Sp.). A wood chop- 
per (Halse). A synonym for 

Cortadores (Sp.). Woodcutters. (Min. 
Jour. ) 

Ccrtafrio (Mex.). Cold chisel. 

Cortar (Sp.). 1. To cut 2. C.alturas, 
to cut a trench at the outcrop of a 
deposit, and then deepen it by under- 
hand stoping. 3. C. pilar (Mex.) 
To form a -rock support or pillar 
in a mine. (Halse) 

4. C. sogas (Mex.) Literally, to 
cut the ropes. To abandon a mine, 
taking everything useful or movable. 

5. C. el oro, to separate gold from 
the foreign matter. (Lucas) 

Corte (Sp.). 1. Edge of any cutting 
instrument. 2. Cut or opening in a 
mountain. 3. (Colom.) The work- 
ing portion of a placer, or vein at 
the surface; a stope. (Halse) 
4. (Peru) Opening to ^an .ore-de- 
posit, either a shaft or drift 5. 
(Peru) Pay-streak left clear so that 

ore can be knocked down with- 
out becoming mixed with waste. 

6. C. de caja (Mex.) Balance sheet 
of accounts. (Dwight) 

Corteza (Mex.). Crust (Dwight) 

Cortlandtite. A special name given by 
G. H. Williams to a peridotite that 
consists chiefly of hornblende and 
olivine and that occurs in the so- 
called Cortlandt series of igneous 
rocks in the township of Cortlandt, 
Just south of Peekskill, on the Hud- 
son River. This rock had been pre- 
viously called hudsonite by B. 
Cohen, a name rejected by Williams 
because already used for a variety 
of pyroxeiie. (Kemp) 

Comndolite. Wadsworth's name for 
rocks composed of corundum or 
emery. (Kemp) 



Corundum. 1. Aluminum oxide, 

The colored and the clear varieties 
form the gems, sapphire, ruby, 
oriental emerald, and oriental topaz ; 
the granular impure variety is 
known as emery. (U. S. Gcol. Surv.) 
2. The name of the mineral is some- 
times prefixed to the names of rocks 
containing it; as corundum-syenite. 

Ctrve. See Corf. 

Corvers (No. of Eng.). Carpenters who 
make corves (baskets). Also for- 
merly one who brought corves out 
of the mine, and kept them in repair. 

Cosalite. A sulphide of lead and bis- 
muth, PbaBi 2 Sf. Contains 42 per cent 
bismuth. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Cosecha (Chile). A clean-up at placer 
mines. (Halse) 

Cosmic. Of or pertaining to the celes- 
tial universe, especially to that part 
of it outside the solar system. (La 

Cosmites. A term used by M. B. 
Wads worth to designate mineral 
decorative materials, ornamental 
stones, and gems. (Power) 

Costado (Sp.). The side of a pit, gal- 
lery, or shaft (Halse) 

Costal (Mex.). An ore sack or bag 
made of the thread of the aloe. 

Costalera (Mex.). Ore-sacks (collec- 
. tively). (Dwight) 

Cost book (Corn.). A book used to 
keep accounts of mining enterprises 
carried on under the cost-book sys- 
tem, peculiar to Cornwall and 
Devon, and differing from both 
partnership and incorporation. It 
resembles the mining partnership 
system of the Pacific States. (Ray- 

Cost-book system (Eng.). The method 
of working a mine according to cer- 
tain regulations, by which the ad- 
venturers may at any time " sign 
off", and cease to be liable for any 
further expenditures in proving 
the mine. The plan is to insert in 
the "cost book" the name of each 
shareholder, and all expenses at- 
tached to the undertaking; a meet- 
ing of the proprietors Is held every 
two months, at which the purser 
presents his accounts, and the share- 
holders are thus enabled to judge 
of the state of the undertaking be- 
fore incurring any further liabili- 
ties. (Whitney) 

Costeable (Mex.). Sufficiently rich to 
pay expenses at least (said of ore, 
ground, stopes, etc.). (Dwight) 

Costean (Corn.). 1. To dig trenches 
or small pits through the surface 
soil or debris to the underlying rock 
in places for the purpose of expos- 
ing the outcrop of a mineral deposit 
and determining its course. (Web- 

2. Fallen or dropped tin. From the 
Cornish, Cothas, dropped, and 
Stean, tin. (Hunt) 

Costean-pit (Corn.). A pit sunk to 
bedrock in prospecting. (Stand- 

Costearse (Mex.) To pay for itself. 

Costo; Costa; Coste (Sp.). 1. Cost 
or price. C. neto, net cost. 2. Ex- 
pense, working cost. C. del beneficio, 
cost of reduction. (Halse) 

3. C. de los journales, the labor 
working cost (Dwight) 

Costra (Chile). 1. A conglomerate of 
clay, gravel, and feldspar immedi- 
ately overlying caliche. 2. Scale, 
or portion of a lode or rock which 
breaks off in scales or flakes. 

Coteau (Fr.) A hill or ridge, v:hich 
may be morainic; also, a high 
plateau. (Standard) 

Cotense (Mex.). Miner's sash cloth, 
or breechclout. Coarse hempen cloth 
similar to burlap. (Dwight) 

Coto (Sp.). 1. In . surveying, n land- 
mark of rough stone. 2. C. minero, 
a group of mines. (Halse) 

Cotter (Eng.). To mat together; to 
entangle. Frequently applied to a 
hard^ cross-grained, tough stone or 
coal, as cottered coal. (G. C. Green- 

Cotterite. A variety of quartz having 
a peculiar metallic pearly luster. 

Cotton ball. See Ulexite. 

Cotton miner (Quebec). A miner em- 
ployed in an asbestos mine.- 

Cotton rock. 1. (Missouri). A local 
name for a soft, fine-grained sili- 
ceous magnesian limestone of the 
Lower Silurian. (Century) 

Cotton stone. 1. A variety of mesolite 
(Power). 2. See Cotton rock. 

Cotunnite. A soft white to yellowish 
lead chloride, PbCl 2 . Occurs in aci- 
cular crystals of the orthorhombic 
system and in se aicrystalline 
masses. (Dana) 



Congas (Mex. ). A black mineral wax 
or oil. (Halse) 

Coulch (Derb.). A piece of earth 
falling from the roof or side in soft 
workings. (Hooson) 

Coulee. 1. A solidified stream or sheet 
of laya extending down a volcano, 
ofteu forming a ridge or spur. 2. 
A deep gulch or water channel ; 
usually dry. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Coulomb. The practical unit of quan- 
tity in electrical measurements; 
namely, the quantity of elc *ricity 
conveyed in one second by the cur- 
rent produced by an electro-motive 
force of one volt acting in a circuit 
having a resistance of one ohm. 

Counter. 1. A cross -vein. 2. (Or 
counter - gangway.) A gangway 
driven obliquely upwards on a coal 
seam from the main gangway until 
it cuts off the faces of the workings, 
and then continues parallel with the 
main gangway. The oblique portion 
is called Run. (Raymond) 
3. An apparatus for recording the 
number of strokes made by a pump, 
engine, or other machinery. 

Counterbalance ; Counterpoise. A weight 
used to balance another weight or 
the vibrating parts of machinery. 

Counter chute. A chute through which 
the coal from counter-gangway 
workings is lowered to the gang- 
way below. (Chance) 

Counter coal. Coal worked from 
breasts or bords to the rise of a 
counter gangway. (Gresley) 

Counter gangway. A gangway driven 
obliquely across the workings to a 
higher level, or a gangway driven 
between two lifts and sending its 
coal down to the gangway below 
through a chute. (Chance) 

Counterhead (Mid.). An underground 
heading driven parallel to another, 
and used as the return air course. 

Counterlode. A smaller vein running 
across the main lode. (Skinner) 

Counterpoise. See Counter-balance. 

Countervein. A cross vein running 
at approximately right angles to the 
main ore body (Weed). See also 

Country (Corn.). The rock traversed 
by or adjacent to an ore deposit. 
See also Country rock. (Raymond) 

Country bank (Ark.). A small mine 
supplying coal for local use only. 

Country rock. The general mass of 
adjacent rock as distinguished from 
that of a dike, vein or lode, (Ste- 
vens v. Williams, 23 Federal Cas, 
P. 44) 

Country sale (Scot.). Sale of coal 
at the mine; sale by cart, as dis- 
tinguished from disposal by rail or 
sea. (Barrowman) 

County of Durham system. A combina- 
tion of the panel and room-and-pillar 
method of mining. See also Room- 
and-pillar method. 

Coup. 1. (No, of Eng.). To exchange 
cavils (lots) with the consent of 
the foreman. (Gresley) 
2. (Scot) A bank, or face of a 
heap where d6bris is dumped. 3. 
To overturn. (Barrowman) 

Couple. 1. A pair of equal forces, act- 
ing in opposite directions but not 
on the same point. They can not be 
balanced by any single force, and 
their tendency is to produce motion, 

2. (Mid.). To conduct water down 
the sides of shafts into water curbs 
or garlands. (Gresley) 

Coupler (Eng.). A boy who couples 
or connects the cars of coal, ore or 
rock in order to form a trip or train. 

Coupling. 1. A threaded sleeve used 
to connect two pipes (Nat. Tube 

2. A device for joining two rope 
ends without splicing. (C. M. P.) 

3. (York) An attachment for join- 
ing a chain to the end of a rope. 

4. A link or chain for connecting 
mine cars. 

Coupling chains (Scot). .Short chains 
conecting the cage with the wind- 
ing rope (Barrowman). See Bridle 

Coupling tongs (Scot) A tool used 
in joining flanged pipes. (Barrow- 

Coup-over (Aust). Coup-up (Scot). 
A small chamber, into which an 
empty skip can be upset so as to 
allow a full skip to pass when there 
is only a single line. (Power) 

Course. 1. To conduct the ventilation 
backward and forward through the 
workings, by means of properly ar- 
ranged stoppings and regulators. 



ft. (Som.) A seam of coal. (Ores- 

3. The horizontal direction or strike 
of a lode, vein, etc. 4. Progress 
from point to point without change 
of direction. 5. A continuous layer 
of brick masonry, cement or con- 
crete. ^Webster) 

8. An influx of water from one di- 
rection. (Standard) 

Coursed rubble. Rubble in courses of 
differing breadths. (Standard) 

Course of ore. See Chute, 2 ; also 
Course, 8. 

Course of vein. Its strike. The hori- 
zontal line on which it cuts the coun- 
try rock. (Duryee) 

Coursing. Ventilation in mines, as by 
doors, brattices and stoppings. 

Coursing the air. See Course, 1. 
Coursing the waste. See Course, 1. 

Courtzilitc. A form of asphaltum 
allied to gilsonite. (Bacon) 

Con sic (pronounced Cowssie) (Scot). 
A self-acting plane. (Barrrwman) 

Cousie wheel (Scot). The drum or 
pulley on a self-acting plane. (Bar- 

Cousin Jack. A Common nickname for 
a Cornishman^ (Raymond) 

Covacha (Mex.). A cave or crevice. 

Covellite. An indigo-blue copper sul- 
phide, CuS. Contains 66.4 per 
tent copper. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Cover. 1. (No. of Eng.) The total 
thickness of strata overlying the 
mine workings (Gresley). Over- 

Cover binding (Corn.). See nlso 
Plank timbering. 

Covering bords (York). A series of 
bords (rooms) formed on the side 
of a shaft pillar, from which long- 
wall working is commenced. (Gres- 

Cover work. Lumps of copper too 
large to pass the screen and which 
accumulate in the bottom of the 
mortar of a stamp. (Richards, p. 

Covite. A name derived from Magnet 
Cove, Ark., and suggested by H. S, 
Washington for a leucocratic, hole- 
crystalline combination of ortho 

clase (alkali -feldspar) and less 
nephelite, with hornblende and 
aegirite-augite, and of granitic 
structure. The rock was previously 
described as a " fine-grained syen- 
ite," by J. F. Williams. (Kemp) 

Cow. A kind of self-acting brake for 
inclined planes; a trailer. (Ray- 
mond). Compare Cousie. 

Cowl (No. of Eng.). A wrought-iron 
water barrel, or tank for hoisting 
water. (Gresley) 

Cowp (Newc.). 1. To overturn. To 
exchange working places. See also 
Coup. (Min. Jour.) 

Cowper-Siemens stove. A hot-blast 
stove of firebrick on the regenera- 
tive principle. (Raymond) 

Cow stone (Eng.). A local term for 
green-sand bowlders. (Roberts) 

Cow sucker. A heavy piece of iron 
attached to the end of the drilling 
cable in order to facilitate the de- 
scent of the latter when the tools 
are disconnected. (Mitzakis) 

Coyote (Mex.). A man who buys and 
sells mining shares. (Dwight) 

Coyote hole. Same as gopher hole. A 
small tunnel driven horizontally 
into the rock at right angles to the 
face of the quarry. It has two or 
more cross-cuts driven from it 
parallel to the face. It is in the 
ends of these cross-cuts that the ex- 
plosive charge is generally placed, 
and the remaining space in the 
tunnel is filled up with rock, sand, 
timbers, or concrete, to act as stem- 
mine or tamping. (Du Pont) 

Coyoting (Pac.). Mining in Irregular 
openings or burrows, comparable to 
the holes of coyotes or prairie 
foxes (Raymond). Gophering. 

Coz. 1. (Mex.). A hitch for a stulU 

2. (Colom.) The pointed end of a 
leg piece or post. (Halse) 

Crab. 1. A machine for moving heavy 
weights. Especially the engines 
employed for lowering into place 
the pumps, rods, pipes, etc., of 
Cornish pit-work. See also Crab- 
winch. ( Raymond ) 

2. An iron rod forked at one end, 
attached to loadc 1 coal cars com- 
ing up out of a slope. (Roy) 

3. A hoisting winch used to pull 
ladles, cars, or iron plate in boiler 
shop; also called Mule or Car 
dumper. (Willcox) 



Crab bole (Aust). 1. Holes, appar- 
ently water-worn, found In the bed- 
rock under the drift. (Da vies) 
JL The hole burrowed by the Aus- 
tralian land crab, or crawfish; also 
the hollow form by caving in of one 
of these burrows. (Webster) 

Crab wincH An iron machine consist- 
ing of two triangular uprights be- 
tween which are two axles, one 
above the other. These machines 
are frequently used in connection 
with pumping gear where mine 
shafts are not deep. See also Crab, 
1. (Duryee) 

Cracker. A coal breaker. (Daddow) 

Cracker boss. The officer in charge 
of the screen room in a breaker. 

Bracket (No. of Eng.). A tool used 
by miners in mining coal. (Gres- 

Cracking of oil. A name given to the 
method by which hydrocarbons of 
one composition are reduced to 
lower members of the same series, 
or converted into other hydrocar- 
bons during distillation (Mitzakis). 
It originated about 50 years ago 
by the still men in the old Pennsyl- 
vania refineries and means just 
what its connotation conveys, 
namely a part alteration, as dis- 
tinguished from the more complete 
decomposition which would disrupt 
the molecule largely into carbon and 
permanent gas. Cracking simply 
alters the molecules to an extent 
that produces an amount of low- 
toiling fractions that can not be ob- 
tained by simple distillation. It 
may not be accomplished by any 
considerable production of perma- 
nent gas, the product being largely 
a. liquid condensate, but of different 
character from that obtained by 
simple distillation. (Min. and Sci. 
Press, May 1, 1915) 

Crackle ware. Pottery or porcelain 
covered with a delicate network of 
cracks produced in the glaze. 

Cracks (Scot.). Vertical planes of 
cleavage in coal. Planes at right 
angles to the bedding. (Gresley) 

Cracks of gas. Puffs or explosions of 
gas in blast furnaces. (Willcox) 

Cradle. 1. (Eng.) A movable plat- 
form or scaffold suspended by a 
rope from the surface, upon which 
repairs or other work is performed 
in a shaft 2. (Mid.). A loop made 

of a chain in which a man is low- 
ered and raised in a shaft not fitted 
with a cage. (Gresley) 

3. A wooden bo* longer than 'wide, 
provided with a v tovable slide and 
hopper, and mounted on two 
rockers. It is used for washing 
gold-bearing earths (Roy. Com.). 
See also Rocker, 

4. To wash gold-bearing material in 
a cradle. (Webster) 

5. The part of a car dumper in 
which the car rests when It is 
dumped. (Willcox) 

Cradle dump. A tipple which dumps 
cars with a rocking motion. (Harr) 

Cradling ( Scot. ) . * Stone walling In a 
mine shaft. (Barrowman) 

Crag. 1. A fossiliferous sandy marl 
of marine origin; generally used, 
capitalized, as part of the names of 
several formations of Pliocene age 
in eastern England. (La Forge) 
2. A steep, rugged rock; a rough 
^broken cliff or projecting point of 
rock. 3. A detached fragment of 
rock. (Webster) 

Crampet (Eng.). A bracket (Bain- 
bridge). See also Cramp, 3. 

Cramp. 1. A short bar of metal hav- 
ing its two ends bent downwards at 
right angles for insertion into two 
adjoining pieces of stone, wood, etc., 
to hold them together. (Duryee) 

2. A pillar of rock or mineral left 
for support. (Weed) 

3. (Derb.). A fastening used to 
keep pumps in place (Hooson). 
See also Clamp, 1. 

Crampon. A form of hooked clutch 
or dog for raising stones, lumber, 
ice, etc. ; grappling irons. ( Webster) 

Cranch (Derb.). A pillar of ore left 
to support the roof or hanging wall 
(Hooson). See also Cramp, 2. 

Crandall. A mason's tool for dressing 
stone. (Century) 

Crane. A kind of machine for raising 
and lowering heavy weights, and 
while holding them suspended, trans- 
porting them through a limited 
lateral distance. (Webster) 

Crane board (No. of Eng.). A return 
air course connected directly with 
the furnace. (Gresiey) 

Crane brae (Scot). A short incline 
in steep workings. (Barrowman) 

Crane ladle. A pot or ladle, supported 
by a chain from a crane, used for 
pouring molten metals into molds. 



Crane man. 1. (Eng.) One whose 
business it is to hoist coal with the 
crane. (G. C. Greenwell) 
2. A man who operates any type of 
a crane. 

Crane post. The upright post on which 
the arm or jib of a crane works. 

Crank (Wales). Small coal. (Gres- 

Cranny. Any small opening, fissure, 

or crevice, as in a wall or rock. 


Crate dam. A clam built of crates 
filled with stone. (Duryee) 

Crater. The basta-like or funnel- 
shaped opening which marks the 
vent of a volcano ; also the mouth of 
a geyser. (Webster) 

Craw-coal. See Crow-coal. 

Craw picker (Scot). One who picks 
stones 'from coal or shale. (Bar- 

Craza (Mex.). A vessel to receive 
molten metal. (Dwight) 

Craze; Creaze (Corn.). The tin ore 
which collects in the middle part of 
the buddle ; middlings. (Raymond) 

Cream. A rusty impure meerschaum. 

Crease. 1. (Forest of Dean) Moun- 
ta .- limestone workings. (Gres- 

2. Ar . stream channel. (Lahee, 
p. 282; 

Middlings. See 

Creaze (Corn.). 

Creek. 1. In maritime districts, a 
small tidal inlet. 2. In inland dis- 
tricts, a small stream or branch of 
a river; a brook. (La Forge) 

Creek claim. A claim which includes 
the bed of a creek (Duryee). Un- 
der the statute of Oregon, a tract of 
land one hundred yards square, one 
side of which abuts on a creek or 
rather extends to the middle of the 
stream. (Chapman v. Toy Long, 4 
Sawyer, p. 32; 5 Federal Cas., p. 

Creek placers. Placers in, adjacent to, 
and at the level of small streams. 
(U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 259, p. 33) 

Creek right. The privilege of divert- 
ing water for the purpose of work- 
ing a creek claim. (Duryee) 

Creel (Scot). A kind of basket in 
which coal and rock are conveyed 
from the mine. (Gresley) 

Creep. 1. (Eng.) A squeeze or crush 
forcing the pillars down into the 
floor which often gives the miner 
the impression that the floor is ris- 
ing, due to its being softer than the 
roof. Any slow movement of mining 
ground. Also called Squeeze; Pull. 
Compare Thrust. 

2. A gradual movement of loose 
rock material such as clay, due to 
alternate freezing and thawing, wet- 
ting and drying, or other causes. 

3. To rise above the surface of a 
solution upon the walls of a vessel 
in which the solution is contained 
as salt crystals in a voltaic cell. 

4. A very slow movement of a wind- 
ing engine, when the brake is not 
sufficiently applied to hold it 

Creeper chain (Aust). A strong end- 
less chain, in which every few feet 
a horn is inserted, which catches the 
axle of a skip and draws it up an 
incline. (Power) 

Creeping. (Eng.). The settling, or 
natural subsidence, of the surface, 
caused by extensive underground 
workings. (Gresley) 

Creeshy bleas. (Scot). Nodules of 
bituminous shale in the soft roof of 
some of the Scotch collieries. -So 
called from the sort of unctuous 
smoothness, which causes them to 
fall out when the coal is removed. 
Also called Greasy bleas. (Gresley) 

Creminel (Brit. Guiana). A shovel 
used by the natives for removing the 
overburden of placer mines. (Halse) 

Crenitic. A word derived from the 
Greek for spring, and especially 
used by T. S. Hunt for those rocks, 
which were thought by him to have 
come to the surface in solution and 
to have been precipitated. He used 
the so-called ' crenitic hypothesis' 
to explain certain schists whose 
feldspars were supposed to have been 
originally zeolites, but his views 
have received slight, if any, sup- 
port. Crenitic is also used by W. O. 
Crosby to describe those mineral 
veins which have been deposited by 
uprising springs. (Kemp) 

Creosote. 1: An oily antfseptic liquid 
obtained by the distillation of wood 
tar. Also a similar substance ob- 
tained from coal tar. 2. To satu- 
rate or impregnate with creosote, as 
timber to prevent decay. (Web- 



Crept bord (Eng.). A bord or room 
more or less filled up from the ef- 
fects of creep. (Gresley) 

Crept pillars (Eng.). Pillars of coal 
which have passed through the vari- 
ous stages of creep. (G. C. Green- 

Cressed. Reduced about i inch in 
diameter for a short distance at 
ends. A foreign term, used on ar" 
tesian well casing. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Cresset. (Eng.). A sort of lamp or 
torch; an iron basket or vessel for 
holding burning oil or other illumi- 
nant and mounted as a torch. (Web- 

Cresting. Trimming used on the ridge 
of tiled roofs. Same as Hip roll. 

Crest6n (Sp.). The outcrop or apex 
of a vein. (Dwight) 

Creta. 1. (Sp.). Fuller's earth. See 
Greda, 1. 2. (Mex.). Impure lith- 
arge formed in a reverberatory 
furnace. (Halse) 

Cretaceons. 1. Of the nature of chalk ; 
relating to chalk. (Hitchcock) 
2. The third and latest of the periods 
included in the Mesozoic era; also 
the system of strata deposited in 'the 
Cretaceous period. (La Forge) 

Cretacio (Sp.). Cretaceous. (Dwight) 

Crevasse. 1. A fissure in the mass of 
a glacier. 2. A breach in the levee 
or embankment of a river. (Web- 

Crevet. A crucible. (Raymond) 

Crevice (Pac.). 1. A shallow fissure 
in the bedrock under a gold placer, 
in which small but highly concen- 
trated deposits of gold are found. 
2. The fissure containing a vein, 
( Raymond ) . As employed in the 
Colorado statute relative to a dis- 
covery shaft, a crevice is a mineral- 
bearing vein. (Bryan v. McCaig, 10 
Colorado, 309; 15 Pacific, p. 413; 
Beals v. Cone, 27 Colorado, 500; 15 
Pacific, p. 948; Terrible Mining Co. 
v. Argentine Mining Co., 89 Fed- 
eral, 583) 

Crevicing. Collecting gold that is in 
the crevices of a rock. (Skinner) 

Criadero (Sp.). 1. An ore or min- 
eral deposit. C. detritico, alluvium ; 
C. en arbol, ramification ; C. en fil6n, 
a vein deposit of considerable ex- 
tension ; C. en veta, a vein deposit 
of variable but not great dimen- 
sions; C. en capo, a stratified de- 

posit; C. en rinones, small irregu- 
lar deposits. (Halse) 
2. (Mex.) Any mineral deposit 
This is the more modern sense, and 
the word is so used in the mining 
laws at present (1902) in force in 
Mexico. (Dwight) 

Crib. 1. See "Curb, 1, Nog, Chock, 
Pack. 2. A structure composed of 
frames of timber laid horizontally 
upon one another, or of timbers 
built up as in the walls of a log 
cabin. 3. A miner's luncheon. 

4. (Eng.) A cast-iron ring in a 
shaft upon which tubbing is built 
up. See Wedging curb. 5. (Eng.) 
A wooden foundation upon which 
the brick lining or walling of a 
shaft is built. (Gresley) 

Criba (Mex.). 1. Screen or sieve; C. 
ffiratoria, revolving screen or trom- 
mel. See also Cedazo. 2. A hand- 
jig. See also Harnero. (Dwight) 

Cribado (Sp.). Jigging or screening 
ore. (Lucas) 

Criba dor (Mex.). An ore screener. 

Cribar (Sp.). To screen, jig, or sift. 

Cribbing. 1. Close timbering, as the 
lining of a shaft. (Rowden v. 
Daniel, 151 Missouri App., p. 22) 
2. The construction of cribs of tim- 
ber, or of timber and earth or rock 
to support the roof. (Steel) 

Cribble. A sieve. (Raymond) 

Cribwork. A construction of timber- 
ing jnade by piling logs or beams 
horizontally one above another, and 
spiking or chaining them together, 
each layer being at right angles to 
those above and below it (Cen- 
tury). See also Crib, 2. 

Crichtonite. A variety of ilmenite in 
which the proportion of titanic 
oxide is less than normal. (Stand- 

Crilley and Everson process. A flota- 
tion process in which the ore is 
crushed to 50 mesh, and mixed with 
a thick black oil. Boiling water 
containing enough acid to give it a 
tart taste is then added. This 
process was tried at Baker City, 
Oreg., and at Denver, Colo., in 1889. 

Crimp. The flattening made by a 
crimper near the mouth of a blast- 
ing cap for holding the fuse in place. 
(Du Pont) 



Crimper. A device used for crimping 
a cap about a piece of fuse. (Gil- 
lette, p. 443) 

Cripple. 1. Swampy or low wet 
ground; bog. 2. A rocky, shallow 
place in a stream. (Webster) 

Cris6cola (Sp.). 1. Chrysocolla. 2. 
Gold solder. 3. Borax. (Halse) 

Crisol (Mex.). An assay crucible; 
melting pot; slag pot (Dwight) 

Crisolada (Sp.). 1. A crucible full of 
molten metal. 2. A crucible charge. 

Crisolero (Mex.). A slag-pot puller. 

Cristal (Sp.). A crystal; C. de roca, 
rock crystal. (Halse) 

Cristalino (Sp.). Crystalline. 

Cristo-grahamite. Grahamite from 
the Cristo mine, Huasteca, Mexico. 

Critical angle. The least angle of in- 
cidence at which total reflection 
takes place. (Webster) 

Critical density. The density of a sub- 
stance at its critical point. (Web- 

Critical pressure. The pressure neces- 
sary to raise the boiling point of 
a substance, in the liquid state, to 
the critical temperature; the pres- 
sure that will just liquefy gas at its 
critical temperature. (Webster) 

Critical temperature. Any tempera- 
ture marked by a transition ; the 
temperature above which a sub- 
stance can exist only in the gtlseous 
state, no matter what the pressure. 

Crocidolite. Blue asbestos. One of 
the monoclinic amphiboles. (Dana) 

Crocoite. .Lead chromate, PbO.CrOs. 
Contains 68.9 per cent PbO and 31.1 
per cent .CrOs. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Crocus. A term used in the Milford, 
N. H., quarries to denote gneiss or 
any other rock in contact with gran- 
ite. (Perkins) 

Cromo (Sp.,). Chromium. (Dwight) 

Cronstedite. A coal-black to brownish- 
black hydrous iron silicate, 4FeO.- 
2Fe,O..3SiO a 4H,0. ( Dana ) 

Crookesite. A massive, compact me- 
tallic, lead-gray selenide of copper, 
thallium nd silver, (Cu,Tl,Ag) 8 Se. 

Crop. 1. See Outcrop; also Bassett. 

2. The roof coal or stone which has 
to be take"n down in order to secure 
a safe roof in the workings. (Gres- 

3. (Corn.) See Crop-tin. 4. To 
leave coal at the bottom of a bed. 
(Raymond). See Cropping coal. 

5. (Eng.) To dock or line by de- 
ducting a certain portion of the 
weight of coal in the car when there 
is an excess of refuse, or the like. 

Crop coal. Coal of inferior quality 
near the surface. (Roy. Com.) 

Crop fall. A caving in of the surface 
at the outcrop of the bed caused by 
mining operations. Applied also to 
falls occurring at points not on the 
outcrop of the bed. Synonomous 
with Day. fall. (Chance) 

Crop ore (Local Eng.). First-quality 
tin ore, cleaned for smelting. 

Crop out. To be exposed at the sur- 
face; referring to strata (Whitney). 
See also Outcrop. 

Cropper (Eng.). A shot placed at the 
highest side or edge of a shaft bot- 
tom. (Gresley) 

Cropping. An outcrop. (Standard) 

Cropping coal. The leaving of a small 
thickness of coal at the bottom of 
the seam in a working place, usu- 
ally in back water. The coal so left 
is termed " Cropper coal." (C.- and 
M. M. P.) 

Cropping out. The natural exposure of 
bedrock at the surface. That part 
of a vein which appears at the sur- 
face is called the cropping or out- 
crop. ( Raymond ) 

Croppings. Portions of a vein as seen 
exposed at the surface. (C. and 
M. M. P.) 

Crop tin. The chief portion of tin ore 
separated from waste in the princi- 
pal dressing operation. (Raymond) 

Crop upwards (Eng.). In miners' par- 
lance, to rise. (Roberts) 

Croquis (Sp.). A sketch; a rough 
draft. (Halse) 

Cross (Wales). See Crosscut. 

Crossbar. A horizontal timber held 
against the roof to support it, usu- 
ally over a roadway; a collar. 



Cross-bedded. Characterized by minor 
beds or laminae oblique to the 
main stratification; cross-stratified. 

Cross-bedding. Lamination, in sedi- 
mentary rocks, confined to single 
beds anQ inclined to the general 
stratification (La Forge). Caused 
by swift, local currents, deltas, or 
swirling wind-gusts, and especially 
characteristic of sandstones, both 
aqueous and eolian. (Kemp) 

Cross course. A seam, bar or belt of 
rock, not necessarily a lode, crossing 
a lode (Webster). A contra-lode. 

Cross-course spar (Corn.). Radiated 
quartz. (Whitney) 

Crosscut. 1. A small passageway 
driven at right angles to the 
main entry to connect it with a 
parallel entry or air course. Also 
used in Arkansas instead of "break- 
through." (Steel) 
2. A level, driven across the course 
of a vein or in general across the 
direction of the main workings or 
across the "grain of coal." (Ray- 

Crosscut method (combined with re- 
moval of pillars). See Top slicing 
and cover caving. 

Crosscut method of working. See 
Overhand stoping. 

Crosscut tunnel. A tunnel driven at 
approximately right angles to a main 
tunnel, or from the bottom of a shaft 
or other opening, across the forma- 
tion to an objective point (Duryee). 
The term " crosscut " would seem 
more appropriate as the term tunnel 
implies being open to the surface at 
both ends, as a railroad tunnel. 

Crossed dispersion. In optical miner- 
alogy, the dispersion that produces 
an interference figure with color dis- 
tribution symmetrical to the center 
of the figure. (A. F. Rogers) 

Crossed nicols. Two nicol prisms 
placed so that their vibration planes 
are mutually at right angles. (Lu- 
quer, p. 26) 

Crossed twinning. Repeated twin- 
ning after two laws. Shown in mi- 
crocline. (Luquer, p. 37) 

Cross entry. An entry running at an 
angle with the main entry. (Roy) 

Crosses and holes (Derb.). In Derby- 
shire the discoverer of a lode se- 
cures it temporarily by making 
"crosses and holes" in the ground. 
(Da vies) 

Cross fault. An oblique or dip fault. 

Cross flucan. A name given by Cor- 
nish miners to clay veins of ancient 
formation (Ure). See also Flucan. 

Cross frog. A frog adapted for rail- 
road tracks that cross at right 
angles. (Webster) 

Cross gates (York). Short headings 
driven on the strike and at right 
angles to the main gates or roads. 

Cross gateway (Aust). A road, 
through the goaf, that branches 
irom the main gateway. (Power) 

Cross-grained rock (Ohio). A local 
term for certain sandstone beds that 
exhibit cross bedding. (Bowles) 

Crosshead. 1. A runner or framework 
that runs on guides, placed a few 
feet above the sinking bucket in or- 
der to prevent it from swinging too 
violently. ( Power ) 
2. A beam or rod stretching across 
the top of something ; specifically, 
the bar at the end of a piston rod 
of a steam engine, which slides on 
the ways or guides fixed to the en- 
gine frame and connects the piston 
rod with the connecting rod, (Cen- 

Cross-head guide. A guide for making 
the crosshead of an engine move in 
a line parallel with the cylinder 
axis. (Standard) 

Cross heading. A passage driven for 
ventilation from the airway to the 
gangway, or from one breast 
through the pillar to the adjoining 
working (Chance). Also called 
Cross hole, Cross gateway, and 

Cross hole (Wales). A short cut- 
through communicating with two 
headings, for ventilation purposes. 

Crossing. 1. The place where two or 
more lines of rails extending in dif- 
ferent directions cross each other. 

2. (Eng.) See Air crossing. 3. 
(Wales) A crosscut (Gresley) 

Crossite. A blue amphibole found In 
the crystalline schists of California.* 
(Standard) - 

Cross latches. See Latches, 1. 

. 744010047- 




Cross lode. A vein Intersecting the 
true or principal lode (Webster). 
See Cross-vein. 

Cross-measure. A heading driven hori- 
zontally or nearly so, through or' 
across inclined strata. (Gresley) 

Cross-off (Clev.). See Stack out. 

Crossover. A short connecting track 
with a switch and frog at each end, 
by which trains, (or cars) may be 
switched from either of two tracks 
to the other. (Webster) 

Crosspiece. The short pieces of tim- 
ber in a wooden pillar or crib. See 
Edgers. (Sanders, p. 115) 

Crossroad (Scot.). A main road 
driven at a more moderate inclina- 
tion than directly to the rise of the 
strata. (Barrowman) 

Cross section. A cutting or section 
across; a section at right angles to 
an axis, especially the longer axis 
of anything ; also a piece of some- 
thing cut off in a direction at right 
angles to an axis. (Webster) 

Cross-spur. A vein of quartz that 
crosses a lode. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Cross-stone. A synonym for Andalu- 
site. (Chester) 

Cross sloping. See Overhand stoping. 

Cross-stratification. Tn geology, the 
condition of having the minor lami- 
nations ojblique to the plane of the 
main stratum which they help to 
compose. (Standard). See also 

Crosstie. A timber or metal sill 
placed transversely under the rails 
of a railroad, tramway or mine-car 

Cross vein. 1. An intersecting vein 
(Raymond). See Cross lode. 
2. A vein which crosses the bedding 
planes of the strata. This usage 
appears unnecessary, and conflicts 
with the same name applied to cases 
wher* two veins actually cross each 
other. (Shamel, p. 165) 

Crouan (Corn.). Granite. (C. and 
M. M. P.) See also Grouan. 

Crouch clay (Eng.). An old name for 
the white Derbyshire clay. (Cen- 

Crouch ware. 1. (Staff.) A kind of 
fine pottery made in the seventeenth 
century. 2. A salt-glazed stoneware 
made at Burslem, England. (Cen- 

Crow-coal. Certain earthy coal which 
contains very little bitumen and a 
large percentage of ash (Power). 
Also called Craw-coal, and Craws. 

Crowfoot; Crow. 1. A tool with a side- 
claw, for grasping and recovering 
broken rods in deep bore-holes. 

2. An iron claw or fork, to which 
a rope is attached, and by which 
the rods are lowered and raised 
when changing the tools in deep 
bore holes. (Gresley) 

3. (Tenn.) Zigzag, wavy or irregu- 
lar, dark lines characteristic of Ten- 
nessee marble. (Bowles) 

Crown arch. The arched plate which 
supports the crown-she t of the fire 
box of a boiler. (Century) 

Crown bar. One of the bars on which 
the crown-sheet of a locomotive 
rests. (Century) 

Crown formation (Aust.). A term 
used in Bendigo for the outcrop of 
saddle reefs crowning the hills, from 
which points the reefs dip in oppo- 
site directions. (Power) 

Crown-gate. The head gate of a canal 
lock. (Century) 

Crown gold. Gold eleven-twelfths 
(.917) fine, the standard for English 
gold coins since Charles II. (Web- 

Crown-in (Ches.). The caving of the 
surface or cover of a rock-salt mine. 

Crownings-in (So. Staff.). The strata 
forming the roof or cover. (Gres- 

Crown sheet. The flat plate which 
forms the top of the furnace or fire 
box in an internally fired steam 
boiler. (Webster) 

Crownstone. 1. No. of Eng.) The top 
stone of the gable-emd of a house. 
2. A hard, smooth, flinty gritstone 
(Century). See also Ganister, 3. 

Crown tree; Crown. A piece of "timber 
set on props to support the mine 
roof. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Crown wheel. A cog-wheel having the 
teeth on the plane of the wheel's 
circle instead of upon its circumfer- 
ence. (Duryee) 

Croylstone. A variety of. finely crys- 
tallizetl barite. (Standard) 

Crozle; Crozzle. To cake or harden 
with heat; to burn to a cinder. A 
cinder (Webster). Said of coal. 



Cmcero (Sp.). 1. Crosscut 2. A 
cross coarse; a cross-vein. 3. End 
pieces of a set of shaft timbers. 

Crmceros. 1. (Chile) Minute veins, 
oblique to the lode, in both direction 
and dip, being the largest and richest 
at the junction. 2. (Spain) The 
two cross beams of the pulley frame 
of a vnalac,at(>.. (Halse) 

Cruces (Sp.) The crosspieces of an 
arrastre or grinding milL (Mln. 

Crucible. 1, A melting pot 2. The 
lower part of a shaft furnace, in 
which fusion is effected and the 
molten bath is contained. (Ray- 

Crucible steel. Also crucible cast 
steeL A superior but expensive 
kind of cast steel made by either 
melting blister steel in crucibles, or 
by fusing together wrought iron, 
carbon and flux in crucibles. (Web- 

rrucite. Same as Andalusite. (Stand- 

Crude. 1. In a natural state; not al- 
tered, refined or prepared for use by 
any process, as crude ore. (Web- 

2. A name tot crude petroleum. 
(Bacon) . 

Crude oil. A name for crude petro- 
leum. (Bacon) 

Crude mineral-oil. A name for crude 
petroleum. (Bacon) 

Crude naphtha. Unrefined petroleum- 
naphtha. (Standard) 

Crude ore-bin. An ore bin of crude 
construction. ( Rickard ) 

Crude-ore bin. A bin in which ore is 
dumped it comes from the mine. 

Crup. A gradual settling of the meas- 
ures overlying a mine caused by the 
weight crushing the pillars, or forc- 
ing them down into the floor 
(Harr). A variation of creep. 

Crusader. A wooden sailing ship of 643 
tons register. One Of the first sail- 
ing vessels to be converted into oil 
carriers in 1885. The Crusader was 
fitted with 47 independent tanks, 
arranged in three superimposed 
tiers, an arrangement which was 
found to work satisfactorily. (Mit- 

Crush. 1. A general settlement of tilt 
strata above a coal mine due to fail- 
ure of pillars; generally accompa- 
nied by numerous local falls of roof 
in mine workings. 2. A species of 
fault in coal. (Century) 

Crush-border. A microscopic granular 
structure sometimes characterizing 
adjacent feldspar particles in conse- 
quence of their having been crushed 
together during or subsequent to 
their crystallization. (Dale) 

Crush breccia. A breccia produced by 
the shattering of rocks along a fault. 

Crushed steel. Angular fragments of 
hard steel employed as an abrasive 
in sawing stone. (Bowles) 

Crushed vein. A mineralized zone or 
belt of crushed material. The crush- 
ing is due to folding, faulting, or 

Crusher. A machine for crushing rock 
or other materials (Webster). As 
a gyratory crusher, jaw crusher, 
stamg mill, etc. 

Crusher rolls. See Rolls. 

Crush-conglomerate. A conglomerate 
produced by the crushing of certain 
rocks in the shearing movements 
following folding. (Standard) 

Crushing. 1. Reducing ore or quartz 
by stamps, crushers, or rolls. (Roy. 

2. The quantity of ore so pulverized 
or crushed at a single operation. 

J. (Aust.) The equivalent of "mill- 
run." (Power) 

Crushing machine. A machine con- 
structed to pulverize or crush stone 
and other hard and brittle materi- 
als; a stone crusher. (Century) 

Crushing mill. The same as Stamp 
mill (Winchell). See Crusher. 

Crushing rolls. A machine consisting 
of two heavy rolls between which 
ore, coal or other mineral is crushed. 
Sometimes the rolls are toothed or 
ribbed, but for ore their surface is 
generally smooth. (Century) 

Crushing strength. The resistance 
which a rock offers to vertical pres- 
sure placed upon it It is measured 
by applying graduated pressure to 
a cube, one inch square, of the rock 
tested. A crushing strength of 4,00ft 
pounds means that a cubic inch of 
the rock withstands pressure to 
4.000 pounds before crushing 
(Lowe). The crushing strength is 
greater with shorter prisms, 
with longer prisms. 



Crush line. In geology, a line along 
which rooks, under great compres- 
sion, yield, usually with the produc- 
tion of schistosity. (Century) 

Crush movement. In geology, compres- 
sion, thrust, or lateral movement 
tending to develop shattered zones. 

Crush plane. In geology, a plane de- 
fining zones of shattering which re- 
sult from lateral thrust (Century) 

Crush zone. In geology, a zone of 
faulting and breccia tion in rocks. 

Crust. 1. The hard external covering 
of anything. An incrustation. (Web- 

2. The lithosphere, or solid ex*, 
terior portion of the earth, whose 
nature is partly known from geologic 
examination, or highly probable de- 
duction; contrasted with the envel- 
oping hydrosphere and atmosphere 
and with the unknown centrosphere 
or barysphere, whose nature is con- 
jectural. (La Forge) 

3. (Shrop.) A fine-grained white 
sandstone. (Gresley* 

Crust fracture. An extended fracture 
in the earth's crust (Century) 

Crustificatlon. The English equivalent 
of a term suggested by Posepny f6r 
those deposits of minerals and ores 
that are in layers or crusts and that, 
therefore, have been distinctively de- 
posited from 'solution. (Kemp) 

Crust movement. An extensive move- 
ment of the earth's " crust. (Cen- 

Crust-stress. Local strains and pres- 
sure within the rocks of the earth's 
crust. (Century) 

Crust-torsion. A twisting stress in the 
earth's crust. (Century) 

Crutt (No. Staff.). See Branch, 1 
and 2. 

Cruz (Sp.). 1. Cross. 2. Intersection 
of two ways. 3. Arms of a scale. 

4. A wall which divides the bed of 
Spanish reverberatory furnaces. 

Cruzada (Colom.). A crosscut. 

Cruzado (Sp.). A lode or vein which 

is crossed by another. See jalso 

Cruzador. (Halse) 
Cruzador (Colom.). 1. A cross vein or 

lode. 2. A vein crossed by another. 


Cruzamiento (Sp.). LA crossing of 
underground roads. 2. A crossing 
of air currents ; an overcast. 3. The 
crossing of two veins. (Halse) 

Cry of tin. The peculiar crackling 
noise produced in bending a piece 
of metallic tin. (Raymond) 

Cryolite. A fluoride of sodium and 
alpminum, 3NaF. A1F,. (U. S. Geol. 

Cifyolite glass. A semi-transparent or 
milky-white glass, made of silica 
and cryolite with oxide of zinc, 
melted together. Also called Milk 
glass and Fusible porcelain. (Cen- 

Cryptoclastic. Compact. Made of ex- 
tremely minute fragmental par- 
ticles. (Webster) 

Cryptocrystalline. Formed of crystals 
of unresolvable fineness, but not 
glassy. (Kemp) 

Cryptographic. In petrology, having a 
graphic structure of intergrowths 
so minute that It can not be resolved 
by a microscope. ( Standard ) 

Cryptohalite. A gray ammonium flu- 
osilicate (NH^SiF., that crystal- 
lizes in the isometric system. 

Cryptoperthite. A variety of perthite 
with structure so fine that it can not 
be discerned by the microscope. 

Crys ground (Forest of Dean). 'Car- 
boniferous limestone strata contain- 
ing beds of iron ore. (Gresley) 

Crystal. A regular polyhedral form, 
bounded by planes, which is assumed 
by a chemical element or compound, 
tinder the action of its intermolecu- 
lar forces, when passing, under suit- 
able conditions, from the state of a 
liquid or gas to that of a solid. A 
crystal Is characterized, first, by its 
definite internal molecular struc- 
ture, and, second, by its external 
form. (Dana) 

Crystallized tin plate. Tin plate hav- 
ing crystals formed by the action of 
diluted nitric and hydrochloric acids 
(Standard). A rather low grade of 
tin plate. See Tin plate. 

Crystalliform. Having a crystalline 
form. (Standard) 

Crystalline. Of or pertaining to the 
nature of a crystal, having regular 
molecular structure. (Webster) 



Crystalline aggregate. An aggregate 
of crystalline grains or fragments, 
as granite not showing well-defined 
crystal forms. (Webster) 

Crystalline limestone. Limestone com- 
posed largely or wholly of crystal- 
lized material, commonly as the re- 
sult of metamorphism. (La Forge) 

Crystalline rock. A rock composed of 
closely fitting mineral crystals that 
have formed in the rock substance, 
as contrasted with one made up of 
cemented grains of sand or other 
material or with a volcanic glass. 
( Standard ) 

Crystalline schists. Rocks that have 
been entirely or partly recrystal- 
lized by metamorphism. They are 
named after their predominating 
mineral, as chlorite- schist, horn- 
blende-schist, mica-schist, etc. 

Crystallinic metamorphism. A molecu- 
lar change which renders an amor- 
phous mineral body crystalline; as 
limestone to marble. (Sloan) 

Crystallites. Small, rudimentary or 
embryonic crystals, not referable to 
a definite species. (Kemp) 

Crystallitic. In petrology, of the na-. 
ture of or belonging to the class of 
crystallites. (Standard) 

Crystallization. The act or process of 
crystallizing. A form or body re- 
sulting from this act or process. 
See Crystallization systems. (Web- 

Crystallization systems. The thirty- 
two possible crystalline groups, dis- 
tinguished from one another by their 
symmetry, are classified under six 
systems, each characterized by the 
relative lengths and inclinations 
of the assumed crystallographic 
axes. These are: (1) Isometric; 
(2) Tetragonal; (3) Hexagonal; 
(4) Orthorhombic ; (5) Moi Clinic; 
(6) Triclinic. (Dana) 

Crystallize. To convert into a crystal ; 
to deposit crystals (Webster). 
To solidify, from a liquid or gaseous 
state, in a crystalline form, with a 
regular molecular structure. (La 

Crystalloblastic. A structure in schists 
due to relative perfection of crystal 
forms and arrangement. (Leith, p. 

Crystallogeny. The science and the- 
ory of tiie production of crystals, 

Crystallography. The science of crys- 
tals treating of the system of forms 
among crystals, their structure, and 
their forms of aggregation. A dis- 
course or treatise on crystallization. 

Crystalloid. A substance which, in so- 
lution, diffuses readily through ani- 
mal membranes, lowers the freezing 
point of the solvent, and generally 
is capable of being crystallized. Op- 
posed to colloid (Webster). Metal- 
lic salts, sugar, oxalic acid are crys- 

Crystallology. The science of the 
structure of crystals. It embraces 
crystallography and crystallogeny. 

Crystallnrgy. The process of crystal- 
lization. (Century) 

Crystal optics. The science which 
treats of the transmission of light 
In crystals^ ^A. F. Rogers) 

Crystolon. A trade name for carbide 
of silicon. (Pike) 

Cuadrilla (Mex.). 1. A settlement. 
Compare Pueblo. (Lucas) 
2. A gang or crew of laborers. 

Cnadro (Sp.). 1. A,, square set for 
stopes. 2. A bloc of ground ready 
for stoping. 3. (Colom.) A bunton, 
also a timber 5 to 20 in. square. 

Cuajado (Mex.). 1. Argentiferous car- 
bonate of lead. 2. Coarse galena. 

Cuarcita (Mex.). Quartzite. (Dwight) 

Cuarteador (Colom.). The miner who 
works cuarteo, 3. (Halse) 

Cuarteadura (Mex.). A fissure in 
rocks. (Halse) 

Cuartear (Sp.). To break large stones 
with a sledge hammer. - (Halse) 

Cuartel (Colom.). 1. Barracks for 
miners. 2. An underground section, 
district or group of workings. 

Cuarteo (Colom.). 1. A transitory 
suspension of the rains in winter. 
2. A night shift of peons. 3. A sys- 
tem of working mines by which the 
ore is bought of the miners by the 
company, the miners providing the 
supplies. (Halse) 
4. (Mex.) Work on drill holes, 
paid for by the foot, yard, meter, 
etc, (Dwight) 



Cuarto. 1. (Mex.) A shift; C. pri- 
mero, day-shift; C. segundo, after- 
noon-shift; C. tercero, night-shift. 

2. (Sp.) A room in a mine for 
keeping tools, lights, etc. 3. (Mex.) 
Miner o de C. t an underground mine 
captain. 4. (Colom.) Overtime. 

Cuartdn (Mex.). A large bowlder. 

Cuarzo (Sp.). Quartz; C. ahumado, 
smoky quartz ; C. furuginoso, ferru- 
ginous quartz; C. lechoso, milky 
quartz; C. porfldico, (Peru) horn- 
stone; C. Rosado, rose quartz. 

Cuaternario ( S p . ) . Quaternary. 

Cuba (Sp.) 1. A keeve, vat 2. A 
kibble. 3. An amalgamation bar- 
rel. 4. Shaft, fire room, or tunnel 
of a blast or shaft furnace. 5. The 
fire room of a coke oven. (Halse) 

Cubanite (Cuba). A bronze-yellow 
sulphide of copper and iron mineral, 
perhaps CuFeaS* or CuS.FezSs. 

Cubbling. Breaking up pieces of -flat 
Iron to be piled or fagoted, heated 
and rolled. (Raymond) 

Cube. 1. In crystallography, a form, in 
the isometric system, inclosed by six 
similar faces each of which is per- 
pendicular to an axis. (La Forge) 
2. (Scot.) A ventilating furnace In 
a mine. (Barrowman) 

Cube coal. 1. A layer of hard green- 
ish clay found at the top of a coal 
seam in parts of Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia. It breaks readily 
into cubes of nearly perfect shape. 
Sometimes called Rooster coal. 2. 
(Eng.) Coal broken into cubes, of 
about one foot on each side, to suit 
certain trade. (Gresley) 

Cube ore (Eng.). An arsenate of iron, 
6FeAs<X2Fe(OH).+12H,0, of an 
olive-green to yellowish brown color, 
and occurring commonly in cubes 
with the copper ores of Cornwall 
and other localities. Pharmacosid- 
erlte. (Dana) 

Cube powder. Gunpowder made in 
large cubical grains and burning 
more *lowly than the small or Ir- 
regular grains. (Century) 

Ombt i par . Same as Anhydrite. 

Cnbeta (Mex.). Bucket (Dwight). 
A amall barrel or cask. 

Cubical cleavage. Equally good cleav- 
age in three mutually perpendicular 
directions. (Butler) 

Cubicite; Cubizite. Cubic zeolite, or 
analcime. (Century) 

Cubico (Sp.). Cubic. (Dwight) 

Cubic stock. Blocks of stone approxi- 
mately cubical in form as contrasted 
with thin stock or slabs. (Bowles) 

Cublerto (Sp.). 1. The bonnet of a 
safety cage. 2. The overburden of a 
placer mine. 3. The outer jacket of 
a furnace. (Halse) 

Cubilete (Sp.). A kind of shallow 
bucket for hoisting ore. (Halse) 

Cubilote (Sp.)- A cupola smelting 
furnace; a smelting pot (Halse) 

Cubo (Mex.). 1. Bucket; kibble. 2. 
The third power of a number. 

Cuchara (Peru). 1. A spoon; ladle; 
scraper. 2. A utensil made of horn, 
in which minerals are washed as a 
rough test of value. C. (Mex.) 
Blade of water wheel. (Dwight) 

Cucharilla (Mex.). An iron rod, used 
in drilling, to remove drill cuttings 
from a dry hole. (Dwight) 

Cucurucho (Mex.). A leather cover to 
protect miners at work from failing 
water or rocks. .(Dwight) 

Cuddy. 1. (Scot.) A donkey. 2. A 
lever mounted on a tripod for lift- 
ing stones, leveling up railroad ties, 
etc. (Webster) 

3. A weight mounted on wheels; a 
loaded bogie, used to counter bal- 
ance the tub or car on an In- 
clined roadway (Barrowman). Also 
spelled Cuddle. 

Cuddy brae (Scot.). An inclined road- 
way, worked in the same manner as 
a self-acting incline. (Barrowman) 

Cuele (Mex.). 1. The distance a tun- 
nel or other work is extended dur- 
ing a certain time. (Dwight) 
2. The bottom of a shaft (Halse) 

Cuenca (Mex.). I. Broad valley. 2. 
Geological basin (Dwight). C. car- 
bonifera, a coal measure or basin. 

Cuenta (Sp.). A lenticular mass of 
ore. (Halse) 

Cuerda (Sp.). 1. A cord or small 
rope. 2. (Mex.) Limits of a mining 
property. 3. (Mex.) A row of men 
who pass blocks of ore from hand 
to hand. 4. A cord of firewood. 



Cuero (Sp.)- 1. A hide, generally of 
oxen, cows, etc. (Halse) 

2. (Mex.) A leather bucket. 

Cuerpo. 1. (Peru and Mex.) An ore 
body. 2. A mass of pulp in process 
of amalgamation (Dwight) 

3. (Mex.) A globule of mercury. 

4. C. del alto, the hanging-wall 
branch of a vein; C. del mcdio, the 
center branch of a vein ; C. del bajo, 
the foot-wall branch of a vein. 5. 
C. de mineros, the personnel of a 
mine. (Halse) 

Cuesco (Mex.). Coarse ore; a re- 
cemented, fragmentary rock. 
(Dwight) ' 

Cuesta (Sp.). A sloping plain, espe- 
cially one with the upper end at the 
crest of a cliff ; a hill or ridge with 
one face -steep and the opposite face 
gently sloping. Common in South- 
western United States. (Webster) 

Cueva (Sp.). 1- A cave or grotto. 2. 
(Spain) Old Roman shafts and 
headings, sometimes full of water 
and running sand or mud. 3. 
(Colom.) Placer gravel covered by 
large blocks of granite making its 
extraction very laborious. (Halse) 

Cuffat (Fr.). A vessel consisting of 
a shallow tub fitted with 4 wheels 
and attached to chains at the sides 
for hoisting coal. The coal is piled 
in a conical form and kept from fall- 
ing off by iron rings placed one 
above another. (Gresley) 

Cui (Fr. Guiana). A hemispherical 
vessel made of tin plate, used in 
draining placers. (Halse) 

Cuillcr '(Fr.). A long, wrought-iron, 
cylindrical bucket in which waste 
from shaft sinking is brought to 
the surface. (Gresley) 

Cuinage (Eng.). The official stamp- 
ing of pigs of tin for market 
(Standard). A corruption of coin- 

Culbuteur (Belg.). A dumping appa- 
ratus vrhich turns completely over, 
or around, when emptying cars. 

Culet. The small, lower terminus, of 
a brilliant-cut gem, parallel to the 
table. (Standard) 

Culm. 1. (Eng.) Anthracite. (Welsh) 
A kind of coal, of indifferent quality, 
burning with a .small flame, 
and emitting a disagreeable odor. 

2. (Penn.) The waste or slack of the 
Pennsylvania anthracite mines, con- 

sisting of fine coal, more or less pure, 
and coal dust and dirt (Raymond) 
3. In the usage of many European 
authors, the Lower Carboniferous or 
Dinantian series of the Carbonifer- 
ous system of rocks in western 
Europe, especially where consisting 
largely of siliceous beds with little 
limestone (La Forge). Called in 
Ireland, Calp. 

Culm bank; Culm dump. A heap or 
pile of waste kept separate from the 
rock and slate dumps. See Culm, 2. 

Culm bar. A peculiar bar used in 
grates designed for burning culm 
or slack coal. (Century) 

Culmiferous. Containing culm, as 
coal. (Standard) 

Culmophyre. A rock in which the 
phenocrysts are arranged in clus- 
ters or irregular groups. (Iddings, 
p. 224) 

Culo (Sp.). The lower or inner part 
of a drill hole. (Halse) 

Cumberlandite. A name derived from 
Cumberland Hill, R. I., proposed by 
Wadsworth for the ultra-basic, ig- 
neous rocks, forming the hill. It is 
an aggregate of titaniferous magne- 
tite, plagioclase, olivine and sec- 
ondary minerals, but contains from 
40-45 per cent iron oxides and 
about 10 per cent TiO a . (Kemp) 

Cumberland method of mining. See 
Top slicing and cover caving. Also 
Top slicing combined with ore cav- 

Cumbre (Sp.). Top or summit of a 
mountain or hill. (Halse) 

Cumene. A hydrocarbon, GH 12 , first 
found by De la Rue and Muller in 
Rangoon oil. (Mitzakis) 

Cumulates. Vogelsang's name for 
spherulitic aggregates of globules. 

Cumulose deposits. Peat, muck and 
swamp soils in part. (Watson) 

Cuna (Sp.). A cradle used in gold 
washing. (Halse) 

Cuna. 1. (Sp.) A wedge or gad. 2. 
(Sp.) A "horse" of ground. 3. 
(Colom.) Pillars left in stopes for 
supporting the main levels. (Halse) 

Cundy; Cundie. 1. (Scot) The spaces 
from which coal has been worked 
out, partly filled with dirt and rub- 
bish between the packs (Gresley). 
See Goaf. 

2. (Aust. ) The passage under a 
roadway into which an endless rope 



passes out of the way at the end 
of its track. Also called Conduct 
(Power). A variation o f Conduit. 

Cuneta (Sp.). 1. A small trench. 2. 
The drain or gutter of an adit level 
or gangway. (Halse) 

Cup-and-cone. A machine for charg- 
ing a shaft furnace, consisting of an 
iron hopper with a large central 
opening, which is closed by a cone 
or bell, pulled up into it from below. 
In the annular space around this 
cone, the ore, fuel, etc., are placed ; 
then the cone is lowered to drop the 
materials into the furnace; after 
which it is again raised to close the 
hole. ( Raymond ) 

Cupel. A small, shallow, porous cup, 
especially of bone ash: used in as- 
saying to separate precious metals 
from lead, etc. ; also a larger form 
for commercial refining. (Webster) 

Cupel dust. A powder used in purify- 
ing metals ; also called Coppel dust. 

Cupellation. 1. The treatment on a 
hearth or cupel (usually formed of 
bone ash) of an alloy of lead, gold, 
and silver, by means of fusion and 
an air blast, which oxidizes the 
lead to litharge, and removes it in 
liquid form, or absorbs it in the 
cupel. (Raymond) 
2. As applied to lead smelting, it is 
the final separation of lead and 
.silver, and consists in melting and 
heating in a reverberatory furnace 
argentiferous lead with access of 
air to the temperature at which 
litharge forms on its surface. (Hof- 
man, p. 506) 

Cupola (Sp.). A cupelling furnace. 

Cupola. 1. A shaft furnace with a 
blast, for remelting metals, prepara- 
tory to casting. Sometimes incor- 
rectly pronounced and written Cu- 
pelo. (Raymond) 

2. The offtake for smoke and return 
air erected at or near to the top of 
the upcast shaft. (Gresley) 

3. A domical-shaped projection of 
igneous material from a batholith. 
Many stocks are cupolas on batno- 
liths. (Daly, p. 102) 

4. A circular kiln, with a domed 
roof, used for burning brick. (Web- 

Cupola furnace. A shaft furnace built 
more slightly than the ordinary 
blast furnace, and usually of fire 
brick, hooped or cased with iron. 

It is chiefly used for remelting cast- 
iron 16r foundry purposes. (Cen- 
tury). See Cupola, 1. 

Cupriferous. Copper-bearing. The 
Nipigon or Keweenawan formation. 

Cuprita (Sp.). The mineral cuprite. 

Cuprite. Native red copper oxide, 
Cu 2 O. Contains 88.8 per cent cop- 
per. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Cuproapatite. A variety of apatite 
from Chile containing copper. 

Cuprotungstite. A tungsten-bearing 
mineral, CuWO 4 +2H 2 O, also (CaCu) 
WO,+2H a O. Its composition is vari- 
able, and it may easily be mistaken 
for some mineral of the epidote 

Cuprous. Of, pertaining to, or con- 
taining copper. (Webster) 

Cuprum. Copper ; the chemical symbol 

is Cu. 
Cupula, cupola (Sp.). The cap or 

dome of a reverberatory furnace; 

steam- dome of a boiler, etc. ( Halse ) 

Curador (Mex.) A guardian of prop- 
erty; trustee. (Dwight) 

Curb. 1. A timber frame, circular or 
square, wedged in a shaft to make 
a foundation for walling or tubbing, 
or to support, with or without other 
timbering, the walls of the shaft. 

2. The heavy frame or sill at the 
top of a shaft. (Steel) 

3. In tunnel construction a ring of 
brickwork or of cast iron, at the 
base of a shaft, surmounting a cir- 
cular orifice in the roof of the tun- 
nel. A Drum-curb, is a flat ring of 
cast iron for supporting the brick- 
work, having the same diameter ex- 
ternally as the shaft of brickwork. 
Temporary curbs of oak are also 
used. (Simms) 

4. An iron border to the incorporat- 
ing bed of a gunpowder mill. 5. An 

. iron casing in which to ram loam 
molds for casting. 6. The walls of 
a chamber in which sulphuric acid 
is made. (Webster) 

Curbing. See Curb, 1; Crib, Cribbing 
and Back-casing. 

Curb tubbing (Eng.). Solid wood tub- 
bing. (Gresley) 

Curf (Som.). The floor of an under- 
ground road wl ich is being taken 
up. See also Canch. (Gresley) 



Curl (Ecuador). Gold, hence theX3u- 
raray river. (Halse) 

Curie point. The temperature lying 
above the red heat, at which cer- 
tain bodies, such as, iron, nickel, 
magnetite, etc., lose the property of 
ferronmgnetism and become para- 
magnetic. (Webster) 

Curie's law. The law, established by 
Pierre Curie, that magnetic suscep- 
tibility is inversely proportional to 
the absolute temperature. (Web- 

Curley cannel (Eng.). Cannel coal 
which breaks with a conchoidal or 
curly fracture. (Gresley) 

Curlstone (Shrop). Ironstone exhibit- 
ing cone-in-cone formation. (Gres- 

Curly shale. 1. (Scot.) A Pumpher- 
ston oil shale. Its thickness is about 
6 ft., and it yields 20 gal. of crude 
oil and from 60 to 70 Ib. of ammo- 
nium sulphate per ton. (Bacon) 
2. (U. S.) Any folded and distorted 
oil shale. 

Current. 1. A body of fluid moving 
continuously in a certain direction, 
as a current of water or air. 2. A 
movement of electricity analogous 
to the motion of a stream of water 
or other liquid. (Webster) 

Current bedding. See False bedding. 

Current density. The amount of elec- 
tric current per unit of cross-section 
area of the conductor, at any part 
of the circuit. (Webster) 

Current meter. 1. An instrument, as 
a galvanometer, for measuring the 
strength of an electric current. 

2. Any instrument for measuring 
the velocity force, etc., of currents. 

Curry pit (Leic.). A hole sunk from 
an upper to a lower portion of a 
thick seam of coal through which 
the return air passes from the stalls 
to the airway. (Gresley) 

Curtain. A sheet of brattice cloth 
hung across an entry .in such a way 
that it prevents the passage of the 
air current but does not hinder the 
passage of mules or mine cars. 

Curtain of coal (West Penn.). A thin 
pillar left in lieu of timbers for 
support. It also has the advantage 
of being a permanent wall and thus 
assists in directing ventilation. 

Curtir (Sp.). The operation of add- 
ing lime to warm ores, or magistral 
to cold ores in amalgamation. (Min. 
Jour. ) , 

Curva (Mex.) Curve. (Dwight) 

Cuselite. Rosenbusch's name for a 
peculiar variety of augite-porphy- 
rite from Cusel, in the Saar basin. 
Germany. (Kemp) 

Cushioned hammer. A power-hammer 
striking a cushioned blow. (Stand- 

Cut. 1. To intersect a vein or work- 
ing. 2. To excavate coal. (Ray- 

3. To shear one side of an entry or 
crosscut by digging out the coal 
from floor to roof with a pick 
( Steel ) . See also Undercut, 1. 

4 (Som.). A staple or drop-pit, 
whijch see. 5. ( Scot. ) . See Buttock. 

6. (Eng.). The depth to which a 
drill hole is put in for blasting. 

7. A term applied where the cutting 
machine has cut under the coal to 
a depth of five feet and for a width 
of fifteen feet. (Stratton v. North- 
east Coal Co., 164 Kentucky, p. 302) 

Cut chain (Scot.). A system of work- 
ing underground self-acting inclined 
planes from several different levels, 
by means of chains of various 
lengths which are regulated accord- 
ing to the level from which coal is 
lowered. (Gresley) 

Cut-chain brae (Scot). An incline on 
which cut chains are used. (Bar- 
rowman ) 

Cut coal (Scot). In stoop-and-room 
working, coal cut on two sides 
where two rooms at right angles to 
each other just meet (Barrow- 

Cut holes. The first round of holes 
"fired in a tunnel or shaft (Du 
Pont). They are so placed as to 
force out a cone-shaped core in the 
center of a heading, and relieve the 
burden on the second round of shots. 

Cut-off. 1. A quarryman's term for the 
direction along which the granite 
must be channeled, because it will 
not split. Same as Hard way. (Per- 

2. The new and relatively short 
channel formed when a stream cuts 
through the neck of an oxbow. 3. 
The act of shutting off the admis- 
sion of steam to an engine ; also the 
mechanism for effecting this cut-off 
at the proper point in the cycle. 

4. See Cut-off entry. 



Cut-off entry. An entry driven to in- 
tersect another and furnish a more 
convenient outlet for the coal. Also 
called Cut-off. See Entry^ (Steel) 

Cut-out. 1. (Forest of Dean). See 
Crutt or Branch, 1. 2. (Eng.) A 
fault which dislocates a seam of 
.coal more than its entire thickness. 

8. A device for cutting out a por- 
tion of an electric circuit, generally 
including a fuse designed to melt 
when the current exceeds a certain 
strength. A circuit breaker. (Web- 

Cut-over (Mid.). To cut a seam of 
coal in a long-wall working, over or 
beyond the first joint or cleat. 

Cuts (Scot). Strips of coal worked 
off the sides of pillars (Gresley). 
Also called Slices, or Skips. 

Cut shot. A shot designed to bring 
down coal which has been sheared 
or opened on one side. (Barrow- 

Cutter. 1. A term employed in speak- 
ing of any coal-cutting or rock-cut- 
ting machine; the men operating 
them, or the men engaged in under- 
holing by pick or drill. (Steel) 

2. (Scot.) A fissure or natural 
crack in strata. (Gresley) 

3. A joint, usually a dip joint, run- 
ning in the direction of working 
(Webster). Usually in the plural. 

4. (Mt. Pleasant, Tenn.) An open- 
ing in limestone, enlarged from 
cracks as fissures, by solution, which 
is filled by clay and usually con- 
tains valuable quantities of brown 
phosphate rock. (W. G. Phalen, 
mineral technologist, U. S. Bur. 

5. A crack in a crystal which de- 
stroys or lessens its value as a lapi- 
dary's stone. (Century) 

Cutter bar. That part of a chain min- 
ing machine that supports the cut- 
ting chain and extends under the 
coal. (Harr) 

Cuttery (Scot.). Much intersected 
with joints or fissures, e. g., cuttery 
sandstone. ( Bar rowman ) 

Cut-through. 1. (No. Staff.). An 
opening between headings every 18 
to 20 yards in mines having a steep 
inclination. See also Dip, 3 and 4. 

t. (Aust). A connection between 
bords, used for ventilation and trav- 
eling purposes. (Power) 

Cutting. 1. (Eng.) The end or side 
of a stall next to the solid coal 
where the coal is cut with a pick in 
a vertical line to facilitate breaking 
down. Channeling. (Gresley) 

2. The opening made by shearing or 
cutting. (Steel) 

3. Low-grade ore or refuse obtained 
from dressing ore. 4- The opera- 
tion of making openings across a 
coal seam as by channeling, or be- 
neath a coal seam as by undercut- 

Cutting box. A box into which dia- 
mond dust falls when the diamonds 
which are cemented into the cutter 
and setter are rubbed against each 
other. (Century) 

Cutting chain. The sprocket chain 
which carries the steel points used 
for undermining the coal with chain 
mining-machines. ( Steel ) 

Cutting down. The trimming of shaft 
walls to increase its sectional area. 
(C. and M. M. P.) 

Cutting shot (Ark.). A shot put in 
beside a cutting so as to blast some 
coal into it and to shatter the coal 
beyond for aid in making the next 
cutting. See also Shot. (Steel) 

Cut-up (Scot.). An excessive roof 
fall leaving a large open space 
above. (Gresley) 

Cuvelage (Fr.). Same as Tubbing. 

Cuvette. 1. (Fr.) A bowl or basin of 
pottery or china; a flat-bottomed 
piece containing a water pot. 2. 
The vessel in which molten glass is 
received from the refining-pot and 
borne to the table for casting and 
rolling. (Standard) 

Cuyuna. The name of an iron range 
in Minnesota. It is composed of the 
syllables, "Cuy" and "Una", the 
former being a contraction of the 
given name of Cuyler Adams who 
was active in the early development 
of that territory, and the last syl- 
lable is the name of his dog "Una" 

Cwt. An abbreviation for a hundred- 
weight, or J.12 pounds avoirdupois. 

Cyanamid. A trade name for a mate- 
rial containing about 50 per cent 
true cyanamide (CH 2 N 2 ), and 25 per 
cent calcium hydroxide. Commer- 
cial cyanamld is made by passing 
nitrogen over a heated mass of cal- 
cium carbide (CaCa) and contains 
35.0 per cent nitrogen. 



Cyanamide. A white crystalline com- 
pound (CHaNa) formed by the action 
of cyanogen chloride on ammonia. 

Cyanidation. 1. Conversion of gold 
Into a double cyanide of potassium 
and gold by the action of cyanide 
of potassium (Duryee). See Cya- 
nide process. 2. The act or proc- 
ess of cyaniding. (Webster) 

Cyanide. 1. A compound of cyanogen 
with an element or radical. 2. To 
treat with cyanide (Webster). Po- 
tassium and sodium cyanides are 
used in the extraction of gold. 

Cyanide mill. A mill in which the 
cyanide process is carried on. 

Cyanide process. A process for the 
extraction of gold from finely 
crushed ores, concentrates and tail- 
ings by means of cyanide of potas- 
ium used in dilute solutions. The 
gold is dissolved by the solution and 
subsequently deposited upon metal- 
lic zinc or by other means. (Skin- 
ner). See also McArthur and Forest 

Cyanite; DUthene. A mineral indenti- 
cal in chemical composition with an- 
daluslte afcd sillimanite, AlaO,.SiO,, 
but di,tertng in crystal form. Gen- 
erally in flat-bladed pieces. Some- 
times used as a gem. (U. S. Geol. 
Surv.) Also spelled Kyanite. 

Cyanogen. 1. A univalent radical, CN, 
composed of carbon and nitrogen, 
present in hydrocyanic acid and the 
cyanides. 2. A colorless, poisonous 
gas, (CN) 2 , with an odor like that 
of peach leaves. (Webster) 

Cyanotype. A simple method of pro- 
ducing photographs, usually blue in 
color, by the use of paper, linen or 
the like, coated with certain com- 
pounds of cyanogen and iron. Also 
a print so obtained. It is used for 
copying maps and charts. (Web- 

Cyanuret. A former name for cyanide. 

Cyclic. Applied to any action or pro- 
cess that after going through a cer- 
tain course, or accomplishing a defi- 
nite order of .changes, begins again 
the same course or order, and so on 
indefinitely until some new influence 
stops or changes the action. (Ran- 

Cyclic twin. Composed of parts whlcli 
appear to have been alternately re- 
volved 180 upon non-parallel twin- 
ning planes. The varieties with 
names are trillings, fourlings, ix- 
lings and eightlings. (Butler) 

Cylinder metal. Cast iron alloyed 
with two or more per cent of man- 
ganese and possessing a low coeffi- 
cient of friction when highly pol- 
ished. Used for engine cylinders. 

Cymogene. A product obtained by the 
redistillation of American petro- 
leum (Mitzakis). Usually nearly 
pure butane. 

Cymophane. A synonym for Cat's-eye. 

Cyprine. A variety of vesuvianite or 
idocrase, of a blue tint, which is 
supposed to be due to copper. (Cen- 

Cyrtolite. A yellowish to brownish 
mineral containing zirconia, yttria, 
ceria, and other rare earths. 
Found in pegmatites. (U. S. Geol. 


Dacite. A vitrophyric or felsophyric, 
generally volcanic, igneous rock, 
containing essential plagioelase and 
quartz, with or without hornblende 
and biotite or both ; quartz andesite. 
(La Forge) 

Backer (Eng.). Insufficient ventila- 
tion of a mine (Bainbridge). Dead 

Dacker of wind (Derb.). Poor venti- 
lation in a mine. (Hooson) 

Dad (No. of Eng.). In coal mining, to 
mix (fire damp) with atmospheric 
air to such an extent that the mix- 
ture is incapable of exploding 
(Century). Also called Dash. 

Dado (Sp.). 1. Die of a stamp mill. 
2. A stone on which a horse whim 
(malacate) works. (Halse) 

Dag (Aust). A system whereby the 
earnings of members of the Coal- 
miners' Federation are practically- 
equalized. (Power). Compare 

Dagger (Ark.). A T-shaped iron- 
about 4 feet long, used to force an" 
auger into hard coal. The point is 
placed in a hole dug in the floor 
while the miner drilling the hole 
presses his breast against the cross- 
bar. The end of the auger fits into 
any one of a number of recesses in 
the stem of the dagger. (Steel) 



Dagh (Turkey). Hill; mountain. 

Dagner condenser. A series of muffle- 
shaped pipes through which dis- 
tilled zinc is passed for condensa- 
tion. (Ingalls, p. 551) 

Dahamite. A name derived from Da- 
hamis, a place on the island of So- 
cotra, and given by A. Pelikan to a 
dike rock of brown color, compact 
texture with red phenocrysts of 
tabular albite or albite-oligoclase. 
The mineralogical composition as 
shown by recasting an analysis is 
albite, 43.8; anorthite, 2.8; ortho- 
clase, 12.2; quartz, 31.5; riebeckite, 
6.8. The rock appears to be a va- 
-riety of paisanite. (Kemp) 

Daily feport. See Boring Journal. 
Dalama (Zambesi). Qold. (Lock) 

Dale. 1. (Scot.) A measure by which 
coal was formerly sold in the east 
of Scotland. (Barrowman) 
2. A low place between hills; a val- 
ley. (Webster) 

Dalton's law (multiple proportions). 
If two elements A and B form sev- 
eral compounds with each other, and 
we consider any fixed mass of A, 
then the different masses of B which 
combine with the fixed mass A bear 
a simple ratio to one another (Lid- 
dell). Thus, iron and oxygen unite 
in the proportion FeO, Fe z O* and 
FesO*. in which compounds (consider- 
ing the oxygen) 3 and 4 are simple 
multiples of one. 

Dam. 1. A barrier to keep foul air, 
or water, from mine workings 
(Davies). See Stopping; also Bulk- 

2. The wall of refractory material, 
forming the front of the fore-hearth 
of a blast furnace. It is built on 
the inside of a supporting iron plate 
( dam plate ) . Iron is tapped through 
a hole in the dam, and cinder 
through a notch in the top of the 
dam. See also Lurmann front. 

Dama (Sp.). A dam or stone at the 
end of a fire hearth of a furnace. 

Damaged-ground rent (Eng.). Usually 
double agricultural rent for land oc- 
cupied by engines, heapstead, shops, 
houses, railways, etc. (G. C. Green- 

Damask. The etched or "watered" 
surface produced on polished 
(welded) steel, by corrosion. (Ray- 

Damourite. A hydrous Muscovite. 

Damourite-schist. A schistose meta- 
morphic rock composed largely or 
wholly of damourite. It comprises 
much of what was formerly called 
hydromica schist. (La Forge) 

Damp. A general term for gaseous 
products formed in coal mines, etc., 
as distinguished from pure air. See 
also Afterdamp ; Black damp; Choke 
damp; Fire damp; Stink damp; 
White damp. 

Damped (Eng,). Suffocated by gas 
or foul air in a mine. (Gresley) 

Damper. A valve in a flue or at the 
top of chimney to regulate the draft. 

Dam plate. In a blast furnace, the 
cast-iron plate which supports the 
dam or dam stone in front (Cen- 
tury). See Dam, 2. 

Damposcope (Scot). An instrument 
invented by Professor Forbes, Glas- 
gow, for detecting fire damp. (De- 
scribed in Trans. Min. Inst. Scot- 
land, vol. 1, p. 278.) (Barrow- 

Damp sheet (So. Staff.). A large -sheet 
placed as a curtain or partition 
across a gate road to stop and turn 
an air current. (Raymond) 

Dampy (Mid.). Mine air mixed with 
so much carbonic acid gas as to, 
cause the lights to .burn badly or 
to go out. (Gresley) 

Dam shale. A Scottish oil shale. 

Dam stone. The wall of fire brick or 
stone Inclosing the front of the 
hearth in a blast furnace. See also 
Dam, 2. (Century) 

Dan. 1. (Mid.). A tub or barrel, 
sometimes with and sometimes with- 
out wheels, in which mine water is 
conveyed along underground road- 
ways to the sump or raised to the 
surface. 2. A small box or sledge 
for carrying coal or waste in a mine. 

Danalite. A flesh-red to gray translu- 
cent sulpho-sillcate, (Be, Fe, Zn,- 
Mn)iSiOS, mineral, usually mas- 
sive but sometimes crystallizing in 
the isometric system. (Standard) 

Danbnrite. A pale-yellow to colorless, 
vitreous, translucent to transparent, 
calcium boro-silicate mineral, CaBj- 
(SiO)t, crystallizing in the ortho- 
rhombic system. (Dana) 



Dander (Scot). A piece of slag, vit- 
rified refuse, or calcined cinder. 

Pandered coal (Scot.). Coal burned 
by, and generally mixed with trap 
rock (Barrowman). See also Nat- 
ural coke. 

Danforth's oil. See Naptha. 

Danger board (Scot.). A board on 
which notice is given, warning 
against entering a dangerous part of 
the mine workings (Barrowman). 
See also Fire board. 

Danger signal. A signal consisting of 
a board, shovel, or other material 
with appropriate markings thereon, 
placed in the front of a room or 
entry containing an explosive mix- 
ture of fire damp.. (Roy). Also, a 
placard to indicate the location of 
dangerous machinery, electric wires, 
explosives, mine openings, etc. 

Danks. Black shale mingled with fine 
coal. (Standard) 

Danks' puddler. A revolving mechani- 
cal puddler. See also Puddling. 

Dant. 1. (Newc.) Soft, inferior coal ; 
mineral charcoal. (Raymond) 
2. To reduce, as a metal, to a lower 
temperature. (Standard) 

Danty (No. of Eng.). Disintegrated 
coal. (Gresley) 

Dap. A notch cut in a timber to re- 
ceive another timber. (C. M. P.) 

Daiapskite. A hydrous sodium nitrate 
and sulphate mineral, NaNOa.NazSOh- 
+H,O. (Dana) 

Dar cuele (Mex.). To drive a level. 

Darg. 1. (No. of Eng.) A specified 
quantity or weight of mineral 
agreed by the managers and men to 
be produced during a shift for a 
certain sum of money. (Gresley) 

2. (Scot.) To work by the day. 

3. A days' labor; toil. 4. See Dag. 

Darger (Scot). One who works by 
the day. (Standard) 

Dark rnby silver. See Pyrargyrite. 

Darrlinge (Ger.). Residue of copper 
resulting from the process of sepa- 
rating silver froip copper by liqua- 
tion. (Whitney) 

Dash (No. of Eng.). See Dad: 

Dashing (Eng.). Increasing the 
amount of air in mines to prevent 
explosions of mine gases. (Bain- 
bridge). See also Dad, 

Dash pot. 1. A device for cushioning 
or damping a movement to avoid 
shock, consisting essentially of a 
cylinder containing air or a liquid 
and a piston moving in it. 2. A de- 
vice for closing the valves on a Cor- 
liss engine, actuated by atmospheric 
pressure or a spring. (Webster) 

Dass. 1. (Scot). A slice or cut taken 
off a pillar in stoping. (Barrow- 

2. A stratum. 3. To work in or cut 
out layers from the face of a cliff. 
A variation of Dess. (Webster) 

Datalling (Eng.). Blowing (blasting) 
down roof in a mine. (Gresley) 

Datlers (Lane.). Men who work un- 
derground, and are paid by the day; 
not contractors. (Gresley) 

Datolite. A hydrous silicate of boron 
and calcium, H 2 O.2CaO.B 2 O3.2SiO 2 . 
The mineral is used as a gem. (U. 
S. Geol. Surv.) 

Datolite group. A group of minerals, 
the species of which are usually re- 
garded as orthosilicates, HR'R"SiO6, 
or R'sR'VSiO.)*; R'= Ca, Be, Fe, 
chiefly; R" Boron, the yttrium 
(and cerium) metals, etc. All of the 
minerals of this group crystallize in 
the monoclynic system. (Dana) 

Datum. 1. Any position or element in 
relation to which others are deter- 
mined, as datum point ; datum line ; 
datum plane. 2. The mean low- 
water mark of all tides, assumed as 
a base of reckoning. (Webster) 

Datum level. The level (usually sea 
level or mean level of nearest con- 
siderable body of water) from which 
altitudes are measured in surveys. 

Datum water Uvei. The level at which 
water is first struck in a shaft. (C. 
and M. M. P.) 

Daugh (Scot). Soft fire clay asso- 
ciated with a seam of coal, and in 
which the holing is usually made. 

Dauk; Dawk; Douk (Eng.). Tough; 
compact; sandy cTay. (Power) 

Davis furnace. A long, one-hearth re- 
verberatory furnace, heated by lat- 
eral fireplaces for roasting sulphide 
ore. (Ingalls, p. 97) 

Davy; Davy lamp. A safety lamp In- 
vented by Sir Humphrey Davy in 
1815 for "the protection of coal 
miners. Its safety feature consisted 
of a fine-wire gauze inclosing the 
flame to keep it from coming in con- 
tact with mine gas. 



Davy man (Newc.). The man who 
trims and repairs the Davy lamps. 
(Min. Jour.) 

Bawling (Derb.). A failing ore body, 
both in quality and quantity. (Hoo- 

Dawsonite. A basic carbonate of alu- 
minium and sodium, NaAl(CO*)s. 
2Al(OII)s, mineral occurring in thin 
incrustations of white radiating 
bladed crystals. (Dana) 

Dawson producer. A furnace used for 
the manufacture of producer gas. 
(Ingalls, p. 305) 

Day. 1. A term used to signify the 
surface; thus, "driven to day," 
meaning to daylight, therefore to 
the surface. (Chance) 
8. (Wales) The surface of the 
ground over a mine. Day level, 
An adit. Day water Water from 
the surface. ( Raymond ) 
3. (Derb.) Ore that is found near 
the surface. (Mander) 

Day-coal. The upper stratum of coal ; 
as nearest the light or surface. 

Day drift. A drift with one end at 
the surface (Webster). An adit. 

Day eyes (Wales). Inclined planes 
driven from the surface to the coal 
bed. (Gresley) 

Day fall. See also Crop fall. 

Day hole. Any heading or level in a 
mine communicating with the sur- 
face. (Century) 

Day level (Scot). A level driven 
from the surface (Barrowman). 
An adit. 

Daylight mine (Scot.). A mine or 
drift extending to the surface. 

Day man. A coal mine employee paid 
by the day as distinguished from 
those paid by the piece, or by con- 
tract. Also called Company man. 

Day pair (Corn.).* Miners who work 
underground during the day 
(Pryce). The day shift. 

Day shift. A group of miners, or other 
laborers, who work during the day. 

Bay itone (Eng.). A rock lying ex- 
posed in its natural state. (Web- 

Day water. Surface water. < Web- 

Daywork. All work other than that 
done by the piece or contract, such 
as repairing roads, handling can, 
etc. Also called Company work and 
does not include work for which the 
men are paid by the month (Steel). 
Work performed by day men. 

Dead. 1. (Corn.) Unventilated. 2. 
As to a vein or piece of ground, un- 
productive. (Raymond) 
3. (Eng.). The creep, after sub- 
sidence or upheaval has taken place 
to the full extent. (Oresley) 

Dead air. The air of a mine when it 
contains carbonic-acid gas (black 
damp), or when ventilation is slug- 
gish. (Stewart) 

Dead coal (Kansas). A noncoking 
coal mined from strip pits and used, 
for zinc smelting. (Stewart) 

Dead-dipping. The act or process of 
imparting a dead, or dull, surface 
to brass or other metal by dipping 
It in an acid. (Webster) 

Dead end. An entry, gangway, level, 
or other mine passage extending be- 
yond the mine workings into solid 
coal or ore ; a stub. See Stub entry. 

Dead end (of a pipe). The closed end 
of a pipe or system of pipes. (Nat. 
Tube Co.) 

Deadened mercury. See Floured. 

Deadfall. A dumping platform at the 
mouth of a mine. (Standard) 

Dead glacier. A stagnant glacier; a 
fossil glacier. (Century) 

Dead ground. 1. Rock in a mine, 
which, although producing no ore, 
requires to be removed in order to- 
get at productive ground. (Roy, 

2. A faulty or barren area of coal 
strata. (Gresley) 

Deadhead. 1. An extra length given 
to a cast object, as a cannon, to put 
pressure on the molten metal below 
so that dross and gases may rise 
into it; a sullage piece; a sinking- 
head. 2. That part of a casting fill- 
ing up the ingate; a sprue. (Stand- 

Dead hole. A shallow hole in an iro 
casting. (Standard) 

Beading (Glouc., Som.). Same as 

Dead-line. A row of marked empty 
powder kegs or other danger signal 
placed by the fire boss to warn 
miners not to enter workings con- 
taining gas. (Steel) 



Dead lode. A lode not containing valu- 
able minerals in paying quantity. 

Deadman. 1. A buried log, or the like, 
serving as an anchor, as for a guy 
rope. (Webster) 

2. A wooden block used to guard the 
mputh of a mine against runaway 
cars. ( Connors- Weyman Steel Co. 
v. Kilgore, 66 Southern, p. 612) 

Dead mens' graves (Aust.). Grave- 
like mounds in the basalt underly- 
ing auriferous gravels. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Dead oil. A name given to those prod- 
ucts of distillation consisting of 
carbolic acid, naphthalin, etc., ob- 
tained in the distillation of coal tar, 
which are heavier than water and 
which come off at about 340 F., or 
over. (Century) 

Dead-plate. A nearly horizontal iron 
plate, at -the mouth of the furnace, 
under a steam boiler, on which the 
bituminous coal charges are laid to 
be partly coked before they are 
pushed upon the grate where their 
solid carbon is consumed. The gases 
evolved on the dead-plate pass over 
the grate and are burned. (Ray 

Dead quartz. Quartz carrying no valu- 
able mineral. (Ihlseng) 

Dead rent. A 'certain, fixed, or mini- 
mum rent paid at specified times by 
a lessee, whether the mine is worked 
or not. (Vandalia Coal Co. v. Un- 
derwood, 111 N. B. Kept, p. 330; 
New York Coal Co. v. New Pitts- 
burgh Coal Co., 99 N. E. Kept, 198) 

Dead riches. Base bullion. (Miller) 

Dead roast. Roasting carried to the 
farthest practicable degree in the 
expulsion of sulphur. (Raymond) 

Dead rock. The material removed in 
the opening of a mine, that is of no 
value for milling purposes. Waste 
rock. (Duryee) 

Dead rope (Aust.). Same as Buffer 

Deads. 1. (Corn.) The waste rock, 
packed in excavations from which 
ore or coal has been extracted. 

2. The barren rock which incloses 
the ore on every side. The wall 

Dead small (No. of Eng.). The small- 
est coal which passes through the 
screening or separating apparatus. 

Dead-stroke hammer. A power ham- 
mer striking an uncushioned or in- 
elastic blow. (Standard) 

Dead water. Standing or still water, 

Dead weight. The unrelieved weight 
of anything inert A heavy or op- 
pressive burden. (Webster) 

Deadwork. Work that is not directly 
productive, though it may be neces- 
sary for -exploration and future 
production (Raymond). Unfinished 

Deaf ore. (Derb.). Gouge containing 
small grains of valuable mineral. 
Considered as indicating that the 
main orebody is not far away, 

Deal. 1. Plank used in shaft and gal' 
lery construction. (Raymond) 
2. A board or plank of varying di- 
mensions. In Canada it is a board 
12 feet long, 11 inches wide and 2$ 
inches thick; in England, a board 
not exceeding 3 inches thick and 9 
inches wide. (Standard) 

Deal-end (Eng.). A plank less than* 
6 feet long, (Standard) 

Dean (Corn.). The end of a leveL 

Debacle. 1. A great rush of waters,. 
which, breaking down all opposing 
barriers, carries forward the broken 
fragments of rocks, and spreads 
them in its course. (Comstock) 
2. The breaking up of ice in a 
stream. A violent dispersion or dis- 
ruption. (Webster) 

De Bavay process. A flotation process 
invented by Auguste J. F. De Bavay 
in 1904, in which a freely flowing 
pulp is brought to the surface of a 
vessel of water, where advantage is 
taken of the surface tension of the 
liquid, and the sulphide floated. A 
film of carbonate on the sulphide, 
from weathering, is detrimental, 
and is removed by soaking the ore 
in a weak solution of carbonate of 
ammonia, or by passing carbon di- 
oxide through the pulverized wet 
ore, or by friction. In the original 
process no oil or acid was jused. 
Later these were also used. (Lid- 

D6bil (Mex.). Weak; a term applied 
to amalgam when very fluid. (Eg- 

Debris. Rock fragments, sand, earth, 
and sometimes organic matter, in 
a heterogeneous mass, as at the foot 



of a cliff. 2. The silt, sand; and 
gravel that flow from hydraulic 
mines; called in miner's parlance, 
tailings, slums, and sometimes 
slickens. See also Tailings. (Hanks. 
Also U. S. Min. Stat, p. 940) 

D6bris deposits. Refuse from hydrau- 
lic mining operations. (U. S. Min. 
Stat, p. 933-945) 

Decantation. The act of pouring off 
a liquid so as not to disturb a sedi- 
ment or precipitate. (Webster) 

Decanter. 1. A vessel used to decant 
liquors or for receiving decanted 
liquors, as in a laboratory. (Web- 

2. An apparatus for sorting and 
classifying tailings from gold-wash- 
ing operations. 

Deck. The platform of a cage upon 
which the cars and men ride. Cages 
are occasionally made with two, 
three, or four decks. (Gresley) 

Decken structure. A series of great 
overthrust folds with nearly parallel 
and horizontal axial planes. (Lieth, 
P. 117) 

Decking. The operation of changing 
the tubs on a cage at top and bot- 
tom of a shaft. Caging. (Gresley) 

Deck molding. Trimming made to 
match cresting or ridging, on clay- 
tiled roofs, and used for the purpose 
of covering the planes of a roof 
which has a flat deck. (Hies) 

Declaratory statement. In practical 
mining operations, a term applied 
to the statutory certificate of loca- 
tion and is a notice or statement of 
the location, containing a descrip- 
tion of the mining claim, verified 
by the oath of the locator, perform- 
ing, when recorded, a permanent 
function, and is the beginning of the 
locator's paper title, is the first 
muniment of such title and is con- 
structive notice to all the world of 
its contents. (Gird v. California 
Oil Co., 60 Fed. Kept., p. 536; Pe- 
ters v. Tonopah Min. Co., 120 Fed. 
Kept., p. 589; Magruder v. Oregon, 
etc., R. Co., 28 Land Decisions, p. 
IT'*; Pollard v. Shively, 5 Colorado, 
p. 312 ; Metcalf v. Prescott, 10 Mon- 
tana, p. 284) 

Declared selling price (Aust). The 
nominal selling price of coal de- 
clared by the mine owners -in the 
Newcastle district, N. S. W., every 
September, on which the payment 
to miners is based. (Power) 

Declination. The angle which the 
magnetic needle makes with the geo- 
graphical meridian. It is said to be 
east or west, according as the north 
end of the needle points to the east 
or west of the geographical me- 

Declinometer. An instrument, often 
self-registering, for measuring or re- 
cording the declination of the mag- 
netic needle. (Standard) 

Decompose. To separate .the constitu- 
ent parts of; to resolve into the 
original elements; to rot or decay. 

Decomposing furnace. A furnace used 
in the conversion of common salt 
into sulphate of soda, aided by the 
action of sulphuric acid. (Century) 

Decomposition. The breaking up or 
decay of compounds into simpler 
chemical forms. (Roy, Com.) 

Decrepitate. To roast or calcine so 
as to cause crackling; to crackle, as 
salt, from the presence of moisture, 
when heated. (Webster) 

Decrepitation. The breaking up with 
a crackling noise of mineral sub- 
stances when exposed to heat, as 
when common salt is thrown upon 
the fire. (Roy. Com.) 

Deeds (No. of Eng.). Debris or 
waste thrown upon the spoil bank 
(dump). (Gresley). A variation of 

Deep. 1. (Corn.) The lower portion 
of a vein ; used in the phrase "to 
the deep," i. e., downward upon 
the vein. (Raymond) 
2. Workings below the level of the 
pit bottom or main levels extending 
therefrom. 3. (Forest of Dean; 
Lane.) A vein, seam, mine, or bed 
of coal or ironstone. (Gresley) 

Deep coal (Eng.). Coal seams lying 
at a depth of 1,800 feet or more be- 
low the surface. (Gresley) 

Deep leads. Alluvial deposits of gold 
or tinstone buried below a consider- 
able thickness of soil or rock. 

Deep-level (Trans.). In South Africa, 
the first mining properties de- 
veloped from the surface were 
estopped from trespassing beyond 
their side lines projected down- 
ward. The next mine on the dip 
of the lode became known as the 
"deep-level" mine or "deep." Jour., 
Chem., Met. and Min. Soc., So. 
Africa, vol. 14, 1914, p. 361) 



Beep pit (Bng.). A shaft exceeding 
400 or 500 yards in depth. (Ores- 

Deep-sinker (Aust). A tall drinking 
glass ; also the drink it contains, so 
called in* fanciful allusion to the 
shaft of a mine. (Webster) 

Deep- well pump. A pump for oil wells, 
etc. (Standard) 

Deficient coal (Ark.) Coal more dif- 
ficult to mine than the standard, 
and for which the miners are paid 
an extra price. (Steel) 

Deficient place (Aust.). A working 
place in which men cannot make fair 
average wages, and for which they 
are given extra pay. (Power) 

Definite proportions law. One of the 
fundamental chemical laws that a 
chemical compound always contains 
the same elements in the same pro* 
portions by weight (Liddell). Com- 
pare Dalton's law. 

Deflagrate. To burn; burst into 
flame; specifically to burn rapidly, 
with a sudden evolution of flame 
and vapor, as a mixture of char- 
coal and niter thrown into a red- 
hot crucible. (Century) 

Deflagrating mixture. Combustible 
mixtures generally made with niter, 
the oxygen of which is the active 
ingredient in promoting their com- 
bustion. (Century) 

Deflagration globe. A large glass globe 
for deflagration experiments, as 
burning phosphorous in oxygen. 

Deflagration spoon. A spoon with a 
long vertical handle, used in defla- 
gration experiments. (Webster) 

Deflation. The removal of loose ma- 
terial by the wind, leaving the rocks 
bare to the continuous attack of the 
weather. (Webster) 

Deflection angle. In railroad survey- 
ing, the angle formed at any point of 
a curve between the tangent and a 
chord of 100 feet, and is, therefore, 
one half the degree of curve. 

Deflocculating agent. An agent which 
produces deflocculation, as for ex- 
ample the alkalis in certain concen- 
tration, and which therefore hin- 
ders settling. (Eng. and Min. Jour., 
vol. 101, p. 431) 

Deflocculation. A relative term op- 
posed to floceulation, which gee. 

744010047 14 

Deformation of rocks. 1. Restricted!?, 
distortion of rock masses by pres- 
sure, evidenced by foliation, mutual 
indentation of pebbles in conglom- 
erate, distortion of fossils, stylo- 
lites, etc. (Standard) 
2. Any change in the original .shape 
of rock masses. Folding and fault- 
ing are common modes of deforma- 
tion. (Ransome) 

Degradation. The general lowering of 
the surface of the land by erosive 
processes, especially by the removal 
of material through erosion and 
transportation by flowing water. 
(La Forge) 

Degrade. To wear down by erosion. 

Degree. A division, space, or interval 
marked on a mathematical or other 
instrument, as on a thermometer. 

Degree of curve. In railroad survey- 
ing, that angle subtended, at the cen- 
ter of curvature, by a chord of 100 
feet It is twice the deflection angle. 

Dehne filter press. A standard plate- 
and-frame filter press. (Liddell) 

Dehydrate. To render free from wa- 
ter. (Webster) 

Deil (Scot). A tool for unscrewing 
broken rods in a bore hole. (Bar- 

Deister table. A riffled table used in 
ore. dressing in which the angle be- 
tween the line of termination of the 
riffles and the direction of motion 
is not so acute as in the Wilfley. 
It is also wider and shorter. The 
top is rhomboidal. (Liddell) 

Dejar respaldado (Peru). To leave 
valuable ore in the wall -rock. 
(D wight) 

Delay electric blasting-cap. A detonat- 
ing device with a delay element be- 
tween the priming and detonating 
composition. It detonates about one 
or two seconds after the electric cur- 
rent has passed through the bridge. 
They are made in two kinds first 
and second delay and are used in 
connection with regular, waterproof 
or submarine electric blasting-caps 
for blasting in tunnels, shafts, ete., 
where it is desirable to have charges 
fired in succession without the neces- 
sity of the blaster returning between 
shots. (Du Pont) 



Delay electric-igniter. An electrical 
device using fuse as the delay ele- 
ment by which it is possible with the 
use of a blasting cap on each fuse 
to detonate a number of charges in 
succession. (Du Pont) 

Delessite. A chloritic mineral of scaly 
or short fibrous appearance filling 
cavities or seams in basic igneous 
rocks. (Dana) 

Delf. 1. (Forest of Dean, Lane.) A 
vein, seam, or bed of coal or iron- 
stone. (Gresley) 

2. (Eng. and Scot) A thing which 
has been dug ; a mine ; a quarry ; a 
pit. (Webster) 

Delf man (Eng.). A miner or work- 
man in a stone quarry. (Webster) 

Deliquescent. Capable of becoming 
liquid by the absorption of water 
from the air. (Standard) 

Delivery drift (Eng.). A drift or adit 
driven from' low ground into the 
shaft to receive water pumped from 
a lower level. Also called Off-take 
drift. (G. C. Green well) 

Dellenite. A name proposed by Brflg- 
ger for an intermediate group of ef- 
fusive rocks, between the dacites 
and the liparites (rhyolites). The 
name is derived from Dellen, Hel- 
eingland, Sweden. Compare Tosca- 
nite. (Kemp) 

Delprat method. See Overhand stop- 

Delprat process. See Potter-Delprat 

Delta. An alluvial deposit at the 
mouth of a river (Webster). Usu- 
ally more or less triangular in form. 

Deltafication. The process of forming 
a delta at the mouth of a river. 

Deltaic. 1. Pertaining to or like a 
delta. 2. Having or forming a delta. 

Deltaic deposits. Sedimentary deposits 
laid down in a river delta. (Ran- 

Delta-metal. A non-rusting, copper, 
zinc, and iron alloy resembling 
Aich's - metal and sterro - metal. 

Deltoid dodecahedron. An isometric 
form of 12 faces, each a quadri- 
lateral, distributed as determined by 
the tetrahedral type of symmetry 
(Dana). Sometimes called Delto- 

Dema (Sp.). 1. Timbers; lagging. 9. 
A dry-stone wall. 3. (Colom.). The 
side of a ground sluice. (Halse) 

Demagnetize. To deprive of magnetic 
polarity. (Century) 

Demar (Sp. Am.). To timber; to con- 
struct the sides of channels and 
sluices. (Lucas) 

Dema si a (Mex.). Unoccupied ground 
between two mining concessions, less 
than one pertenencia in extent. 

Demenge process. A process of hard- 
ening the face of a steel ingot by 
carburizing one side in the casting 
mold. (Standard) 

Demurrage. A charge for the deten- 
tion of railway cars over a certain 
period allowed for loading or un- 

Dendriform. Resembling a tree; ar- 
borescent; dentritic (Century). 
Said of certain minerals. 

Dendrite. 1. A branching figure re- 
sembling a shrub or tree, produced 
on or in a mineral or rock by the 
crystallization of a foreign mineral, 
usually an oxide of manganese, as in 
the moss agate; also the mineral or 
rock so marked. 

2. A crystallized arborescent form, 
as of gold or silver; an arboriza- 
tion. (Webster) 

Dendritic. Branching like a tree ; said 
of minerals, as crystallized gold. 

Dendroid. Dentritic; arborescent 

Denounce (Mex.). To offer for rec- 
ord, legal notice of a claim for a 
mining concession, covering a de- 
scribed area, the mining rights of 
which are held by the government 
(Webster). See also Denuncia. 

Densimeter. An apparatus for deter- 
mining the specific gravity or rela- 
tive density of a substance. ( Stand- 

Density. 1. The ratio of the mass of 
any volume of a substance to the 
mass of an equal volume of some 
standard substance. For liquids and 
solids the standard substance is wa- 
ter. (Webster) 

2. The quality of being dense, close, 
or compact. 3. The quantity of elec- 
tricity per unit of volume at a point 
in space, or the quantity of elec- 
tricity per unit of area at a point 
on a surface. (Century) 

Denndaci6n (Sp.). Denudation or ero- 
sion. (Halse) 



Denudation. 1. The washing down of 
surface deposits so as to lay bare 
underlying formations. This wash- 
ing away in one place is associated 
with the idea of deposition in an- 
other. (Roy. Com.) 
8. In geology, the same as erosion, 
although there has been an effort 
by some to restrict the term to the 
stripping away of overlying material 
from some particular rock ojr sur- 
face. (Ransome) 

Denude. To wear away or remove 
overlying matter from and so ex- 
pose to view, as underlying rocks. 

Denuded. In geology, recks exposed 
by the action of denudation. (Cen- 

Denuncia (Sp.). 1. In Mexico and 
Spanish America, the Judicial pro- 
ceedings by which a person claims 
and secures the right to a mine 
which he has discovered, or one the 
title to which has been lost or for- 
feited by the neglect of the owner 
to work it, or by his having violated 
the mining ordinances. 2. A simi- 
lar judicial proceeding by which 
waste or abandoned lands may be 
preempted. (Century) 

Denunciador (Mex.). The denouncer 
of a mine. (Halse) 

Denunclamiento (Sp.). In mining, the 
act of giving formal notice of a 
claim ; also, the claim itself. (Stand- 

Denunciante (Colom.). The denouncer 
of a mine or claim; a claimant. 

Denunciar (Sp.). To denounce. To 
give information that a mine is 
forfeited for being insufficiently 
worked, or for a violation of some 
condition which imposes that pen- 
alty. This term is also applied to 
the giving notice of a discovery, for 
the purpose of registry. ( Raymond ) 

Denuncio (Mex.). Denouncement; the 
act of applying for a mining conces- 
sion under the old mining laws. 

Departamento (Sp.). Department; a 
province, district or subdivision of 
a country- (Halse) 

Dependiente (Mex.). An inferior of- 
ficer or clerk. (Halse) 

Dephlegmator, or separator. An instru- 
ment used in the refining of petro- 
leum to arrest the oil mechanically 
carried over by the vapor. (Mit- 

Depletion. The act of emptying, re- 
ducing or exhausting, as the deple- 
tion of natural resources (Cen- 
tury). In mining, specifically said 
of ore reserves. 

Deposit 1. Anything laid down. For- 
merly applied to (suspended) matter 
left by the agency of water, but now 
made to include also mineral matter 
in any form, and precipitated by 
chemical or other agencies, as the 
ores, etc.. in veins. (Winchell) 
2. The term mineral deposit or ore 
deposit, is arbitrarily used to desig- 
nate a natural occurrence of a use- 
ful mineral or ore in sufficient extent 
and degree of concentration to invite 
exploitation. (Raymond) 

Deposition. 1. The process of natural 
accumulation of rock material, as 
when thrown down or collected in 
strata by water, wind, or volcanic 
action : also material thus deposited. 
Opposed to denudation. ( Standard) 
2. The precipitation of mineral mat- 
ter from solution, as the deposition 
of gate, vein quartz, etc. 

Depdsito (Sp.). I A deposit, generally 
sedimentary; a synonym of yad- 
miento; D. de metal, an ore deposit; 
D. de mincrales, a mineral deposit. 
2. Cistern or tank. 3. (Mex.) An 
ore bin. 4. Depositos (Mex.). 
water collected in old workings. 

Depp (Derb.). The continuance of 
ore with depth. (Mander) 

Depreciation. The loss in the value of 
physical property due to use. or 
otherwise, which cannot be made 
good by current repairs. (E. B. 
Skinner, p. 149) 

Depreciation fund. A fund set aside 
to replace a piece of depreciable 
property when It is worn out. (E. 
B. Skinner, p. 150) 

Depression. 1. A lowering, sinking or 
diminution. 2. The angular dis- 
tance of an object beneath the hori- 
zontal plane that passes through the 
observer. Used in surveying. 

Deputy. 1. (No. of Eng.) A man who 
fixes and withdraws the timber sup- 
porting the roof of a mine, and who 
attends to the safety of the roof and 
sides, builds stopping, puts up bract- 
ticing, and looks after the safety of 
the miners. 2. (Mid.) An under- 
ground official who looks after gen- 
eral safety of a certain number of 
stalls (rooms) or of a district, but 
who does not set the timber himself 



although he has to see that it is 
properly done. (Gresley) 
3. A mine boss. (Roy) 

Deputy overman (Newc.). The man 
who lays the plates and sets the tim- 
ber for the miners, and has charge 
of a portion of the mine. (Min. 

Deputy surveyor; Mineral surveyor. 
A person appointed by the Surveyor 
General of the United States to 
make proper surveys of lode or 
placer mining claims, prior to the 
issuing of a patent. (U. S. Min. 
Stat, p. 577-581) 

Deputy system (No. of Eng.). The 
plan of having all the timbering in 
working places performed by spe- 
cially appointed deputies (Gresley). 
See also Deputy. 

Derbylite. A mineral, composed of 
antimonate and titanate of Iron, oc- 
curring in black orthorhombic cry- 
stals. (Dana) 

Derbyshire spar; Derby spar. Fluo- 
rite, found abundantly in Derby- 
shire, Eng. (Chester). Fluorspar. 

Derecho (Sp.). 1. Law; equity. 2. % 
Derechos; taxes; dues; customs. 

Derivative rocks. Rocks derived by 
erosion or comminution from exist- 
ent rocks or rock material, as a sedi- 
mentary rock and volcanic tufa. 

Derrame de veta (Sp.). Fragments of 
ore scattered over the surface of 
the country near the lode. (Lucas) 

Derribar Sp.). To break ground. 

Derrick. 1. The framework or tower 
over a deep drill hole, such as that 
of an oil well, for supporting the 
tackle for boring, hoisting or low- 
ering. 2. Any of various hoisting 
apparatus employing a tackle rigged 
at the end of a spar or beam. (Web- 

3. (Corn.) A digger; a miner. 

Derrick car. A wrecking car fitted 
with a derrick or crane, (Webster) 

Derrick crane. A crane in which the 
top of the post is supported by fixed 
stays in the rear and the jib is piv- 
oted like the boom of a derrick. 

Derricking. Operating like a derrick, 
as regards the raising and lowering 
of the jib. (Webster) 

Derrocado (Mex.). A mine in which 
the workings have caved. (Halse) 

Derrumbe. 1. (Colom.) A land slip. 
2. (Peru) A small and narrow 
mountain pass. (Halse) 

Desaguador (Sp.). A water pipe; 
drain. (Dwight) 

Desaguar (Sp..). To drain; to pump; 
to unwater. (Lucas) 

Desague (Mex.). Unwatering ; mine 
drainage. (Dwight) 

Desamparar (Sp.). To abandon, as a 
mine. (Halse) 

Desanchar. 1. (Sp.). To undercut. 2. 
P. la veta (Mex.), to take down the 
soft wall of a vein and leave the 
lode for subsequent extraction. To 
gouge. (Halse) 

Desaplomar (Peru), In the patio proc- 
ess, to restore mercury. (Halse) 

Desarenar (Colom.). To clear away 
the poor sand, as in placer mining. 

Desativar (Sp.). To free a mine from 
rubbish or waste. (Vel.) 

Desazogadera (Sp. Am.). A receptacle 
for the condensed quicksilver result- 
ing from the roasting operation. 

Desbocarse el barreno (Peru). To re- 
main (as a drill hole) practically 
intact after firing. (Dwight) 

Desbordar (Mex.). 1. To stope under- 
hand. 2. To rob mine pillars. 

Desborde ( Mex. ) . An underhand stope. 

Descapotar (Sp. Am.). To clear away 
a capping. (Lucas) 

Descargadora (Mex.). A discharging 
tank, from which the slimes are run 
off last. (Egleston) 

Descargar (Sp.). 1. Literally, to un- 
load; D. un homo, to tear down a 
furnace. (Dwight) 
2. (Colom.) To take away stones 
in order to facilitate the washing 
of gold-bearing sands. (Halse) 

Deseargue (Mex.). The last ingot re- 
duced in a smelting furnace. 

Descension-theory. The theory that 
the material in veins entered from 
above. (Raymond) 

Descloizite. A vanadate of lead and 
zinc, found only in the oxidized 
parts of veins. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 



Descogollar (Colom.). To take away 
the upper part of a vein. (Halse) 

Descostradores (Sp.). Men employed 
In taking down any fragment which 
may remain after blasting. (Min. 

Descriptive mineralogy. That branch 
of mineralogy devoted to the de- 
scription of the physical and chemi- 
cal properties of minerals. (Cen- 

Descubxidova ( Mex. ) . Discovery-mine ; 
first mine in a district, or on a 
mineral deposit. ( D wight)- 

Descubrir (Sp.). To discover, as 
mines. (Halse) 

Desecho (Mex.). 1. The loss of mer- 
cury through chemical reactions 
during amalgamation. 2. Lead- 
dross. 3. Assay waste. (Dwight) 
4. Very low-grade or poor ores. 5. 
Rubbish from mines; waste rock. 

Desencielar (Colom.). To work the 
lode between two adits. (Lucas) 

Desengranar (Mex.-). To throw out 
of gear. (Dwight) 

Desenlodar (Sp.). To separate clay 
from any mineral or ore. (Halse) 

Desert rat (West u; S.). A prospec- 
tor, especially one who works and 
lives in the desert, or who has spent 
much time in arid regions. The 
name is derived from a small rodent 
common throughout much of the 
Great Basin and Southwestern 
United States. 

Desgnachar (Sp. Am.). To get out 
the fine gravel or dirt. (Lucas) 

Desiccate. To dry up; to deprive or 
exhaust of moisture; to preserve by 
drying. (Webster) 

Desiccator. A short glass jar fitted 
with an air-tight cover and contain- 
ing some desiccating substance as 
calcium chloride, above which is 
placed the material to be dried, or 
preserved from moisture. (Web- 

Desierto (Mex.). Desert. (Dwight) 

Desiliconize. To free from silicon or 
any of its compounds. (Century) 

Desilverizatton. The process of sepa- 
rating silver from its alloys. (Ray- 

Desilverizing kettle. A circular kettle 
8 to 4 feet deep used .for the desil- 
verization of base bullion. (Hof- 
man, p. 451) 

Desistimtento (Mex.). The abandon- 
ment of a mining claim. (Dwight) 

Deslave ( Sp. Am. ) . Tailings. ( Lucas ) 

Deslizarse el azoqne (Peru). The 
flouring of mercury. (Dwight) 


(Sp.). Friable ore. 

Desmine. See Stilbite. 

Desmontar (Colom.). To remove over- 
burden; to strip. (Halse) 

Desmonte (Colom.). The superficial 
layer above the auriferous gravel. 

Desmontes (Mex.). Poor ores. 

Desmoronos (Colom.). Surface dam- 
. age caused by mine workings, for 
which the operator has to pay dam- 
ages. (Halse) 

Desmorro (Mex.). Furnace barrings. 

Desmosite. A banded contact rock de- 
veloped from shales and slates by 
intrusions of diabase. Compare 
Spilosite and Adinole. (Kemp) 

Desnivel (Mex.). Difference in a level. 

D spachar dores ( Mex. ) . Men employed 
in filling manias with ore. (Halse) 

Despacho (Mex.). 1. An office. 2. A 
commission, warrant, or patent. 

De spa jar (Mex.). To remove waste 
rock by concentration. (Dwight) 

Despaje (Mex.). Waste from a concen- 
tration plant (Dwight) 

Despensa (Mex.). 1. A storeroom for 
provisions. 2. A well-secured room 
for keeping rich ore. (Halse) 

Desperdicios (Sp.). Tailings. (Lucas) 

Despilado (Sp.). 1. The removing of 
pillars. (Halse) 

Despilar; Despilarar (Mex.). To rob 
a mine; to remove pillars. (Halse) 

Desplatar (Sp.). To desilverize. (Lu- 

Despoblado (Mex.). Ore with much 
gangue. (Dwight) 

Despoblar (Mex.). To suspend mining 
work. (Dwight) 

Despueble (Sp.). Abandoning the 
mine, or failure to keep the proper 
number of men .at work. (Min. 



Desquinchar (Peru). To take down 
the walls of a lode .(Halse). See 
Ensanchar, 2. 

Destajero (Mex.K A contractor for 
piecework. (D wight) 

Destajo. 1. (Mex.) A contract ; piece- 
work as distinguished from time- 
work. (Dwight) 
2. (Peru) An open cut (Halse) 

Dcstrancar (Colom.). To remove ob- 
stacles which prevent the unwater- 
ing of mines. (Halse) 

Destructional. Pertaining to destruc- 
tion or shaped by destructive forces, 
as in geology, a plain which has 
been formed by erosion. (Stand- 

Destructive distillation. The process 
of heating an organic compound in 
a closed vessel, without access of 
air, and collecting the products 
(Nicholls). A process of distillation 
In which hydrocarbon molecules are 
broken down. Thus illuminating 
gas is a product of the destructive 
distillation of coal. Also called Dry 
distillation, and Cracking. 

Desuing (Corn.). See Dissuing. 

Desulphurization. The removal of sul- 
phur from sulphide ores. 4 (Ray- 

Desulphurize. To free from sulphur,; 
to remove the sulphur from an ore 
or mineral by some suitable process, 
as by roasting. (Century) 

Desvolcanarse (Colom.). To be cov- 
ered by a landslide ; to be destroyed 
or demolished. (Halse) 

Detaching hook. A self-acting me- 
chanical contrivance for setting 
free a winding rope from a cage 
when the latter is raised beyond a 
certain point in the headgear; the 
rope being released, the cage 
remains suspended in the frame. 

Determinative mineralogy. That 
branch of mineralogy which com- 
prises the determination of the na- 
ture, composition, and classification 
of minerals, by means of physical 
tests, blowpipe or wet analyses, and 
the examination of the crystallog- 
raphic and the optic properties. 
(La Forge) 

Detonador (Sp.). Fulminating cap; 
detonator. (Lucas) 

Detonate. 1. To cause to explode with 
a sudden loud report. 2. To explode 
suddenly with a loud report (Stand- 

Detonating fuse. A fuse consisting of 
high explosive that fires the charge 
without the assistance of any other 
detonator. (Bowles) 

Detonating gas. A mixture of two 
volumes of hydrogen and one vol- 
ume of oxygen which explodes with 
a loud report upon ignition. (Wet> 

Detonating powder. Any powder or 
solid substance, which -when heated 
or struck explodes with violence 
and a loud report (Webster) 

Detonating primer. A primer exploded 
by a fuse, used to fire high explo- 
sives. (Webster) 

Detonation. The very sudden change 
of unstable substances from a solid 
or liquid to the gaseous state with 
the evolution of great heat anfl ac- 
companied by a sudden report. 

Detonator. A term used to include 
blasting caps, or any device used for 
detonating a high explosive (Du 
Font). An exploder, percussion cap, 
or primer. 

Detonator tube. A eudiometer fitted 
for making explosions. (Webster) 

Detrital rock. A rock made up of the 
debris of other, rock. (Century) 

Detritus. A general name for inco- 
herent sediments, produced by the 
wear and tear of rocks through the 
various geological agencies. The 
name is from- the Latin for "Worn." 
Rock waste. (Kemp) 

Deuterogenic. Formed from proto- 
genic rocks. (Standard) 

Development 1. A geological term, 
applied to those progressive changes 
in fossil genera, and species, which 
have followed one another during 
the deposition of the strata of the 
earth. (Roberts) 

2. Work done in a mine to open up 
ore bodies, as sinking shafts and 
driving levels, etc. (Skinner). 
Sometimes used synonomously with 
"annual assessment" work. 

Devil (Aust). An automatic ar- 
rangement for detaching. a set of 
skips from the main-and-tail rope 
haulage system, x (Power) 

Devil's dice. Cubes of limonite, pseudo- 
morph after pyrite. (Power) 

Devitrification. The process by which 
glassy rocks break up into definite 
minerals. The latter are usually 
excessively minute but are chiefly 
quartz and feldspar (Kemp). The 
change .from a glassy to a crysta- 
llne state after solidification. 



Devonian. In the ordinarily accepted 
classification, the fourth in order of 
age of the periods comprised in the 
Paleozoic era, following the Silurian 
and succeeded by the Carboniferous. 
Also the system of strata deposited 
at that time (La Forge). Some- 
times called the Age of fishes. 

Dewar-Redwood process. A method for 
cracking petroleum (1899) by the 
use of a suitable still and a con- 
denser in free communication with 
each other, i. e., without any valve 
between them, the space in the still 
and condenser not occupied with 
liquid being charged with air, car- 
bonic acid gas, or other gas, under 
the required pressure and the con- 
denser being provided with a regu- 
lated outlet, for the condensed 
liquid. A full description of the 
process is contained in Sir Bover- 
ton Redwood's standard work on pe- 
troleum. (Mitzakis) 

Deweylite. An amorphous, resinous, 
whitish to brown, hydrous magne- 
sian silicate mineral, near serpen- 
tine, but with more water; formula 
perhaps, 4MgO.3SiO.6HaO. (Dana) 

Dezuing. See Zur, also Dissuing. 

Diabantite. A chloritic mineral found 
filling cavities .in basic eruptive 
rocks, like basalt and diabase. (Cen- 

Diabasa (Me*.). Diabase. (Dwight) 

Diabase. A basic igneous rock usually 
occurring in dikes or intrusive 
sheets, and composed essentially of 
plagioclase feldspar and augite with 
small quantities of magnetite and 
apatite. The plagioclase forms lath- 
shaped crystals lying in all direc- 
tions among the dark irregular 
augite grains, giving rise to the pe- 
culiar -diabasic or ophitic texture, 
which is a distinctive feature in the 
coarser-grained occurrences (U. S. 
GeoL Surv.) 

Diabase is often used as a prefix for 
double names, as diabase-aphanite, 
diabase-gabbro, etc. (Kemp) 

Diabase-porphyrite. A porphyrite 
whose groundmass is finely crys- 
talline diabase, and whose pheno- 
crysts are prevailingly plagioclase. 
It is contrasted with augite-porphy- 
rite, whose phenocrysts are prevail- 
ingly augite. (Kemp) 

Diablo (Mex.). 1. Rail-bender. 2. 
Kind of barrow used for moving 
heavy weights. (Dwight) 
8. (Colom.) A lifting jack or screw. 

Diaclase. In geology, a line of 
tangular fracture; a term applied 
by Daubree to explain the fact that 
the lines of weakness in the earth's 
surface are perpendicular to one an- 
other. (Standard) 

DiacliaaL Crossing a fold, as a dia- 
clinal river. (Webster) 

Diadochite. A hydrated ferric phos- 
phate and sulphate mineral, brown 
or yellowish in color. (Dana) 

Diagenesis. Recombination or rear- 
rangement, resulting in a new prod- 
uct, as in the formation of larger 
crystalline grains from smaller ones. 

Diagonal joints. Joints diagonal to 
the direction of cleavage. (C. and 
M. M. P.) 

Diagonal staple (No. of Eng.). A shal- 
low pit sunk in a sloping or diagonal 
direction at the back of the main 
beam of a pumping engine and in 
which the lever beam works. (Ores- 

Diagonal stratification. Same as False 
bedding. Current bedding, and also 

Diagram factor. A numerical coeffi- 
cient by which the area of a theo- 
retical indicator diagram must be 
multiplied to approximate the dia- 
gram obtained from the indicator. 

Dial. 1. A compass fitted with sights, 
spirit levels, and vernier, for mak- 
ing underground surveys. 2. To sur- 
vey with a dial and chain. See Dial- 
Ing. (Gresley) 

Dialing; Dialling. The operation of 
making a survey with the dial. 

Diallage. The variety of monoclinic 
pyroxene which, in addition to the 
prismatic cleavages, has others par- 
allel to the vertical pinacoids. Used 
also as a prefix to many rocks con- 
taining the mineral. (Kemp) 

Dialysis. The separation of crystal- 
loids and colloids in solution, by 
means of their unequal diffusion 
through certain natural or artificial 
membranes. (Webster) 

Diamagnetio. Possessing or pertaining 
to the property of being repelled by 
a magnet and of tending to take a 
position at right angles to the mag- 
netic force. (Webster) 

Diamant A Middle English form of 
spelling diamond. 



Diamante (Sp.). Diamond; D. en 
bruto, a rough diamond; D. negro, 
a bort (Halse) 

Diamond. 1. A very hard, native crys- 
tallized form of carbon, C. When 
pure and clear it is used as a gem 
(U. S. Oeol. Surv.). Although com- 
monly colorless, is sometimes green, 
yellow, brown, blue, or black. See 
also Bort. 

2. (Aust). A pointed wooden or 
iron arrangement placed between 
rails, Just before a curve, where 
skips are liable to be derailed, so as 
to enable them to mount the rails 
again. If the skips are traveling in 
one direction only, the diamond is 
pointed at one end, if traveling back- 
wards and forwards on the same 
rails both ends are pointed. (Power) 

Diamond chisel. A cutting chisel hav- 
ing a diamond or Y-shaped point. 

Diamond cutting. One of the three 
processes by which diamonds are 
prepared for use as ornaments or in 
the arts, the others being diamond 
cleaving and diamond polishing. 

Diamond drill. A form of rotary rock 
. drill in which the work is done by 
abrasion instead of percussion, black 
diamonds (borts) being set in the 
head of the boring tool (Raymond). 
Used in prospecting and develop- 
ment work where a core is desired. 

Diamond dust; Diamond powder. A fine 
dust produced in diamond cutting 
by the abrasion of two stones against 
each other. (Century) 

Diamond groove. A groove of V-sec- 
tion in a roll. (Raymond) 

Diamond hitch. An interlacing of 
ropes forming a diamond on top of 
the pack. Used in tying a pack on 
an animal. (Webster) 

Diamond saw. A circular disc having 
' diamonds (or diamond dust) set in 

its cutting edge. It is employed for 

sawing stone. 

Diamond spar. Corundum. (Power) 

Diamond system (Eng.). Boring or 
prospecting for coal or ore with dia- 
mond drills. 

Diamond tin. Large bright crystals 
of cassiterlte. (Power) 

Diamond wheel. A wheel made of 
metal, as copper or iron, and 
charged with diamond powder and 
oil, used in grinding gems. 

Diaphaneity. The state or quality of 
allowing light to pass through. 
Used in describing mineral. Com- 
pare Transparent, Semi-transparent, 
Translucent, and Opaque. (Dana) 

Diaphanous. Allowing light to show 
or shine through. (Webster) 

Diaphorite. A mineral like freieslebe- 
nite in composition, (Pb.Ag 2 ) Sb4Su, 
or 5(Pb,Ag 2 )S.2SbS 8 , but ortho- 
rhombic in form. (Dana) 

Diario (Colom.). 1. The daily quan- 
tity of amalgam produced by a mill. 
2. The mill diary or record of hours, 
tonnage, etc. (Halse) 

Diaschistic. Derived from a larger, 
parent igneous mass, but differing 
therefrom in , composition ; said of 
certain dikes associated with igne- 
ous intrusions. Contrasted with 
Aschistic. (La Forge) 

Diaspore. An aluminum hydroxide 
mineral, AlaO.H 2 O. (Dana) 

Diastatic. Pertaining or due to the 
movements of the forces which pro- 
duce deformation of the earth's sur- 
face. (Standard) 

Diastrophe. In geology, an event char- 
acterized by a deformation of the 
earth's crust. (Standard) 

Diastrophism. The process or processes 
by which the crust of the earth is 
deformed, producing continents and 
ocean basins, plateaus and moun- 
tains, flexures and folds of strata, 
and faults. Also, the results of 
these processes. (Webster) 

Diathermic. Allowing a free passage 
of heat (Webster) 

Diatom. A minute plant which is pro- 
vided with a siliceous envelope. 

Diatomaceous earth. A friable earthy 
deposit composed of nearly pure sil- 
ica and consisting essentially of the 
frustules of the microscopic plants 
called diatoms; diatomite. Some- 
times wrongly called infusorial 
earth, which see. (La Forge) 

Diatomic. Consisting of two atoms to 
the molecule. Bivalent Having 
two replaceable atoms or radicals. 

Diatomite (Eng.). The silica of di- 
atoms dried to a fine powder and 
Used in the manufacture of dyna 
mite, pottery glaze, etc. (Stand- 
ard.) See al9Q Infusorial earth. 



Biatomons. Having a single, distinct 
diagonal cleavage, aV in certain 
crystals. (Webster) 

Diatom prism. A prism attached to a 
microscope to give the oblique illu- 
mination for observing very fine 
markings. (Standard) 

Diatreme. A vent occurring in a sur- 
face fissure in volcanic regions. 
(Daly, p. 252) 

Dibhole (Eng.). The lowest part of 
a mine, into which the water drains 
(Standard). A sump. 

Dibujo (Sp.). A drawing; design or t 
draft. (Halse) 

Dice coal (Leic.). Layers in a coal 
seam which naturally break or split 
into small pieces resembling dice. 

Dice mineral. A Wisconsin term for 
small cubic galena. (Power) 

Dicey lode (Corn.). A lode possess- 
ing many horizontal joints. (Power) 

Dichroism; Pleochroism. The property 
of exhibiting different colors in 
different directions by transmitted 
light. (Dana) 

Dichroite. A hydrated, aluminum-mag- 
nesium-iron silicate mineral, Ha(Mg, 
Fe)4Al 8 SiioOsr. Synonymous with 
lolite and Cordietrite. 

Dichromic. Containing two atoms or 
equivalents of chromium. (Web- 

Dichroscope. An instrument for ob- 
serving pleochroism in minerals. 
(A. F. Rogers) 

Dickinsonite. A green, hydrous phos- 
phate mineral, chiefly of manganese, 
iron and sodium. (Dana) 

Di clinic. A crystal having two of the 
three axes inclined to the third and 
perpendicular to each other. ( Stand- 

Didymium. A supposed element an- 
nounced by Mosander in 1841. The 
most recent investigations have 
showr that it is a mixture of two 
elements, neodymium and praseo- 
dymium. (Century) 

Die. 1. A piece of hard iron, placed 
in a mortar to receive the blow of 
a stamp, or in a pan to receive the 
friction of the muller. Between the 
die and the stamp or muller the ore 
is crushed (Raymond). At Clunes, 

Victoria, it is called the Stamp bed, 
2. A tool used for cutting threads, 
usually at one passage. (Nat. Tube 

Die-earth (Eng.). A local term at 
Coalbrook Dale for the Wenlock 
shale, because this stratum lies be- 
neath all the mining ground of the 
district the minerals "dying out," 
as it were, at this stratum. (Page) 

Diehl process. A modification of the 
cyanide process in which cyanogen 
bromide is added to the leaching so- 
lution. (Liddell) 

Dlente. 1. (Sp.). A tooth or cog; D. 
de murcielago, stibnite in cavities in 
veins; D. de perro (Colom.), a 
crystallized and opaque quartz oc- 
curring in geodes. (Halse) 
2. (Mex.) Binding stone in Mexi- 
can masonry. SeeTlz6n. (Dwight) 

Diesel engine. An internal combustion 
engine in which only air is drawn 
in by the suction stroke, and the air 
is so highly compressed that the 
heat generated ignites the fuel 
which is automatically sprayed into 
the cylinder under high pressure* 

Die-stock. A contrivance for holding 
dies used in screw cutting (Cen- 
tury). See Die, 2. 

Difference of potential. The difference 
in electrical pressure existing be- 
tween any two points in an electri- 
cal system or between any point of 
such a system and the earth, as de- 
termined by a voltmeter. ( Clark ) 

Differential flotation. The floating of 
one flotative mineral only, whea 
there are others present which are 
ordinarily flotative. See Selective 
flotation and Preferential flotation. 
(O. C. Ralston, U. S. Bur. Mines) 

Differential pumping engine. A com- 
pound direct-acting pumping en- 
gine, generally of the horizontal 
class. (Gresley) 

Differentiation. The process or proc- 
esses whereby cooling magma sepa- 
rates into rocks of different kinds,, 
usually connected by gradations. 

Diffraction. A mollification which light 
undergoes in passing by the edges of 
opaque bodies or through narrow 
slits or in being reflected- from 
ruled surfaces, in which the rays 
appear to be deflected producing 
fringes of parallel light and dark 
or colored bands. (Webster) 



Diffusate. In chemistry, material 
which, in the process of dialysis, 
has diffused or passed through the 
separating membrane. (Webster) 

Dig. 1. To mine coal; applied to 
bituminous workings (Chance). See 
also Gouge, 3. 

8. To excavate; make a passage 
into or through, or remove by tak- 
ing away material. (Century) 

Digger. 1. One who digs, as a miner ; 
a seeker of gold. A tool for digging. 

2. A man who is paid by the ton, 
for coal produced. A miner in the 
stricter sense. Originally the digger 
mined or undermined the coal. The 
term is now applied to the man who 
merely shoots out the coal. (Steel) 

3. A machine for removing coal 
from the bed of streams, the coal 
liaving washed down from collieries 
of culm banks above. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Digging. 1. Mining operations in 
coal or other minerals. (Hargis) 

2. Region; locality; quarters; lodg- 
ing (Webster). See also Diggings. 

Diggings. Applicable to all mineral 
deposits and mining camps, but in 
usage in the United States applied 
to placer mining only (Raymond). 
See also Bar-Diggings. 

Dihedral. Having two sides, as a 
figure; having two faces, as a crys- 
tal. (Century) 

Dihydrite. A dark emerald-green, 
hydrous copper phosphate, CusPjOs.- 
2Cu(OH) 2 . mineral, crystallizing in 
the monoclinic system. (Dana) 

Dike. 1. A long and relatively thin 
body of igneous rock, which, while 
in a state of fusion, has entered a 
fissure in older rocks and has there 
-chilled and solidified (Century). 
JNot to be confounded with vein. 
Also spelled Dyke. 2. A channel or 
ditch made for water by digging. 

3. A bank of earth or stone : a levee. 

Dikelet. A small offshoot or apophysis 
from a dike. (Standard) 

Dillue (Corn.). To sort (tin ore) by 
washing in a hand sieve. (Web- 

Dilluer (Corn.). A fine hair sieve for 
tin ore. (Century) 

Dilluing; Dilleughing (Corn.). An 
operation performed in tin dress- 
ing upon the slimes of a certain part 
of the process. It is like the opera- 

tion of panning, only performed 
with a sie>re having a close haircloth 
bottom, and in a kieve of water 
which receives the tailings of the 
process. ( Raymond ) 

Dilly. 1. (No. of Eng.) A counte*- 
balance mounted upon two pairs of 
tram wheels by means of which the 
empty tubs are carried up an under- 
ground incline of a greater inclina- 
tion than 1 in 3. (Gresley). A 
short self-acting incline where one 
or two tubs are run at a time. (C. 
and M. M. P.) 

2. Any of various vehicles, as a 
light wagon, truck, water cart, etc. 

Dilly boy. One who rides a dilly or 
attends it. 

Dilsh (Wales). Inferior coal in a 
thin stratum; culm. (Gresley) 

Diluent. That which dilutes, or makes 
more fluid; a fluid that weakens 
the strength or consistence of an- 
other fluid upon mixture. (Cen- 

Diluir (Sp.). To dilute. (Dwight) 

Diluvial. 1. Pertaining to floods. 2. 
Related to or consisting of diluvium. 

Diluvium. 1. Sand, gravel, clay, etc., 
in superficial deposits. See Drift, 6. 
According to some authors, alluvium 
is the effect of the ordinary, and 
diluvium of the extraordinary ac- 
tion of water. The latter term is 
now passing out of use as not pre- 
cise, and more specific names for 
the different kinds of material are 
substituted. (Raymond) 
2. A name formerly applied to the 
unsorted and sorted deposits of the 
Glacial period, as contrasted with 
the iater water -sorted alluvium. 
Compare Alluvium. (Kemp) 

Dimension stone. Stone that is quar- 
ried or cut in accordance with re- 
quired dimensions. (Ries) 

Dimension work. Masonry consisting 
of stones whose dimensions are 
fixed by specification. (Century) 

Dimetian rock. A granitoid and 
schistose rock, found in Wales lower 
than the Arvonian. (Standard) 

Dimorfo (Sp.). Dimorphous. (Dwight) 

Dimorphism. Crystallization in two 
independent forms of the same 
chemical compound, as of calcium 
carbonate occurring as calcite and 
aragonite. (Webster) 



Dimorphite. An orange-yellow arsenic 
sulphide mineral that is obtained as 
a volcanic product, and is closely 
related to orpiment. (Standard) 

Dinamita (Sp.) Dynamite. (D wight) 
Dinamo (Sp.). Dynamo. (Dwight) 

Diriantian. In the usage of many Eu- 
ropean authorities, the oldest of the 
three series of strata comprised in 
the Carboniferous system in Europe ; 
Lower Carboniferous. Equivalent to 
the Mississippian of North America. 
Also the corresponding epoch of geo- 
logic time. (La Forge) 

Dinas brick. A refractory brick, al- 
most entirely composed of silica 
from the Dinas clay in the Vale of 
Neath, England. (Raymond) 

Dineral (Sp.). A standard of weight 
equal to 288 grains, used in assay- 
ing. (Halse) 

Dinero (Sp.). 1. Money. S. A stand- 
ard weight of silver, the twelfth 
part of a dineral, and equal to 24 
grains. (Halse) 

Dingle (Eng.). A narrow valley be- 
tween hills. (Humble) 

Ding's magnetic separator. An ore 
separator on which the material is 
fed upward by a vibrating conveyor 
and passes through successive zones 
of magnetic separation. These zones 
are covered by the rims of rotating 
wheels which carry secondary mag- 
nets. These carry the magnetic par- 
ticles out of the fields, are demag- 
netized, and drop the concentrate. 

Dinite. An inodorous, tasteless, frag- 
ile mineral having the appearance 
of ice, but with a. yellow tinge, and 
very soluble in ether and carbon di- 
sulphide; it was found in a lignite 
deposit at Lunigiana, Tuscany. 

Dinky. A small locomotive used to 
move cars in and about mines and 
quarries. (Bowles) * 

Dint (Mid.). See Bate, 1. 

Diopside. A natural calcium-magne- 
sium silicate, CaMg(SiO)a. A va- 
riety of pyroxene. (U. S. Geol. 

Dioptase. A hydrous silicate mineral 
of copper, HiCuSiO*. (Dana) 

Diorita (Sp.). Diorite. (Dwight) 

Dlorite. A granitoid rock composed 
essentially of hornblende and feld- 
spar which is mostly or wholly pia- 
gioclase, with accessory biotite and 

(or) augite. Minute grains of mag* 
netite and tttanite may be visible. 
Quartz may be present in consider- 
able amount, in which case the rock 
is called quartz dlorite. Quartz di- 
orites grade into tonalites and gran- 
odiorites. (U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Diorite - porphyrite. A porphyrite 
whose groundmass is a finely crys- 
talline diorite, and whose pheno- 
crysts are prevailingly plagioclase. 
It is contrasted with hornblende- 
porphyrite, whose phenocrysts are 
prevailingly hornblende. (Kemp) 

Dip. 1. The angle at which beds or 
strata are inclined from the hori- 
zontal, while underlie is the angle 
formed between a vein and a verti- 
cal line. The first is a geologist's 
term, the second a miner's. (Roy. 

2. To slope downward from the sur- 
face. 3. (Eng.) A heading or 
other underground way driven to 
the deep. 4. A dip entry, dip room, 
etc. A heading driven to the full 
rise in steep mines. (Gresley) 

Dip compass. See Dipping Compass. 

Dip cut. In cutting out blocks of 
stone, the cut which follows a line 
at right angles to the strike. 

Dip entry. An entry driven down htll 
so that water will stand at the face. 
If it is driven directly down a steep 
dip it becomes a slope (Steel). See 
also Entry ; also Slope. 

Dip fault. See Fault 

Dip-head. A heading driven down- 
ward on the dip of a coal seam. 

Dip-head level? A mine level connect- 
ing an engine-shaft (hoisting shaft) 
with th"e rooms or chambers (Stand- 
ard). The main level, drift, or 

Dip joint. A vertical Joint about par- 
allel with the direction of the cleav- 
age dip (C. and M. M. P.). See 
also Dip slip. 

Dip needle. See Dipping compass. 

Dippa (Corn.). A small pit sunk on 
a lode to catch water; a pit sunk 
on a bunch ore. (Duryee) 

Dipper (No. of Eng.). A downthrow, 
or a fault. (Gresley) 

Dipper dredge. A dredge in which the 
material excavated is lifted by a 
single bucket on the end of an arm, 
in the same manner as in the ordi- 
nary steam shoveL (Weatherbe) 



Dipping. 1. (Wales). Same as Dip, 

2. In Scotland it is called a dook. 

3. In ceramics, the process of coat- 
ing a coarse clay body with enamel 
or slip of a fine quality by plunging 
the vessel into the liquid material 
for <*oating. (Century) 

Dipping compass. A compass having 
the needle fixed to swing in a ver- 
tical plane, so it can be readily de- 
flected by magnetic rocks. (Weed) 

Dipping needle. See Dipping compass. 
Dipple (Eng.). Same as Dip, 3. 

Dfp shift. The component of the shift 
(or slip) parallel with the fault 
dip. (Lindgren, p. 122) 

Dip side; Laigh side (Scot.). The low- 
est side of a room or wall. (Bar- 

Dip slip. The component of the slip 
parallel, with the fault dip, or its 
projection on a line in the fault 
surface perpendicular ;to the fault 
strike. (Lindgren, p. 121) 

Dip-slip fault. See Fault. 
Dip slope. See Escarpment. . 

Dip split. A- current of intake air di- 
rected into or down a dip. (Gres- 

Dip switch (Ark.). A slant or piece 
of track connecting the back entry 
or air course of a dipping coal seam 
with the main entry or gangway. 

Dip throw. The component of the slip 
measured parallel with the dip of 
the strata. (Lindgren, p. 124) 

Diputac!6n de mineria (Mex.). A lo- 
cal board, formerly elected in each 
district for the administration of 
all matters relating to the mining 
industry,, abolished by the. Law of 
1892 and substituted by agent es. 

Dipyr. A, variety of scapolite, often 
.used as a prefix to the names of 
rocks that contain the mineral. 

Diqne (Sp.). 1. A mineral dike. 2. 
Dam. (D wight) 

Direcci6n (Sp.). Course; direction; 
strike. (Halse) 

Direct draft Having a single direct 
flue; applied to steam boilers. (Cen- 

Direct firing. .The combustion of coal 
effected by burning directly on a 
grate. (Ingalls, p. 268) 

Direction of strata. The strike, or line 
of bearing. (Hitchcock) 

Direct process. A process which yields 
metal fit for use by a single proc- 
ess from the ore. The direct proc- 
ess for malleable iron is an ancient 
method, which has been to a con- 
siderable extent replaced by the in- 
direct process in which cast iron Is 
first made. (Webster) 

Dirt (Eng.). 1. Clay, bind, dr other 
useless waste produced in mining. 

2. (No. of Eng.) Foul air or fire 
damp. (Gresley) 

3. (Wisconsin zinc district.) Ore 
and waste as broken in the mines. 

4. Auriferous gravel, wash, or pay 
dirt (Skinner) 

5. (Joplin, Mo.) Crude lead-zinc 
ore. The concentrate is called ore. 

Dirt band. 1. A band of debris-filled 
ice alternating with clearer ice in a 
glacier. 2. See also Dirt bed, J.. 

Dirt bed (or band). 1. (Eng.). A thin 
stratum of soft, earthy material in- 
terbedded with coal se^ms. (Gres- 

2. Old soil in which trees, frag- 
ments of timber, and numerous 
plants are found. (Oldham) 

Dirt bing (Scot). A debris heap 
(Barrowman). A waste heap. 

Dirt fault. An area of crushed coal, 
or a partial or total replacement of 
the coal by a soft carbonaceous 
shale or slate with more or less coal 
running through the mass in thin 
stringers (Chance). Not a true 

Dirt ' scraper. A road scraper or a 
grading shovel, used in leveling or 
grading ground. (Century) 

Dirt scratcher. A person whose duty 
it is to take down loose rock, clear 
away dirt, and perform such other 
like work as requires no special 
skill or experience. ( Kelly ville 
Coal Co. v. Humble, 87 Illinois App., 
p. 438) 

Dirty coal (Scot). A coal seam with 
thick partings of blaes or fire clay ; 
a very ashy coal. (Barrowman) 

Disc. See Tappet. 

Discharge clack (Scot). The delivery 
valve of a pump. (Barrowman) 

Discharge, or issue. The expulsion of 
the pulp from a stamp-mill mortar. 
It is also used to designate the dis- 
tance from the bottom of the screen 
to the top of the die, because this 
figure determines, more than any 
any other factor, the rapidity of the 
expulsion of the pulp. (Rickard) 



Discussion, space of. According to 
Posepny, a space or opening in or 
between rocks, formed by deforma- 
tion of the* rocks. Contrasted with 
Space of dissolution. ( La Forge) 

Piscoidal. Having the form of a disk, 
quoit, or ordinary biscuit. (Sloan) 

Discolith. A 4 disco idal coccolith. 

Discordance. In geology, a lack of par- 
allelism between contiguous strata. 
(Standard). An unconformity. 

Discordant injection. An igneous mass 
injected across bedding planes. 
(Daly, p. 63) 

Discordant; stratification. Unconf orm- 
able stratification (Hitchcock). See 
also Discordance. 

Discovery (Pac.). The first finding 
of the mineral deposit in place upon 
a mining claim. A discovery is 
necessary before the location can 
be held by a valid title. The open- 
ing in which it is made is called 
Discovery - shaft, Discovery - tunnel, 
etc (Raymond). See Mine, 6, for 
" Discovery of a mine." 

The finding of mineral in place as 
distinguished from float rock con- 
stitutes a discovery. (Book v. Jus- 
tice Mining Co., 58 Fed. Kept, p. 
120 ; Nevada Sierra Oil Co. v. Home 
Oil Co., 98 Fed. Kept, p. 676; Sho- 
shone Mining Co. v. Rutter, 87 Fed. 
Rept., p. 807; Migeon v. Montana, 
etc., R. Co., 77 Fed Rept., p. 249 ; Mc- 
Shane v. Kenkle, 18 Montana, p. 
208; 44 Pacific, p. 979; U. S. Min. 
Stat, p. 23; pp. 66-70) 

Discovery claim. The first claim in 
which a mineral deposit is found, and 
when this is within a gulch or on a 
stream the claims are simply marked 
or numbered from the discovery 
claim either by letters or figures up 
or down the gulch or stream. Smith. 
v. Cascaden, 148 Fed. Rept., p. 793) 

Disfrute (Sp.). Exploitation of a 
mine; Obras de D., stopes, etc. 

Dish. 1. (Derb.) A rectangular box 
about 28 inches long, 4 inches- deep, 
and 6 inches wide in which" ore is 
measured. 2. (Corn.) A measure 
holding one gallon, used for tin ore 
dressed ready for the smelter. (Cen- 

8. (Corn.) The landowner's or land- 
lord's part of the ore. (Raymond) 
4. (No. of Eng.) The length or por- 
tion of an underground engine plane 
nearest to the pit bottom, upon 
which the empty tubs (cars) stand 
before being drawn inbye. (Ores- 

Dish plate (Eng.). A plate or rail 
concaved to receive the front wheels 
of a tub to secure it while empty- 
ing. (Webster) 

Disintegration. The breaking asunder 
and crumbling away of a rock, due 
to the action of moisture, heat, frost, 
air, and the internal chemical re- 
action of the component parts of 
rocks when acted upon by these sur- 
face influences. (Roy. Com.) 

Disintegrator. A machine for breaking 
coal into powder. 

Disk. 1. A flat circular plate as of 
metal or paper (Webster) 
2. The protecting plate or collar on 
a stamp shaft by which the cam lifts 
the shaft (Da vies). See also Tap- 

Dislocaci6n (Sp.). A fault as, in a 
vein. (Dwight) 

Dislocar (Sp.). To displace; to fault 

Dislocation. A shifting of the relative 
position of the rock on either side 
of a crack, or break. It may be up, 
down, or to one side. Equivalent to 
slip, slide, fault, throw, heave, up- 
throw, downthrow, trouble. (Roy. 

Dispersion. In optical mineralogy, the 
optical constants for different parts 
of the spectrum. (A. F. Rogers) 

Dispersoid. A body that has been dis- 
persed In a liquid. (Rickard) 

Disphenoid, In crystallography, a 
solid figure contained by eight 
isosceles triangles. (Standard) 

Displacement. 1. The word "displace- 
ment" should receive no technical 
meaning, but is reserved for general 
use; it may be applied to a relative 
movement of the two sides of the 
fault, measured in any direction, 
when that direction Is specified ; for 
instance, the displacement of a 
stratum along a drift in a mine 
would be the distance between the 
two sections of the stratum meas- 
ured along the drift. The word 
"dislocation" will also be most use- 
ful in a general sense. (Lindgren, 
p. 119) 

2. The displacement of an air com- 
pressor Is the volume displaced by 
the net area of the compressor pis- 
ton. (A. I. M. E. Bull. 140, p. 57) 

Displacement, horizontal. A term used 
by Tollman to designate Strike slip, 
which tee. (Lindgren, p. 121) 



Displacement, normal. A term used 
by Tolman to designate Dip slip, 
which see. (Llndgren, p. 121) 

Displacement, .total A term used by 
Spurr and Tolman to designate Slip, 
which see. (Lindgren, p. 121) 

Disposal (Scot). The quantity of 
mineral sold. (Barrowman) 

Disruptive. A term applied to that 
kind of force exerted by an explo- 
sive that tends to shatter the rock 
Into fragments. (Bowles) 

Dissected. Cut by erosion into hills 
and valleys or into flat upland areas 
separated by valleys. Applicable 
especially to plains or peneplains 
in process of erosion after an up- 
lift. (Ransome) 

Dissection. In geology, the work of 
erosion in destroying the continuity 
of a relatively even -surf ace by cut- 
ting ravines or valleys into it (Ran- 

Disseminated. To be scattered or dif- 
fused through; "to be permeated 
with. (Roy. Com.) 

Disseminated deposit. See Dissemi- 
nated ore. 

Disseminated ore. Ore carrying tine 
particles of metallic minerals, usu- 
ally sulphides, scattered through 
rock or gangue matter, and without 
genetic significance. (Lindgren, p. 

Dissociate. In chemistry, to resolve, 
through variation of some .physical 
condition, into simpler substances 
that are capable of reuniting to form 
an original one. (Century) 

Dissociation. The act or process con- 
sisting in the reversible re-solution 
or decomposition of substances, with 
complex molecules, into those with 
simpler ones, when produced by a 
variation in physical conditions; 
also the state resulting from such 
process. (Century) 

Dissolution. The act or process of 
dissolving or breaking up. A sepa- 
ration into component parts. (Web- 

Dissolution, space of. According to 
Posepny, a space or cavity in or be- 
tween rocks, formed by the dissolv- 
ing away of rock material. Con- 
trasted with Space of discission. 
(La Forge) 

Dissolving tank. A small tank used 
for dissolving solid cyanide and pre- 
paring a concentrated solution. 
(Clennell, p. 280) 

Dissuing (Corn.). Cutting out the 
selvage or gouge of a lode to facili- 
tate the extraction of ore. (Ray- 
mond). See also Zur. * 

Distance blocks. Wooden blocks 
placed in between the main spears 
and the side pump rods by which the 
proper distance between them is ad- 
justed. (Gresley) 

Disthene. Synonym for Kyanite; 
sometimes used as a prefix in rock 
names. (Kemp) 

Distillate. The product of distillation, 
as petroleum distillate. 

Distillation. Volatilization, followed 
by condensation to the liquid state. 

Distillation furnace. A reverberatory 
heating furnace in which the charge 
is contained In a closed vessel and 
does not come in contact with the 
flame. It has a combustion cham- 
ber in which the gases are burned 
around the retorts containing zine 
ore, the retorts resting on shelves 
inside the chamber. (Ingalls, p. 

Distillation, of petroleum. The proc- 
ess by which heat is applied to the 
crude oil in order that its constit- 
uents may pass off in vapor, and 
by suitable arrangements subse- 
quently collected in the form of * 
liquid. (Mitzakls) 

Distortion. The act of distorting or 
twisting out of place, or out of 
shape. (Hitchcock) 

Distributive fault See Fault 

Distributor. 1. A de>lce for distribut- 
ing the charge when dumped into- 
blast furnace; (Wlllcox) 
2. An apparatus for distributing an 
electric current, either to various 
points In rotation, as In some mo- 
tors, or along two or more lines la 
parallel, as in a distributing sys- 
fern. (Webster) 

District. 1. In the States and Terri- 
tories west of the Missouri (prior to 
1880), a vaguely bounded and tem- 
porary division and organization 
made by the inhabitants of a min- 
ing region. A district has one code 
of . mining laws, and one recorder 
(Raymond). Counties and county 
oflicers have practically taken the 
place of these cruder arangements. 
2. A limited area of underground 
workings. '. ( Gresley ) 

District rope (Aust). A rope used 
for hauling skips in a district or 
section of a colliery. (Power) 



Disturbance. The bending or faulting 
of a rock or stratum from its origi- 
nal position. (Roy. Com.) 

Disturbed. Said of an orebody when 
lacking defined walls and settled 
character. (Weed) 

Ditch. 1. An artificial watercourse, 
flume, or canal, to convey water for 
mining. A flume is usually of 
wood; a ditch, of earth. (Ray- 

2. (Leic.) To clog; to impede. 

Ditch drain. A gutter excavated in 
the floor of a gangway or airway 
to carry the water to the sump, or 
out to the surface. (Chance) 

Ditched top (Leic.). A coal seam 
which has a hard unyielding top, 
and is with difficulty separated from 
the roof, is said to have a ditched 
top. (Gresley) 

Ditcher; Circle cutting drill. A drill 
mounted on a frame that rotates 
about a central axis. It is used to 
cut circular trenches for the pro- 
duction of large grindstones. 

Ditching. 1. Making of ditches. 

2. The digging or making of a ditch 
by the use of explosives. See also 
Propagated blast. (Du Pont) 

Ditching car. A car provided with 
derricks and scoops to excavate 
ditches, as in a railway cut. 

Ditching machine. An excavating ma- 
chine for digging trenches. (Stand- 

Ditch water. The stale or stagnant 
water collected in a ditch. (Cen- 

Ditch wiring. The method of connect- 
ing electric blasting caps in such 
a way that the two free ends can 
be connected at one end of the line 
of holes. (Du Pont) 

Ditroite. A nephelite - syenite from 
Ditro in Hungary, especially rich in 
blue sodalite. (Kemp) 

Divide; Dividing range. The water- 
shed or height-of-land from which 
the heads of streams flow in oppo- 
site directions. (Roy. Com.) 

Dividing slate. A stratum of slate 
separating two benches of a coal 
bed (Chance). A parting. 

Divinatoria. A divining rod. (Hoo- 

Divining rod; Dowsing rod (Corn.). 
A rod (most frequently of witch- 
hazel, and forked in shape) used,. 
according to an old but still extant 
superstition, for discovering mineral 
veins and springs of water, andt 
even for locating oil wells. 

Divisional planes. Planes which di- 
vide rocks into separate masses,, 
large or small, in the same way as- 
joints, fissures, and backs. (Roy~ 

Division rope (Aust). See Buffer 

Dizzue (Corn.). See Dissuing. 

D-link. A flat iron bar. attached to 
chains, and suspended by a rope- 
from a windlass. It forms a loop in 
which a man sits when lowered or 
raised in a shaft or winze. (Ores- 

Do (doo) (Leic., Derb.). See Bout, 2. 

Doab. 1. A dark sandy clay found to 
the vicinity of many Irish bogs. 

2. The tract of land between two 
streams immediately above their 
confluence. 3. The confluence of 
two streams. (Standard) 

Doak; Donk (Derb:). Flucao. 

Doar (Corn.). The earth ; whence ore^ 
the earth of metals. (Pryce) 

Dobby wagon (York). A cart for con- 
veying waste material (rock, etc.> 
from a mine. (Gresley) 

'Dobie. A term applied to the mud cap> 
or adobe method of secondary blast- 
ing. See also Mud cap. 

Dobla (Peru). Night shift ( Dwight K 
In Chile, a double shift (Halse) 

Doblar (Sp.). To bend; to work two 
shifts in succession. (Dwight) 

D6cil (Sp.). Docile; malleable; free- 
milling. (Dwight) 

Dock. 1. (N. Y. and Pa.) A local 
term among bluestone quarrymett 
and dealers for yards where tim 
bluestone is unloaded as hauled? 
from the quarries, and reloaded for 
transportation by rail or water to- 
fts destination. (Bowles) 
2. A crib for holding loose or run- 
ning rock from obstructing a track 
or passageway. (Sander, p. 115) 



Dodd buddle. A round table resembling 
In operation, a Wilfley table, and 
also like the Finder concentrator 
(which see) except that it is convex 
instead of concave. The table does 
not revolve but has a peripheral 
jerking motion imparted to it cir- 
cumferentially by means of a toggle 
movement. (Liddell) 

Dodecahedral cleavage. In crystallog- 
raphy, cleavage parallel to the faces 
of the rhombic dodecahedron. (La 

Dodecahedral mercury. Native amal- 
gam containing 75 per cent mercury 
and 25 per cent silver. (Humble) 

Dodecahedron. 1. In crystallography, 
an isometric form composed of twelve 
faces, each parallel to one axis and 
intersecting the other two axes at 
equal distances: specifically named 
the rhombic dodecahedron. 2. An 
isometric form composed of twelve 
faces, each parallel to one axis and 
Intersecting the other two axes at un- 
equal distances: Specifically named 
the pentagonal dodecahedron; also 
called Pyritohedron. (La Forge) 

Dodecant. In crystallography, in the 
hexagonal system, one of the twelve 
parts into which the space about the 
center of symmetry is divided by the 
axial planes of symmetry. (La 

Dodge crusher; Similar to Blake 
crusher, except the movable jaw is 
hinged at the bottom. Therefore the 
discharge opening Is fixed, giving a 
more uniform product than the 
Blake with its discharge opening 
varying every stroke. (Liddell). 
This type of crusher gives the great- 
est movement on the largest lump. 

Dodge pulverizer. A hexagonal barrel 
revolving on a horizontal axis, con- 
taining perforated die plates and 
screens. Pulverizing is done by 
steel balls inside the barrel. (Lid- 

Dog. 1. Any of various devices for 
holding, gripping or fastening some- 
thing. 2. A drag for the wheel of 
a vehicle. (Webster) 

3. (Scot.) A hook-headed spike for 
fastening down flat-bottomed rails. 

4. (Scot.) A spring hook, most 
commonly in use for attaching a 
sinking bucket to the winding rope. 
(Barrowman) ^ 

5. An iron bar, spiked at the ends, 
with which timbers are held to- 
gether or steadied. (Gresley) . 

6. A short heavy iron bar, used as 
a drag behind a car or trip of cars 

when ascending a slope to prevent 
them running back down the slope 
in case of accident. A drag. (Steel) 
7. See Casing dog; also Pipe dog. 

Dog-and-chain. 1. An iron lever with 
a chain attached by which props 
are withdrawn. (Gresley) 
2. See Dog belt. 

Dog belt (Mid.). A strong broad 
piece of leather buckled round the 
waist, to which a short piece of 
chain is attached, passing between 
the legs of the man drawing a dan 
(tub) in a mine. (Gresley) 

Dog clip (Aust). Same as Clip. 

Dogger. 1. (Clev.). A bed of inferior 
ironstone overlying the main seam. 

2. (Scot.). An irregular piece ot 
stony coal in a seam. (Barrow- 

Doggy (So. Staff.). An underground 
superintendent, employed by the 
butty. ( Raymond ) 

Doghole. A small opening from one 

place in a coal mine to another; 

smaller than a breakthrough. 

Dog hook. 1. (Eng.) A long hook 
for drawing an empty wagon. 

2. A strong hook or wrench for sepa- 
rating iron boring rods. 3. An iron 
bar with a bent prong, used in han- 
dling logs. (Century) 

Dog house. 1. (Joplin, Mo.) A wash- 
room; dry house; change house. 2. 
(Joplin) A box or platform on 
which a can or bucket rests at the 
bottom of a shaft. 3. In furnace 
practice, See Forechamber. 

Dog iron. A short bar of iron with 
both ends pointed and bent down so 
as to hold together two pieces of 
wood into which the points are 
driven, or one end may be bent 
down and pointed, while the othel 
is formed into an eye, so that if the 
point be driven into a log, the other 
end may be used to attach a chain 
for hauling. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Dog-on; Dug-on (Scot.). To put the 
hutches on the cage. This term 
probably had its origin in the hook- 
ing of the bucket to the rope by 
means of a dog hook. (Barrowman) 

Dogs. 1. (Eng.) In the plural: Bits 
of wood at the bottom of an air 
door (Bainbridge). 2. See also 
Cage shuts. 3. See Dog, for vari- 
ous other meanings. 



Dogstone. A rough or shap<}d stone 
used for a millstone. (Century) 

Dogtooth spar. A variety of calcite 
with sharp-pointed crystals. ( Stand- 

Dogwatch (Aust). The night shift in 
a colliery (Power). See also Grave- 
yard shift. 

Doit (Eng.). Foulness, or damp air. 

Dol (Corn.). Pronounced doll. A val- 
ley or dale. (Pryce) 

D61 (Corn.). Any part or share of 
the adventure or tin ore, as one- 
eighth, one-sixteenth, one-thirty-sec- 
ond, or the like. (Pryce) 

Dol-coth. An old field or meadow; an 
old valley or dale. The name of a 
great mine in Camborne, Cornwall. 

Dole. A division of a parcel of ore. 
(Raymond). Also spelled Dffl.- 

Dolerita (Mex.'). Dolerite. (Dwight) 

Dolerite. Coarsely crystalline basalt 
The word has had a somewhat vari- 
able meaning during its history and 
among different peoples. The Eng- 
lish use it in place of diabase; in- 
deed the definition given here jus- 
tifies this usage, except that the 
characteristic texture of diabase is 
not essential to this definition of 
dolerite. But the diabasic texture is 
more of a microscopic feature than 
a megascopic. (Kemp) 

Dolina. In geology, one of the natural 
funnel-form water tubes worn down 
vertically through limestone strata 
to their underground drainage. 

Dolly. 1. (Aust.) An instrument used 
for breaking and mixing clay in the 
puddling tub. 2. A heavy timber 
shod with iron, and hung from a 
tree or other support and formerly 
used for crushing quartz. (Dairies) 
8. To break up quartz with a piece 
of wood shod with iron, in order 
to be able to wash out the gold. 

4. A device consisting, of a small 
platform and a single wide roller, 
used as a truck for timber, etc., or 
when inverted as a stationary roller. 

5. (So. Staff.). A cast-iron weight 
used when men ride in the shaft, to 
act as a counter-balance to the wind- 
Ing engine. (Gresley) 

6. A tool for sharpening machine- 
drill bits. (Gillette, p. 53) 

7. To concentrate (ore) by use of 
a dolly tub. 8. A wooden disk for 
stirring the ore in a dolly-tub, in ore- 
concentration by the tossing and 
packing process (Standard). See 
also Dolly-tub. 

Dolly tub (Corn.). A tub in which ore 
is washed, being agitated by a dolly, 
or perforated board (Raymond). 
See also Dolly, 7 and 8. 

Dolomla (Mex.). Dolomite. (Dwight) 

Dolomite. 1. A carbonate of calcium 
and magnesium, (Ca, Mg) CO. (U. 
S. Gjeol. Surv.) 

2. A term .applied to those rocks 
that approximate the mineral dolo- 
mite in composition. Named by 
Saussure, after Dolomieu, an early 
French geologist (Kemp). Also 
called Magnesian limestone. It oc- 
curs in a great many crystalline 
and noncrystalline forms, the same 
as pure limestone, and among rocks 
of all geological ages, When the 
carbonate of magnesia is not pres- 
ent in the above proportion the rock 
may still be called a magnesian 
limestone, but not a dolomite, strict- 
ly speaking. (Roy. Com.) 

Dolomite limestone. See Dolomite, 2. 

Dolomitic. Composed of or similar to 
dolomite. ( Century ) 

Dolomitization; Dolomization. The 
process whereby limestone becomes 
dolomite by the substitution of mag- 
nesium carbonate for a portion of 
the original calcium carbonate. If 
the MgCOa approximates the 45.65 
pet cent, of the mineral dolomite, 
there is great shrinkage in bulk, 
leading to the development of po- 
rosity and* cavities up to 11 per 
cent, of the original rock. (Kemp) 

Dome. 1. To swell upward like a 
dome. 2. The upper part of a fur- 
nace. 8. The vertical steam cham- 
ber on top of a boiler. 4. A crystal 
form composed of planes parallel to 
a lateral axis which meets in a hori- 
zontal edge like the roof of a house. 
5. In geology, an uplift in which 
the beds dip outward in all direc- 
tions from a center (Webster). Oil 
and gas pools are frequently found 
beneath domes. 

Domeykite. A reniform and botry- 
oidal, tin-white to steel-gray copper 
arsenide, CusAs ; also found massive 
and disseminated. (Dana) 

744010 O 47- 




Domite. A more or less decomposed 
trachyte from the Pi^y de Dome in 
the French volcanic district of the 
Auvergne. The typical domite con- 
tains oligoclase and is impregnated 
with hematite. (Kemp) 

Bonk (No. of Eng.). Clay or soft 
earth, found in cross veins and flats 
(Davies). See also Doak. 

Donkey. See Barney. Also used 
synonymously for Donkey engine, 
Donkey pump, Donkey hoist. 

Donkey engine. A small auxiliary 
engine. (Webster) 

Donkey hoist. An auxiliary hoisting 
engine operated by steam or com- 
pressed air. 

Donkey pump. Any of several kinds 
of combined pump and steam engine. 
It may be operated independently 
of the engine : Used to supply water 
to a boiler, drain sumps, etc. 

Donnick; Donock; Donnock. A varia- 
tion of Dornick. 

Dook. 1. ( Scot. ) A mine or roadway 
driven to the dip, usually the main 
road (Barrowman). See also Slope. 
2. (Som.) An underground inclined 
plane. (Gresley) 

Dook workings (Scot). Workings be- 
low the level of the shaft bottom. 

Door. A movable frame or barrier 
of boards, or other material, usually 
turning on hinges or pivots, by 
means of which a passage way may 
be opened or closed (Webster). 
Doors are placed in air passages of 
mines to prevent the ventilating cur- 
rent from taking a short cut to the 
upcast shaft, and to direct the cur- 
rent to the working face. 

Door chain (Scot.*). A chain with ad- 
justing screw by which the bucket 
and clack door of a pump are sus- 
pended. (Barrowman) 

Door heads (Scot). The roof or top 
of the workings at a shaft. (Bar- 

Doorpiece. That portion of a lift of 
pumps which contains the clack or 
valve. (Duryee) 

Doorstead. 1. (Eng.). Upright tim- 
bers in the sides of levels for sup- 
ports. (Bainbridge) 
2. The entrance or place of a door. 

Door stoop (Scot). A pillar or block 
of mineral left around a shaft for 
its protection, (Barrowman) 

Door tender. A boy whose duty it is 
to open and close a mine door be- 
fore and after the passage of a train 
of mine cars. Also called Trapper. 

Door trapper. See Door tender. 

Dope. An absorbent material; es- 
pecially in high explosives, the saw- 
dust, infusorial earth, mica, etc., 
mixed with nitroglycerin as in dyna- 
mite. (Webster) 

Dopplerite. An asphalt found in New 
Zealand and some parts of Siberia. 
It resembles elaterite. (Mitzakis) 

Dor6. Gold and silver bullion which 
remains in a cupelling furnace after 
the lead has been oxidized and 
skimmed off. (Bull, 98, U. S. Bur. 
Mines, p. 70) 

Dor6 bullion. Same as Base bullion. 
Compare Dor4. 

Dor furnace. A regenerative zinc-dis- 
tillation furnace with heat-recuper- 
ating chambers at the ends of the 
furnace instead of beneath the com- 
bustion chamber. (Ingalls, p. 4G3) 

Dornick; Dornock (U. S.). A small 
rock or bowlder ; specifically a bowl- 
der of iron ore found in limonite 
mines (Webster). 

Dorongee (pronounced duruni) (As- 
sam, India). A gold-washing trough. 

Dorr agitator. An agitating machine 
based on the thickener principle. 
It is essentially a Dorr classifier 
equipped with a central air lift 

Dorr classifier. A machine to dimin- 
ish the amount of water required 
for classification by raking the 
heavier grains up an inclined plane 
against a light current of water, 
which washes away the lighter ma- 
terial. It is of the intermittent 
type. (Liddell) 

Dose. A special charge used in a blast 
furnace, designed to cure furnace 
troubles. (Willcox) 

Dott; Dott-hole. A small opening in 
the vein. (Raymond) 

Double-acting pump. ( Scot ). A pump 
which discharges at both forward 
and backward stroke. (Barrow- 

Double bank. 1. To takq up a claim 
parallel with and adjoining another 
claim containing an auriferous vein 
or lead. 2. Working with double 
sets or relays of men. (Duryee) 



Double-bank cages (Wales). Cages 
having two decks, or a multiple of 
two, so that decking (caging) may. 
be performed at two levels or banks. 

Double core-barrel drill A core drill 
having an inner tube that is sus- 
pended on ball bearings and thus 
may remain still while the outer 
tube revolves. It is designed to 
bring out a core from a delicate ma- 
terial with a minimum of breaking 
or other damage. (Bowles) 

Double crib (Eng.). Two wedging 
cribs placed one on the top of an- 
other. (Gresley) 

Double-diamond bottom (Ark.). An 
arrangement of track at the shaft 
bottom consisting of two parallel 
tracks (one to each compartment of 
the shaft) with a double crossover 
track between them and repeated on 
each side of the shaft. (Steel) 

Double-entry. 1. A pair of entries in 
flat or .gently dipping coal so laid 
out that rooms can be driven from 
both entries; twin entries (Steel). 
See also Entry. 

2. A system of ventilation by which 
the air current is brought into the 
rooms through one entry and out 
through a parallel entry or air 
course. (Steel) 

Double-entry room-and-pillar mining, 
See Room-and-pillar method. 

Double-handed gear (Newc.). Heavy 
drilling tools which require two men 
to use them. (Min. Jour.) 

Double header. A term applied to 
quarry equipment consisting of two 
independent channeling machines on 
a single truck, operated by one man. 

Double-image prism. A prism made of 
Iceland spar, giving two images of 
equal intensity, but polarized at 
right angles to each other. (Stand- 

Double load. A charge in a bore hole 
separated by a quantity of inert 
material for the purpose of dis- 
tributing the effect, or for prevent- 
ing part of the charge blowing out 
at a seam or fissure, in which case 
the inert material is placed so as to 
include the seam. (Du Pont) 

Double-men. See Doublefllck. 

Double, or Duplex hammer. A forg- 
ing device striking on opposite sides, 
as of a bloom. (Standard) 

Double-pick; Double-men (Corn.). Two 
men who use one pick, one during 
the day, and one at night, so that 
the pick is kept constantly at work. 

Double-refracting spar. Same as Ice- 

Double refraction. Refraction shown 
by certain crystals that split the in- 
cident ray into two refracted rays, 
polarized in perpendicular planes. 

Double-room system. See Room-and- 
pillar method. 

Doubles (Som.). The repeated folds 
or overlaps of the coal strata in 
the Radstock district. (Gresley) 

Double-shear steel. Converted steel 
that has been twice fagoted and 
drawn out. (Standard) 

Double shift. 1. Two sets of men at 
work, one set relieving the other. 
2. To employ two shifts of men, or 
to work double shift (Steel) 

Double stall (Wales). A system of 
working coal in which the roof falls 
within chambers of a limited 
width. (Gresley) 

Double-tape fuse. Fuse of superior 
qualtity, or having a heavy and 
strong covering. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Double timber (Wales). Two props 
and a bar placed across the tops of 
them to support the roof and sides 
of a heading. (Gresley) 

Double working (No. of Eng.). Two 
hewers (miners) working together 
in the same heading. (Gresley) 

Doubling. 1. A process for the treat- 
ment of antimony sulphide by fus- 
ing it with iron or other antimony 
containing iron, so as to form an 
iron sulphide, the removal of which 
eliminates both iron and sulphur. 

2. (Scot.) Thickening of a seam, 
sometimes due to its being folded 
over or doubled (Barrowman). See 
also Doubles. 

Douce. See Douse. 

Douglas furnace. A horizontal, revolv- 
ing cylindrical furnace having a cen- 
tral flue. (Ingalls, p. 160) 

Douglas process. See Hunt and Doug- 
las process. (Raymond) 

Douk; Douke; Dowk (Eng.). A soft 
clay found in veins. Probably de- 
rived from the Saxon deagan, to 
knead or mix with water. (Hunt) 



Doup out (Scot). To connect a drift 
with one formerly driven in stoop- 
and-room workings. (Barrowman) 

Dour holing (Scot). Difficult under- 
cutting in hard coal or stone. (Bar- 

Douse; Dowse. 1. To beat out or ex- 
tinguish an ignited jet of fire damp 
(Gresley). Also spelled Douce. 
2. To search for deposits of ore, for 
lodes, or water, by aid of the dous- 
ing or divining rod. (Century) 

Dowk (No. of Eng.). A dark-colored 
clayey material forming part of a 
vein (Standard). See also Douk. 

Down (Eng.). Underground ; in the 
pit (Gresley) 

Down brow (Lane.). A dip incline 
underground. (Gresley) 

Downcast. 1. The shaft through 
which the fresh air is drawn or 
forced into the mine ; the intake 
(Steel,; Coal Run Coal Co. v. Jones, 
127 Illinois, p. 381) 
2. (Eng.) A fault which throws 
a coal seam downwards. See also 
Downleap. (Gresley) 

Downcomer. A pipe to conduct some- 
thing downward, as a pipe for 
leading hot gases from the top of 
a Wast furnace 'downward to the 
regenerators, boilers, ' etc. (Web- 
ster). Sometimes called Downcome. 

Downdraft. A downward draft as in 
a flue, chimney, shaft of a mine, 
etc. (Webster) 

Down-draft kiln. A kiln in which the 
heat enters the chamber from the 
top and passes down through the 
ware. (Ries) 

Downer (Som.). A rest or cessation 
from work, say half an hour, taken 
during a shift or turn. (Gresley) 

Downfall (So. Staff.). A downthrow. 
(Min. Jour.) 

Down holes. Drill holes that incline 
downward. (H. C. Hoover, p. 100) 

Down-leap (Mid.). A dislocation of 
strata which has caused a coal seam 
to be aburptly cut off and brought 
below its original level. See also 
Downthrow. (Gresley) 

Downs (Eng.). The rounded, dry, and 
unwooded chalk hills of Kent, Sur- 
rey, Sussex, and adjacent counties. 

Downset (Scot). A short drift to the 
dip. (Barrowman) 

Down spouts (Lane.). Pipes fixed 
down the sides of a shaft for con- 
ducting water from one level or 
sump to another. (Gresley) 

Downthrow, t&fenerally applied as 
meaning that side of a fault which 
has moved downward. This use is 
objectionable, since determinations 
of throw are always relative and it 
can rarely be told which side of the 
fault has moved. The term should 
be used with the definite under- 
standing that it refers merely to a 
relative and not an absolute dis- 
placement. (Lindgren, p. 118) 

Downward enrichment. A term which 
is synonymous with "secondary en- 
richment" as the latter has applied 
to enrichment of ore bodies by the 
downward percolation of waters. 

Dowse. To use the dipping or divin- 
ing rod, as in search of water, ore, 
etc. (Webster). See Douse. 

Dowser. A divining rod for dowsing; 
also one who uses a divining rod 
(Webster). See Divining rod. 

Dowsing rod; Dowzing rod (Som.). 
See Divining rod; also Dowser. 

Dowson producer. A furnace used for 
the manufacture of producer gas. 
(Ingalls, p. 305) 

Dradge (Corn.). The inferior portions 
of ore, separated from the best ore 
by cobbing. (Raymond) 

Dradgy lode (Eng.). A lode through 
which the mineral is so thinly dis- 
seminated as to be scarcely worth 
the expense of dressing. Such lode, 
ore-stuff, or stone is called dradgy. 

Draft. 1. ( Wales 1 Allowance coal. 
About 360 Ibs. per week to every 
householder. (Gresley) 
2. Act of drawing. 3. A load; the 
quantity drawn forward, up or out. 
4. A current of any sort, as of air 
in a room or chimney. 5. The area 
of an opening or group of openings 
for the discharge of water, as the 
draft of a turbine wheel. (Web- 

Draftage. A deduction made from the 
gross weight of ore to allow for loss 
in transportation. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Draft engine (Corn.). An engine used 
for pumpjng. (Min. Jour.) 

Draft hole. An opening through which 
air is supplied to a furnace. (Cen- 



Drag. 1. A wooden or iron bar placed 
between the spokes of the wheels of 
trams to check their speed upon an 
inclined way. See Back stay (Ores- 
ley). A brake, or sprag. 
2. An appliance to be attached to 
the rear of a loaded train of cars to 
prevent the cars from running down 
the incline or grade in case the cable 
should break. (Brookside Coal Min. 
Co. v. Hajnal, 101, Illinois App., p. 
177; Brookside Coal Min. Co. v. 
Dolph, 101, Illinois App., p. 169) 
8. The frictional resistance offered 
to a . current of air in a mine. 

4. The lower part of a flask. The 
mold baying been prepared in the 
two parts of the flask, the cope is 
put upon the drag before casting. 
After casting, the flask is opened by 
removing the cope. (Raymond) 
0. Fragments of ore torn from a 
lode by a fault Such fragments are 
scattered along the line of the fault 
and are usually inclosed within 
crushed or bracciated pieces of the 
rock traversed by that fault. Sec- 
ondary mineralization along the 
fault may obscure the true char- 
acter of the "drag" in which case 
the difference in associated minerals 
may prove suggestive. (Min. and 
Set Press, May 29, 1915.) 
6. An iron blast-hole cleaner; drag- 
twist. 7. A runnerless sled for 
drawing rough heavy stone, etc.; a 
stone-boat (Standard) 

Draga (Sp.). 1. Dredge; dredger. 2. 
A miner's shovel. (Halse) 

Dragagem; Draga je (Port). Dredg- 
ing. (Halse) 

Dragbar; Back stay (Aust). An iron 
bar fastened to the back of a skip 
to prevent the latter running down 
hill in case the hauling rope breaks 
(Power). See also Drag, 2. 

Drag bolt. A coupling pin. (Web- 

Drag chain. A chain to make fast a 
wheel of a vehicle so that the wheel 
will act as a drag. 

Dragline scraper. A type of apparatus 
for the removal of soil. It consists 
of one or more buckets or scrapers 
attached to an endless cable or belt 
operated by a drum or sprocket 

Dragon (So. Staff.) A barrel in which 
water is raised from a shallow 
shaft (Gresley) 

Dragonera (Peru). Passage of the 
flame into the furnace at the fire 
bridge. (D wight) 

Dragonite. A fabulous stone said to be 
obtained from the head of the flying 
dragon. Quartz crystals, found in 
gravel, which have lost their bril- 
liancy and angular form, and conse- 
quently their identity, were for- 
merly thought to have had the origin 
indicated above. (Pliny Hist., Bk. 
37, p. 57) 

Dragons' skin (Eng.). A familiar 
term among miners and quarrymen 
for the stems of Lepitfodendron, 
whose rhomboklal leaf scars some- 
what resemble the scales of reptiles. 

Dragsman (No. of Eng.). A man em- 
ployed as a pusher of tubs (cars) 
in underground working places. 

Dragstaff. A pole projecting back- 
ward and downward from a vehicle^ 
to prevent it from running back- 
ward. See Backstay; also Drag. 2. 

Drag-stone mill. A mill in which ores r 
etc., are ground b*y means of a heavy 
stone dragged around on a circular 
or annular stone bed (Webster). 
See Arrastre. 

Drag twist. A spiral hook at the end 
of a rod, for cleaning bore holes. 

Drain. A ditch cut in a mine floor or 
bottom. (Roy) 

Drainage basin. See Basin, 1. 

Draught (So. Staff.) The quantity 
of coal hoisted in a given time (Ray- 
mond. See Draft, 3. 

Draw. 1. (So. Staff.) Strictly 
speaking, the distance on the sur- 
face to which the subsidence or 
creep extends beyond the workings. 

2. The effect of creep upon the pil- 
lars of a mine. 3. To draw the 
pillars; to mine out the pillars, or 
to pull or rob them after the rooms 
are worked out. Called Pull in Ar- 
kansas. (Steel) 

4. (Scot) The distance that min- 
eral is hauled by trammers. (Bar- 

5. In geology, a valley or basin, 

6. To raise ore, coal, rock, etc., to 
the surface; to hoist 

Draw a charge. To take a charge 
from a furnace. (C. and M. M. P.) 



Draw bar. 1. A bar used to connect 
rolling stock, ns a bar with a single 
eye at each end for coupling together 
a locomotive and its tender. (Web- 

2. A heavy beam under the body of 
a railway -car and projecting at the 
end for coupling cars. Some ar- 
rangement for coupling is placed at 
the outer end, and springs at the 
inner end to lessen recoil In start- 
ing, coupling, etc. (Standard) 

Drawer. 1. (Scot.) A man or boy 
who takes ore or rock from the 
working face to the shaft, or termi- 
nus of the horse or haulage road 
(Barrowman). One who pushes 
trams or drives a horse under- 

2. (Derb.) A man who hoists ore 
or rock by means of a windlass, or 
otherwise, from a shaft. (Hooson) 

Drawhead. The head of a draw bar. 

Draw hole. An aperture in a battery 
through which the coal is drawn. 

Drawing. 1. Recovering the timbers, 
chocks, etc., from the goaves. This 
work is commonly performed with 
the use of the Dog-and-chain, which 
see. 2. Knocking away the sprags 
from beneath the coal after holing. 

3. Raising coal, through a shaft or 
slope. (Gresley) 

4. In hydraulic mining, throwing 
the water beyond the dirt to be re- 
moved and causing it to flow to- 
ward the giant (Hanks). Compare 

Drawing a jud. 1. (No. of Eng.) 
Bringing down the face of coal, by 
withdrawing the sprags. (Gresley) 
2. See Jud, 4. 

Drawing an entry. Removing the last 
of the coal from an entry. (Hargis) 

Drawing engine (Eng.). A winding 
or hoisting engine. (Gresley) 

Drawing lift. The lowest lift of a 
cornish pump, or that lift in which 
the water rises by suction (atmos- 
pheric pressure) to the point where 
it is forced upward by the plunger. 

Drawing road (Scot.). An under- 
ground passage along which ore or 
coal is conveyed. (Barrowman) 

Drawing small. When a winding rope, 
from the effects of wear and tear, 
has become less in diameter or in 
thickness from that cause, it is said 
to be "drawing smalL" (Gresley) 

Draw kiln (Scot). A lime-kiln in 
which the process of calcination is 
carried on continuously, the raw 
limestone and fuel being put in at 
the top and the lime withdrawn at 
the bottom. (Barrowman) 

Drawlift. Same as Drawing lift. 

Drawn. The condition in which an 
entry or room is left after all the 
coal has been removed. (Hargis) 

Drawn clay. Clay that is shrunk or 
decreased in volume by burning. 

Draw slate. A soft slate u shale or 
rock from two inches to two feet 
in thickness, above the coal, and 
which falls with the coal or soon 
after the coal is removed (Harr). 
(Lumaghi Coal Co. v. Grenard, 133 
Illinois App., p. 30; Interstate Coal 
Co. v. Trivett, 155 Kentucky, p. 828) 

Draw wood; Draw trees (Scot.). To 
extract and recover mine timbers. 

Dredge. 1. A scoop or suction ap- 
paratus, operated by power, and 
usually mounted on a flat-bottomed 
boat, for clearing out or deepening 
channels, harbors, etc., by taking up 
and removing mud or gravel from 
their bottoms. Extensively used in 
mining gold-bearing sand and gravel. 
For this purpose it is equipped with 
screening apparatus and gold-saving 
devices. Also called Dredging ma- 

2. Inferior ore separated from .the 
better ore by cobbing (Webster). 
Sometimes written Dradge. 

3. Very fine mineral matter held in 
suspension in water. (Raymond) 

Dredge boat. A boat bearing a dredg- 
ing machine, especially one used in 
dredging river channels and in min- 
ing gold-bearing sand and gravel. 

Dredger. 1. One who uses a dredge. 
2. A boat employed in dredging. 3. 
A dredging machine. (Webster) 

Dredge sump (No. of Eng.). A small 
reservoir at the bottom of a shaft, 
in which the water collects and de- 
posits any sediments or dfibris. 

Dredging. 1. The act of using a 
dredge. 2. The material brought up 
by a dredge. (Century) 

Dredging m? chine. See Dredge, 1. 

Dredging pump. A pump for drawing 
up silt, loose sand, etc., as in dredg- 
ing (Standard). 



Dredging tube. The large tube of a 
dredging machine that operates by 
suction for the removal of mud, 
sand, etc. (Standard) 

Dredgy ore (Corn.). A rock Impreg- 
nated with or traversed by minute 
veins of mineral (Min. Jour.). Also 
called Dradgy ore, or Drady trade. 

Dreelite. A variety of barite. ( Dana ) 

Dress* 1. To clean ore by breaking off 
fragments of the gangue from the 
valuable mineral (Whitney). See 
Ore dressing. 

2. The furrowing on a millstone 
face. (Webster) 

Dressants (Fr.). Very steep lying 
seams of coal, etc. (Gresley) 

Dressed rocks. Same as Roches mou- 
tanne"es. ( Standard ) 

Dresser. 1. (Mid.). A tool used by 
colliers and banksmen for splitting 
large lumps of coal, and for clean- 
ing coal for the market A nooper. 

2. A tool or apparatus for cutting 
and dressing the furrows on the face 
of a millstone. (Century) 

3. The superintendent of persons 
employed In picking, washing, and 
dressing ore. 4. In the plural, those 
persons engaged In ore dressing. 

Dressing. 1. (Mid.) Trimming and 
cleaning up a stall face after the 
loaders have left off work. (Gres- 

2. (Corn.). The picking and sorting 
of ores, and washing, preparatory to 
reduction. (Raymond) 

Dressing floor. The floor, place, or 
yard where ores are rough dressed 
or sorted. 

Dressing works. See Concentrator; 
also Ore dressing. 

Driblet-cone. A small fantastic cone, 
formed by the adhesion of congeal- 
ing driblets of liquid lava from a 
volcanic blowhole: contrasted with 
cinder cone. (Standard) 

Dries, or Dry. Seams in the rock, 
which are usually invisible in the 
freshly quarried material, but which 
may open up in cutting or on ex- 
posure to the weather. See also 
Dry, 1 and 2. (Ries) 

Drift. 1. A horizontal passage under- 
ground. A drift follows the vein, as 
distinguished from a crosscut, which 
intersects it, or a level or gallery, 
which may do either. (Raymond) 
2. In coal mining, a gangway or en- 
try above wsfter level, driven from 
the surface in the seam. (Steel) 

3. (No. of Eng.) A heading driven 
on the strike of the coal seam. 4. 
(Forest of Dean) A hard shale. 

5. To make a drift ; to drive. (Web- 

6. Any rock material, such as 
bowlders, till, gravel, sand, or clay, 
transported by a glacier and de- 
posited by or from the ice or by 
or in water derived from the melt- 
ing of the ice. Generally used of 
the glacial deposits of the Pleisto- 
cene epoch. Detrital deposits. (La 

Drift and pillar (No* Staff.). A sys- 
tem of working coal similar to the 
room and pillar system. 

Drift-band (111.). A thin band or 
layer of soft earthy material occur- 
ring in a coal seam. 

Drift-bed. In geology, a layer of drift 
of sufficient uniformity to be dis- 
tinguished from associated ones of 
similar origin; a drift stratum. 

Driftbolt. A bolt for securing together 
successive layers, as of stones in a 
foundation or of timbers in a gril- 
lage. (Webster) 

Drift copper. Native copper found In 
gravel and clay, far from the origi- 
nal orebody, from which it has been 
carried by glaciers. (Weed) 

Drift deposit. Any accumulation of 
glacial origin; glacial or fluvio-gla- 
cial deposit. (Century) 

Drift epoch. Same as Glacial epoch. 

Drifting. Opening a drift; driving a 
drift See also Drift, 1, 2, and 3. 

Drifting back (No. Staff.). The oper- 
ation of mining the pillars toward 
the pit bottom as soon as the cross 
headings are driven. (Gresley) 

Drifting curb. A wooden frame forced 
downward through quicksand, hav- 
ing planks driven at the back of it 
to keep out the sand and water. 

Drift map. A map showing the dis- 
tribution of various glacial and flu- 
vlo-glacial deposits, generally called 
drift. (Century) 

Drift mine. A mine opened by a drift 

Drift mining. A method of mining 
gold-bearing gravel, or cement, by 
means of drifts and shafts, as dis- 
tinguished from the process of hy- 
draulic mining (Webster). Sef 
Placer mining. 



Drift peat, A peat deposit associated 
with or embedded in glacial drift. 

Drift scratches. Marks on the surface 
of solid ledges of rocks, supposed to 
have been produced by the grinding 
action of masses of soil, gravel 
and rocks, during glacial movement. 

Drift slabs. Slabs of more than ordi- 
nary length, used especially for hold- 
ing back dirt, sand and water from 
a shaft. (Duryee) 

Drift stoping. See Sublevel stoping. 
Driftway. See Drift, 1. 

Driggoe (Corn.). The lower pump in 
a set or tier; the working piece. 
Also called Drigger. (Pryce) 

Drill. 1. A metallic tool for boring in 
hard material. The ordinary miner's 
drill is a bar of steel with a chisel- 
shaped end, and is struck with a 
hammer. See Rock drill, Diamond 
drill. (Raymond) 
2. To make a hole with a drill or 
similar tool. 3. See Drilling, as ap- 
plied to oil and gas wells. 

Drill core. A solid, cylindrical core of 
rock cut out by a diamond or shot 
drill. It forms a record of the 
strata through which the drill has 
passed. (Weed) 

Driller. 1. One who or tha.t which 
drills. 2. A drilling machine. 

Drill extractor. A device for with- 
drawing the drill bit from wells; 
drill tongs. (Standard) 

Drilling. A term employed In a gen- 
eral way to denote the different 
processes employed for the dis- 
covery and extraction of petroleum 
or natural gas. Two general meth- 
ods of drilling have come to be 
recognized: (a) Percussion systems, 
which consist of breaking up the 
ground by means of a sharp pointed 
instrument of a particular form, 
which is made to strike the ground 
in a series of blows; and (&) Ro- 
tary systems, which aim at the ex- 
traction of a core or permit all the 
disintegrated material to be washed 
away. (Mitzakis). Also commonly 
used in prospecting for, and in the 
development of ore or coal lands. 

Drilling jig. A portable drilling ma- 
chine worked by hand. (Century) 

Drilling-up. Preliminary digging out 
the clay in the tap hole of a furnace. 
This is done usually by hand, air, 
or electric drill. (Willcox) 

Drill- Jars. See Jars. 

Drill rod. A vertical rod bearing a 
drilling tool for boring wells. 

Drink time (Eng.) Meal time. (Bain- 

Drip. 1. A name given to an appara- 
tus attached to natural-gas wells to 
exclude from the mains any liquid, 
such as oil or water, that may ac- 
company the gas. It usually con- 
sists of four iron tubes placed ver- 
tically, the inner two being con- 
nected by a cross tube. During the 
passage of the gas through this ap- 
paratus, the liquid becomes sepa- 
rated and accumulates in a tube 
called a tail piece, from which it is 
blown out from time to time. (Mit- 
zakis) Any opening arranged to 
take a liquid from a line carrying 
gas, as condensation from a steam 

2. (Eng.) The dip of a stratum. 

Drip stone. 1. A porous stone, either 
artificial or natural, for filtering 
water. 2. Calcium carbonate in the 
form of stalactites and stalagmites. 

Drive. 1. To excavate horizontally, 
or at an inclination, as in a drift, 
adit or entry (Gresley). Distin- 
guished from sinking and raising. 
2. (Aust.) A level, drift, or tun- 
nel in a mine. (Hanks) 

Driven well. A well which is sunk by 
driving a casing, at the end of which 
there is a drive-point, without the 
aid of any drilling, boring, or jetting 
device. (Meinzer) 

Drive pipe. 1. A pipe which is driven 
or forced into a bored hole, to shut 
off water, or prevent caving. (Nat. 
Tube Co.) 

2. A thick type of casing fitted at 
its lower end with a sharp steel 
shoe, which is employed when heavy 
driving has to be resorted to for in- 
serting the casing. (Mitzakis) 

Drive-pipe ring. A device for holding 
the drive pipe while being pulled 
from well. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Driver. 1. A person who drives a 
horse or mule in a mine. (Roy) 

2. One who controls the movements 
of a locomotive, motor car, or the 
like. (Webster) 

3. (Eng.) A bit of iron for forcing 
the wood into a blasting hole (Bain- 
bridge). A tamping iron. 

4. (Eng.) A man who breaks down 
the coal in the stalls with hammers 
and wedges, after the holing is 
finished. A miner. (Gresley) 



Driver boss. A person in charge of the 
drivers in a mine. (Steel) See 
Driver, 1. 

Drive shoe. A protecting end attached 
to the bottom of drive pipe and 
casing. (Nat. Tube Co.) 

Driving. 1. Extending excavations 
horizontally. Distinguished from 
sinking and raising. (Raymond) 
2. A long narrow underground ex- 
cavation or heading. 3. (Brist.) 
A heading driven through rock. 

Driving cap. A cap of iron, fitted 
to the top of a pipe, as in an oil 
well, to receive the blow when 
driven and thus protect the pipe. 

Driving on line. The keeping of a 
heading or breast accurately on a 
given course by means of a compass 
or transit. In Arkansas, called 
Driving on sights. (Steel) 

Drop. 1. To lower the cage to receive 
or discharge the car when a cage of 
more than one deck is used. 

2. (No. of Eng.). A chute down 
which coal is run into keels or boats. 

3. To allow the upper lift of a seam 
of coal, to fall or drop down. (Gres- 

4. (Eng.) The quantity of coal 
brought down at one cutting. (Bain- 

5. (Scot.) The apparatus by which 
mineral is let down a blind shaft to 
a lower level. 6. (Scot.) To work 
the upper portion of a thick seam 
after the lower portion has been 
worked. 7. (Scot.) To stop work. 

Drop forge. To forge between dies by 
a drop hammer or drop press. 

Drop hammer. A hammer for forging, 
the weight being raised and then 
released to drop on the metal rest- 
ing on the die or anvil. (Webster) 

Dropper (Corn.). A branch vein leav- 
ifag the main vein on the footwall 
side. (Raymond) 

Dropping pillars and top coal (Aust.). 
The second working, consisting of 
drawing the pillars, and in thick 
seams breaking down the upper por- 
tion of the seam that was left tem- 
porarily in position. (Power) 

Drop pit. A shaft in a mine, in which 
coal 13 lowered by a brake wheel. 

Drop sheet (No. of Eng.). A door 
made of canvas, by which the venti- 
lating current is regulated and di- 
rected through the workings (Gres- 
ley). See also Curtain. 

Drop shot. Shot made by dropping or 
pouring melted lead as opposed to 
such as are cast, as buckshot and 
bullets. (Century) 

Drop staple (Eng.). An interior shaft, 
connecting an upper and lower seam, 
through which coal is raised or low- 
ered. (G. C. Greenwell) 

Dropstone. A stalactitic variety of cal- 
cite. (Century) 

Drop sulphur. Sulphur granulated by 
pouring it molten into water. 

Drop tin. Tin granulated by pouring 
it molten into water. (Webster) 

Drop zinc. Zinc in the form of small 
globules. ( Webster ) 

Dross. 1. Refuse or impurity in melted 
metal; slag. A zinc-and-iron alloy 
forming in a bath of molten zinc, in 
galvanizing iron. (Standard) 

2. The material skimmed from the 
surface of freshly melted, not per- 
fectly pure metal. (Raymond) 

3. (Scot) Small coal which passes 
through a riddle or screen. (Bar- 

Dross coal. 1. (Scot) In cannel coal 
districts, common or free coal. See 
also Free coal, 2 (Barrowman). 2. 
See Dross, 3. 

Drossy coal (Derb.). Coal containing 
pyrite. (Gresley) 

Drowned; Drowned out. Flooded: said 
of mines under water. (Gresley) 

Drowned level. See Blind level, 2. 

Drowned waste. Old workings full Of 
water. (Gresley) 

Druggon (So. Staff.). A square iron 
or wooden box, used for conveying 
fresh water for horses, etc., in a 
mine. (Raymond) 

Drum. 1. That part of the winding 
machinery on which the rope or 
chain is coiled. (Raymond) 
2. (Lane.) A brick, iron, or wooden 
cylinder, used when sinking a shaft 
through sand. 3. See Running-the- 
drum. (Gresley) 

4. A metal cask for shipment of oil, 
gasoline, etc. 



Drum head (No. of Eng.). A short 
heading formed to the rise of a level, 
or bank head, in which the drum 
of a self-acting inclined plane is 
fixed. (Gresley) 

Dmm horns. Wrought-iron arms or 
spokes projecting beyond the surface 
or periphery of flat-rope drums, be- 
tween which the ropes coil or lap. 

Drumlin. An elongated or oval hill of 
glacial drift normally compact and 
unstratified, usually with its longer 
axis parallel to the direction of the 
movement of the transporting ice. 

Drumming. The process of sounding 
the roof of a mine to discover 
whether rock is loose. (Deep Vein 
Coal Co. v. Reney, 112 N. B. Kept., 
p. 397) 

Drummy. Loose coal or rock that pro- 
duces a hollow sound when tapped 
with any hard substance (Dodd v. 
Pocahontas Consol. Collieries Co., 
244 Fed. Rept., p. 151). Said es- 
pecially of a mine roof. 

Drum pulley. A pulley wheel used in 
place of a drum (Gresley). See 
also Koepe system. 

Drum rings. Cast-iron wheels, with 
projections, to which are bolted the 
staves or laggings forming the sur- 
face for the hoisting cable to wind 
upon. The outside rings are flanged, 
to prevent the cable from slipping 
off the drum. (Gresley) 

Drum sheave (Aust). A cylindrical 
drum placed vertically on the inside 
of a curve, against which the main 
rope of a main-and-tail-rope system 
moves when rounding the curve. 

Drusa (Sp.). Druse; geode. (Lucas) 

Druse. A crystallized crust lining the 
sides of a cavity (Raymond). See 
Geode, 1; also Vug. 

Drusy. Covered with minute crystals. 

Dry. 1. (Scot.) A joint in the roof 
of a coal seam, which can not usu- 
ally be discovered until the roof 
falls. (Gresley) 

2. (Scot.) An incipient crack, as in 
building stone. (Barrowman) 

3. (Corn.) See Change house. 4. 
To free from water. 5. A drying 
house. 6. That which is dry, as dry 
land. (Webster) 

7. A metal containing too large a 
proportion of oxygen; not suffi- 
ciently poled: said of copper In 
process of refining. (Standard) 

Dry amalgamation. Treating ores with 
hot dry mercury. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Dry blowing (Aust.). A method of 
winnowing alluvial ore by allowing 
it to fall from a height while the 
wind is blowing. (Standard) 

Dry-bone. A miner's term for an 
earthy, friable carbonate of zinc, 
smithsonite. Often frequently ap- 
plied to the hydrated silicate, so- 
called calamine. Usually found as- 
sociated in veins or beds in strati- 
fied calcareous rocks acc6mpanying 
sulphides of zinc, iron, and lead. 

Dry casting. A method of casting in 
which the molds are made of sand 
and afterwards dried. (Century) 

Dry coal. Coal containing but little 
hydrogen. ( Gresley ) 

Dry diggings. 1. Placers not subject 
to overflow (C. and M. M. P.) 
2. Placer mines or other mining 
districts where water is not avail- 
able. (Standard) 

Dry distillation. See Destructive dis- 

Dryer white. A white scum which 
forms on brick during drying. 

Dryer. An apparatus for drying ores, 
preliminary to smelting. Dryers 
are of various types as: revolving, 
cylindrical, zigzag, tower, and cast- 
iron plates. (Ingails, p. 617) 

Dry gas. Natural gas obtained from 
sands that produce gas only. It 
does not contain oil vapors. 

Dry hole. A drill hole in which no 
water is used, as a hole driven up- 
ward (Standard). A well in which 
no oil or gas is found. 

Dry hone. An artificial razor hone in 
which the sharpening crystals or 
grains are so blended with the bond 
that good results can be obtain,ed 
without the use of lubricants. 

Drying-off. The process by which an 
amalgam of gold is evaporated, as 
in gilding. (Century) 

Drying oven; Porcelain oven. An 
oven for firing porcelain. (Stand- 

Dry man. A man in charge of the 
building In which workmen change 
their clothes. 



Dry method. 1. The method of mixing 
the raw materials of Portland ce- 
ment in a dry state. (Bowles) 
2. In chemical analysis, the treat- 
ment of the compound with dry re- 
agents, as blow-piping in qualita- 
tive analysis and assaying *in quan- 
tative analysis. (Standard) 

Dry ore. An argentif erou .> ore that 
does not contain enough lead for 
smelting purposes. (C. and M. M. 

Dry pan. A circular revolving pan 
with perforated bottom, in which 
two large rollers revolve by friction 
against the pan floor. It is used 
for grinding dry clays. (Ries) 

Dry-press process. A method of form- 
ing clay wares by using slightly 
moistened clay in pulverized form 
and pressing it into steel dies. 

Dry process. A method of treating 
ores by heat as in smelting ; used in 
opposition to wet process where the 
ore is brought into solution before 
extraction of the metal. See also 
Wet process. 

Dry puddling. A process of decarboni- 
zation on a siliceous hearth in which 
the conversion is effected rather by 
the flame than by the reaction of 
solid or fused materials. As the 
amount of carbon diminishes the 
mass becomes fusible and begins to 
coagulate (come to nature), after 
which it is worked together into 
lumps (puddle-balls, loups) and re- 
moved from the furnace to be ham- 
mered (shingled) or squeezed in the 
squeezer, which presses out the cin- 
der, etc., and compacts the mass at 
welding heat, preparatory to rolling. 
Silicon, and phosphorus are also 
largely removed by puddling, pass- 
ing into the cinder (Raymond). 
See also Puddling. 

Dry rods (Scot). Pump rods outside 
the delivery pipes or rising main. 

Drys. See Dry, 1 and 2. 

Dry sand. 1. Sand prepared for molds 
by thorough flrying and baking. 
When special cohesion is required 
(as for cores) other substances, such 
as flour, molasses, etc., are mixed 
with it. (Raymond) 
2. .A stratum of dry sand or sand- 
stone encountered in well drilling. 
A nonproductive sandstone In oil 

Dry separation. The elimination of 
the small pieces of shale, pyrite, 
etc., from coal by a blast of air di- 
rected upon the screened coal. See 
also Wind method. (Oresley) 

Dry sharpening stone. A stone so con- 
stituted that its crystals break away 
from its binding material so rapidly 
that the particles of steel have no 
chance to fill the pores of the stone. 
Sandstone and coarse gritted scythe- 
stones are good examples. (Plte) 

Drystone. Composed of stones, not ce- 
mented with mortar, as a drystone 
wall. (Century) 

Dry sweating. A process by which 
impure blister-copper is exposed to a 
long, oxidizing heat below fusion 
point (Standard) 

Dry wall. A rock wall set up without 
cementing material. See Drystone, 

Dry-wall method. See Overhand stop- 

Dry wash. See Wash, 4. 

D- tmck (Aust). A low side-opening 
truck, used for conveying coal for 
home consumption, and from which 
the coal has to be shoveled. ( Power ) 

Dualin. A variety of dynamite con- 
sisting of 4 to 5 parts nitroglycerin, 
3 parts sawdust, and 2 parts salt- 
peter. (Webster) 

Dual rope (York.). A hemp capstan- 
rope upon which men ride in a mine 
shaft (Gresley) 

Duck machine. An arrangement of 
two boxes, one working within the 
other, for forcing air into mines. 
(C. and M. M. P.) 

Duck's nest. See Springing. (Du 

Duck's-nest Tuyere. A tuyfcre having 
a cupped outlet (Standard) 

Ducktownite (Tenn.). An intimate 
mixture of the minerals pyrite and 
chalcocite. (Chester) 

Ductile. Capable of being permanently 
drawn out or hammered thin. (Web- 

Dudgeonite. The mineral annabergite 
with about one-third of the nickel 
replaced by calcium. (Min. Re&, 
U. S. GeoL Surv., 1915, pt 2, p. 

Dudley rock. A fossiliferous limestone 
of the English Wenlock (Upper Si- 
lurian). (Standard) 



Due. The amount of royalty or ore 
payable to the lord of the manor 
or owner of the soil. (Davies) 

Due bill. Same as Pay bill. 

(Sp.) 1. The stave of a barrel 
or cask, etc. 2. Stone of a floor, etc. 
3. Flooring board. <D wight) 

Duefto (Mex.). Owner; shipper of 
ore. (Dwlght) 

Dues (Corn.). See Due, Also called 
Disfc. (Pryce) 

Duff (Aust). The fine coal left after 
separating the lumps (Power). 
Very fine screenings ; dust. 

DUffer (Aust). See Shicer. 

Duff furnace. A furnace used for the 
manufacture of producer gas. (In- 
galls, p. 305) 

Duffy (Scot). Soft; inferior. (Bar- 

Dufrenite. A hydrous iron phosphate 
mineral. Contains approximately 
27.5 per cent, PaO., 62 per cent FeaO., 
and 10.5 per cent HaO. Exact com- 
position doubtful.. (U. S. Geol. 

Dufrenoysite. A native sulpharseni'de 
of lead, PbaAsaSB. (U. S. Geol. 

Duggle (Corn.), See Troil 

Duin. A gold-washing dish used in 
Jashpur, India. (Lock) 

Dukeway (Sora.). A method of hoist- 
ing coal on an incline from the 
working face to the pit-bottom by 
a rope attached to the winding-en- 
gine at surface in such a way that 
while the cage is going up, the 
empty trams are running down the 
incline, and a* the cage descends the 
loaded cars are brought up to the 
shaft. (Gresley) 

Dukey. 1. ($om.) A large carriage 
or platform mounted upon wheels 
and used on an. inclined track under- 
ground, for carrying a number of 
small cars of coal. 2. (So/Wales) 
An iaelined plane worked by engine 
power- (Gresley). See Dukeway. 

Dukey rider (Wales). A boy who ac- 
companies. the trams upon an in- 
cline plane. (Gresley) 

Duten (Borneo). A circular concave 
tray for washing gold. (Lock) 

Dull. I. (Brist). Slack ventilation; 
InsuflJcfen^ air in a mine. (Gresley) 

2. Not keen in edge or point ; blunt. 

3. Sluggish; slow in action. (Web- 

3. As applied to the degree of 
luster of minerals, means those 
minerals in which there is a total 
absence of luster, as chalk, kaolin. 

Dumb bolts (Scot). Bolts at Joints 
of single-plated pump rods, at right 
angles to those through the plates, 
to prevent the latter from tearing 
the wood. (Barrowman) 

Dumb'd. Choked or clogged, as a grate 
or sieve in which the ore is dressed. 

Dumb drift. An airway constructed to 
convey the ventilating current 
around the ventilating furnace to 
the upcast, instead of passing it di- 
rectly through or over the fire. 

Dumb fault. A break in strata caused 
by a current of water eroding a 
portion of it during the general 
period of its deposition. (Power) 

Dumb furnace. A ventilating furnace, 
designed so that the foul, inflam- 
mable air from the more remote 
parts of the mine enters the upcast 
above the hot gases from the fire. 

Dumb screw (Scot). A screw jack. 

Dummy. 1. (No. Staff.) A low truck 
on four wheels running upon rails, 
and loaded with pig iron or some 
other heavy material; employed in 
steep coal beds as a. balance-weight 
to bring up an empty tub or car. 

.2. A paper bag filled with sand, 
clay, etc., for tamping or for sepa- 
rating two charges in a double- 
loaded bore hole. (Du Pont) 

Dumortierite. A bright smalt-blue to 
greenish-blue, lavender or reddish, 
transparent to translucent, alumi- 
num silicate, perhaps 4Al 2 Oa.3SiOa, 
occurs as a mineral, usually in 
fibrous to columnar aggregates. 

Dumoulin process. A method whereby 
copper is deposited on a rotating 
mandrel and later stripped off as a 
long strip, which -is then drawn into 
wire without recasting. (Liddell) 

Dump. 1. A pile or heap of ore, coal, 
culm, slate, or rock. 2. The tipple 
by which the cars are dumped. See 
Tipple. 3. To unload a caj by 
tipping it up. (Chance) 

4. (Oal.) The fall immediately 
below a hydraulic mine. (Hanks) 

5. The fan available for disposal 



of refuse at the mouth of a mine. 
(C. G. W. Lock) 

6. (Eng.) A deep hole in the bed 
of a stream or pond. (Webster) 

Dump cart. A cart or car having a 
body that can be tilted, or a bottom 
opening downward, for emptying. 

Bumper. 1. A tilting-car used on 
dumps. (Raymond) 

2. One that dumps or operates a 
dump cart. (Webster) 

3. (Scot.) A tool for keeping a bore 
hole circular. (Barrowman) 

Pump hook. A chain grab hook hav- 
ing a lever attachment for releasing 
it from the object to which it is 
connected. (Webster) 

Dump house. The building where the 
loaded mine cars are emptied into 
the chutes. (Roy) 

Dump moraine. A kind of terminal 
moraine consisting of material 
dropped either from the surface or 
from the interior of the glacier. 

Dump-skip. A skip with an attach- 
ment that dumps the load automati- 
cally. (Standard) 

Dumpy level. A surveyor's level hav- 
ing a short telescope rigidly fixed to 
a table capable only of rotary move- 
ment in a horizontal plane. (Web- 

Dune. A heap of blown sand (Roy. 
Com.). See aUo Sand dune. 

Dunlte. A variety of peridotite con- 
sisting essentially of olivine and 
chromite. It was named from the 
Dun mountains in New Zealand, the 
original locality, but it also occurs 
in North Carolina. (Kemp) 

Dunn bass (Lane.). An argillaceous 
shale in coal mines. See alto Bind. 

Dunnet shale. An oil shale, from 4 to 
12 feet in thickness, found in Scot- 
land ; it yields from 24 to 33 gallons 
of crude oil per ton. (Bacon) 

Duns (Glouc.). Argillaceous shale. 
See Cliff, 1, and Bind, 1. (Gresley) 

Dunstone. 1. (Derb.) Ironstone in 
beds or seams. 2. (Wales) Hard 
kind of fire clay, or under-day. 

3. A local term for certain magne- 
sian limestones of a yellowish dun 
or cream color, occurring near Mat- 
lock, Derbyshire. (Page) 

Dun whin (No. of Eng.). Any dun- 
colored, hard rock found in coal 
measures (Gresley). See also Whin. 

Duplex breaker. A breaker having 
more than one crushing chamber. 
(Richards, p. 21) 

Duplex channeler. A type of channel- 
ing machine which cuts two chan- 
nels simultaneously. (Bowles) 

Duplex hammer. See Double hammer. 

Duplex wire. Two insulated-copper 
leading-wires wrapped together with 
paraffined cotton covering. (Du 

Durangite. An orange-red fluo-arse- 
nate of sodium and aluminium, 
Na(AlF)AsO 4 , occurring in mono- 
clinic crystals. (Dana) 

Durbachite. A name given to a basic 
development at the outer border of 
a granite intrusion in Baden. It has 
the general composition of mica sye- 
nite. (Kemp) 

Durdenite. A greenish-yellow hydrous 
ferric tellurite, Fe2(TeOs)s+4H,O. 

Dureza (Sp.). Hardness; solidity. 

Durgy (Corn.). Anything low or 
short. (Davies.) A variation of 
durgan, a dwarf. 

Duriron. An acid-resisting alloy used 
in chemical works and laboratories. 
It consists of 14 to 14.5 per cent 
silicon, 0.25 to 0.35 per cent man- 
ganese, 0.2 to 0.6 per cent carbon, 
0.16 to 0.2 per cent phosphorus, and 
under 0.05 per cent sulphur, the re- 
mainder being iron. Its melting 
point is from 2,500 to 2.550 6 P. 
The specific gravity is 7. (Min. and 
Sci. Press, vol. 114, 1917, p. 59.) 

Durmiente (Mex.). A railroad-sleeper. 
The sill of a set of timbers. (Dwight) 

Durn (Corn.). A frame of timber- 
ing, like a doorframe. (Raymond.) 
Also spelled Durns ; Durnz; Durnze. 

Duro (Sp.). Hard; Duros (Mex.) 1. 
Hard copper ores in which quartz 
predominates in the matrix. 2. 
Badly calcined ores. (Halse) 

Durr (Ger.). The barren part of a 
lode. (Davies) 

Dust. Earth or other matter in very 
fine particles, so attenuated that 
they can be raised and carried by 
the wind; finely comminuted or 
powdered matter (Century). See 
Coal dust 



Dust bell. The seal at the bottom of 
the dust catcher, dust leg, or water- 
seal valve, which Is opened periodi- 
cally to drain flue dust from the 
system. (Willcox) 

Dust chamber. An inclosed flue or 
chamber filled with deflectors, in 
which the products of combustion 
from an ore-roasting furnace are 
allowed to settle, the heavier and 
more valuable portion being left in 
the dust chamber and the volatile 
portions passing out through the 
chimney or other escape. (Cen- 

Dust-devil (India and Western U. S.). 
A moving column of sand; a sand 
spout (Webster). See Dust storm. 

Duster. 1. (Wales.) A man employed 
in cleaning tramways of dust and 
dirt in and about mines. (Gresley) 
2- An unproductive boring for oil or 

Dust explosion. An explosion of car- 
bonaceous material as coal dust, 
flour, etc. 

Dust firing. The burning of coal dust 
in the laboratory of the furnace. 
(Ingalls, p. 269) 

Dust gold. Pieces of gold under 2 to 
3 dwt (C. and M. M. P.) Very 
fine gold. 

Dust-laying oils. Crude oils, heavy as- 
phalt oils, tars, solutions of petro- 
leum asphalt in gas oils, liquid as- 
phalt, and emulsions of oils and 
water, used for laying dust on roads. 

Dustman. One who dumps the dust 
catcher or loads the dust at blast 
furnaces. ( Willcox ) 

Dustplate. A vertical iron plate, sup- 
porting the slag runner of an iron 
blast furnace. (Raymond) 

Dust storm. A violent, spiral convec- 
tional dust-laden whirlwind moving 
across an arid region (Webster). 
See Dust-devil. 

Dutch drop. A haulage term used at 
Anaconda, Mont., for flying switch. 

Dutch metal. An alloy of copper, 84.7, 
and zinc, 15.3 per cent. (Ure) 

Dutch ocher. Chrome yellow and whit- 
ing. (Standard) 

Dutch oven. See Forechamber. 

Dutch tile. A flat enameled earthen- 
ware tile painted In colors (usu- 
ally in blue) with inscriptions 

and designs: often used for deco- 
rating chimneypieces and fireplaces. 

Dutch white. A pigment consisting ot 
one part of white lead and three 
parts of permanent white. (Web- 

Duty. 1. A measure of the effective- 
ness of a steam engine, usually ex- 
pressed in the number of foot-pounds 
(or kilogr ammeters) of useful work 
obtained from a given quantity of 
fuel. (Raymond) 

2. (of a Cornish pumping engine) 
The number of pounds of water 
raised one foot high with a consump- 
tion of 112 Ibs. of coal. (Gresley) 

3. (Derb.) That part of the ore 
which belongs to the lord or owner 
of the mine, usually every thirteenth 
dish. See also Due (Hooson) 

Duty-ore ( Corn. ) . The landlord's share 
of the ore. (Raymond) 

Dnxite. A resin from the lignite of 
Dux, Bohemia; It fuses at 246* C., 
has a specific gravity of 1.133, and 
is near walchowite. (Bacon) 

Dyas. The permian series of strata in 
part of western Europe, where it 
comprises two well-marked subdivi- 
sions. (La Forge) 

Dyestone. See Clinton ore. 

Dyestone f ossiL Same as Dyestone ; 
Fossil ore. 

Dyestone ranges. A term applied to 
the outcrop of Clinton iron ores ex- 
tending through Maryland, Virginia, 
West Virginia, and into Tennessee. 
(Ore Dep., p. 117) 

Dying out. Applied to veins that grad- 
ually get narrower and narrower un- 
til they cease entirely (Power). 
Also called Tailing out. 

Dying shift (Scot). The third or ten 
o'clock shift (Barrowman). See 
also Graveyard shift 

Dyke. See Dike. 

Dynamic geology. See Geology. 

Dynamic head. That head of fluid 
which would produce statically the 
pressure of a moving fluid. (Stand- 

Dynamic metamorphism. Metamor- 
phism produced by earth movements 
in regions of great dislocation, shear 
or crushing of rocks. Distinguished 
from chemical processes, but the 
former are seldom unattended by 
the latter. 



Dynamite. 1. Originally, an explosive 
made of 75 per cent nitroglycerin 
absorbed in 25 per cent kieselguhr; 
now any high explosive containing 
.explosive ingredients and used for 
blasting purposes (Du Pont). A 
composition of detonating character 
containing nitroglycerin. "Detonat- 
ing character" is used with inten- 
tion, because nitroglycerin enters 
into the composition of mixtures 
which are propellants, and which 
are not dynamite. There are other 
compositions of matter containing 
nitroglycerin which are not dyna- 
mite, but we cannot have a dyna- 
mite which does not contain nitro- 
glycerin. (C. E. Munroe, U. S. 
Bur. Mines.) The strength varies 
according to the percentage of 
nitroglycerin contained. Frequently 
called. Giant powder. 
2. To charge with dynamite. 8. To 
blow up or shatter with dynamite. 

Dynamiter. One who uses, or is In 

favor of using, dynamite or similar 

explosives for unlawful purposes. 

Dynamo. A machine used for con- 
verting mechanical energy into elec- 
trical energy by magneto-electric 
induction. (Webster) 

Dynamo metamorphism. Same as Dy- 
namic metamorphism. 

Dyne. In physics, the unit of force 
in the centimeter-gram-second sys- 
tem, being that force which acting 
on one gram for one second gen- 
erates a velocity of one centimeter 
per second. (Century) 

Dyscrasite. A variable silver anti- 
monide mineral, including AgaSb. 
(U. S. Geol. Surv.) 

Dysodile. An inflammable, flexible, 
slightly elastic, yellow or greenish 
gray hydrocarbon from Melili, 
Sicily, and from certain German 
lignite deposits; it has a specific 
gravity of 1.14 to 1.25 (Bacon). 
When burned it yields an odor like 
asafoetida. (Chester) 

Dysprosium. An element of the rare- 
earth group. Symbol, Dy; atomic 
weight, 162.5. (Webster) 

Dystome spar. A synonym for Datolite. 

Dystomio. Having an Imperfect frac- 
ture or cleavage. (Century) 

Dysyntribite. A name given by C. U. 
Shepard, to a mineral or rock in St 
Lawrence Co., N. Y., in which is 

a hydrated silicate of aluminium 
and potassium, and is related to pi- 
nite ; the name means hard to crush, 
Compare Parophite. (Kemp) 

Dzhu (Corn.). To cut ahead on one 
side of a face, so as to increase the 
efficiency of blasting on the re- 
mainder. (Doubtless the same word 
as Dissue.) See Dissuing. Also 
Hulk. (Raymond) 


Eaglestone. A concretionary nodule of 
ironstone of the size of a walnut or 
larger; aetites. The ancients be- 
lieved that the eagle transported 
these stones to- her nest to facilitate 
the laying of her eggs. (Webster) 

Ear. 1. The inlet or intake of a fan. 
2. (Derb.) A small iron loop or 

. ring fixed on the sides of tubs, etc., 
to which side-chains are attached. 

Earth. 1. The solid matter of the 
globe in distinction from water and 
air. The ground. The firm land of 
the earth's surface. 2. Loose mate- 
rial of the earth's surface; the dis- 
integrated particles of solid matter 
in distinction from rock; soil. 8. 
In chemistry, a name formerly 
given to certain inodorous, dry; and 
uninflammable substances which are 
metallic oxides, but were formerly 
regarded as elementary bodies. 

4. A term used for soft shaly or 
clayey ground when sinking through 
the coal measures. (Gresley) 

Earth anger. An earth borer. (Stand- 

Earth borer. An auger for boring into 
the ground. It works in a cylindri- 
cal box which retains the cut earth 
until the tool is withdrawn. ( Stand- 

Earth coal. 1. A name sometimes 
given to lignite. An earthy brown 
coal. (Gresley) 

2. Mineral coal as distinguished 
from charcoal. (Webster) 

Earth current. A current flowing 
through a wire the extremities of 
which are grounded at points on the 
earth differing in electrical poten- 
tial. The earth current is due to 
this difference, which is generally 
temporary and often very large. 

Earth din. An earth quake. (Web- 

Earth fall. A landslide. (Webster) 



Earth flax. An early name for as- 
bestos (Chester). See also Amian- 

Earth foam. The mineral aphrite 
(Chester). A foliated pearly va- 
riety of calcite near argentine. The 
softer varieties approach chalk. 

Earth metal. Any metal whose oxide 
is classed as an earth. (Webster) 

Earth movement. Differential move- 
ment of the earth's crust; local ele- 
vation or subsidence of the land. 

Earth of bone (Eng.). A phosphate 
of lime, sometimes termed "bone 
phosphate," derived from bones by 
calcination. ( Page ) 

Earth oil. Petroleum. (Webster) 

Earth pitch. Mineral tar; a kind of 
asphalt. (Webster) 

Earth-pulsation. A slow undulation 
of the earth's crust so gradual and 
slight as to escape ordinary obser- 
vation. (Standard) 

Earthquake. A local trembling, shak- 
ing, undulating, or sudden shock of 
the surface of the earth, sometimes 
accompanied by fissuring or by per- 
manent change of level. Earth- 
quakes are most common in volcanic 
regions, but pften occur elsewhere. 
(Roy. Com.) 

Earth's crust. The external part of 
the earth, accessible to geological 
investigation. The use of this term 
does not necessarily imply that the 
rest of the earth is not also solid. 
(Roy. Com.) 

Earth-tilting. A slight movement or 
displacement of the surface of the 
ground as in some forms of earth- 
quakes. (Century) 

Earth tremor. A slight earthquake. 

Earth wax. See Ozocerite. 

Earthy brown-coal. A brown, friable 
mineral, sometimes forming layers 
in beds of lignite. In general, it is 
not a true coal, for a considerable 
part of it is soluble in ether and 
benzol, and often in alcohol. See 
Leucopetrite and Bathvillite. (Ba- 

Earthy calamine. An early name for 
hydrozincite. (Chester) 

Earthy coal. See Earth coal, 1. 

Earthy fracture. A fracture resem- 
bling that of a lump of hard clay. 

Earthy lead-ore. A variety of cenish 
site. (Power) 

Easement. An incorporeal right ex- 
isting distinct from the ownership 
of the soil, consisting of a liberty, 
privilege, or use of another's land 
without profit or compensation; a 
right of way. (Standard; U. S. 
Min. Stat, p. 608) 

Eat out (No. of Eng.). To turn a 
heading or holing to one side in 
order to mine the coal on the other 
side of a fault without altering the 
level course of the heading. (Gres- 

Eave tile; Starters. Roofing tile, 
closed underneath at the lower end 
and placed at the eave line. (Ries) 

Ebano. A trade name for a residual 
pitch from Mexican petroleum. 

Ebb (Scot). Shallow, not deep (Web- 
ster). A coal seam is ebb when near 
the surface; the shaft is ebb which 
is sunk to it. 

Ebb-and-flow structure. A stratifica- 
tion consisting of horizontally lami- 
nated layers, with others obliquely 
laminated, indicative of alternations 
of tidal currents during deposition. 

Ebonite. A black variety of hard rub- 
ber capable of being cut and pol- 
ished; vulcanite. (Webster) 

Eboulement (Fr.). A term adapted 
from the French for sudden rock 
falls and earth-slips in mountainous 
regions. (Page) 

Ebullition. Act, or process of boiling 
or bubbling up; effervescence. 

Eccentric. A device for converting 
continuous circular into reciprocat- 
ing rectilinear motion, consisting of 
a disk mounted out of center on a 
driving shaft, and surrounded by a 
collar or strap connected with a rod. 
Rotation of the driving shaft gives 
the rod a back-and-forth motion. 

Eccentric bit. A modified form of 
chisel used in drilling, in which one 
end of the cutting edge is extended 
further from the center of the bit 
than the other. The eccentric bit 
renders under-reaming unnecessary. 
It is . very useful in hard rock. 



Ecdemite; Heliophyllite. A bright yel- 
low to green lead chlorarsenlte, per- 
haps Pb*AsOT.2PbCla, occurring as 
a mineral in crystal or massive 
form and as a incrustation. (Dana) 

Echadero (Mex.). Level place near a 
mine, where ore is cleaned, piled, 
weighed? and loaded. Also called 
patio of the mine. (Dwight) 

Echado (Sp.). Inclination or dip of 
a vein. (Halse) 

Echar planilla (Mex.). Gobbing; 
packing; filling with waste mate- 
rial. (Dwight) 

Eclogite. A more or less schistose 
metamorphic rock, consisting of a 
light-green pyroxene (omphacite), 
actinolite (var. smaragdite) and gar- 
net. Scarcely known in America. 
The name is from the Greek "to 
select," in reference to its attractive 
appearance. (Kemp) 

Economic geology. See Geology. 

Economic mineral. Any mineral hav- 
ing a commercial value (Roy. Com.). 
See also Ore. 

Economizer. An apparatus for utiliz- 
ing the heat that would otherwise 
be wasted, as in a system of water 
tubes in the uptake of a boiler to 
heat the feed water. (Webster) 

Edenite. A light*cotored_ aluminous 
magnesium-calcium amphibole. A 
variety of the mineral hornblende. 

Edge coal; Edge seam (Eng. and 
Scot.). Highly inclined seams of 
coal, or those having a dip greater 
than 30. (C. and M. M. P.) 

Edge mill. A crushing or grinding 
mill for ore in which a pair of 
stones or metal rollers are rolled 
around at the ends of a horizontal 
shaft turning about a central verti- 
cal axis. (Webster) Also called 
Edge runner, and Chaser. 

Edger. The long pieces of timber in 
a wooden pillar or crib. See also 
Crosspieces. (Sanders, p. 115) 

Edge rails (Scot). Rails of rolled 
iron or steel on the upper edge of 
which the wheels run. (Barrow- 

Edge runner. See Chilean mill; Edge 
mill ; Chaser. 

Edge stone (N. Y. and Pa.). A com- 
mercial term applied to bluestone 
that splits out in slabs thicker than 
flagging and suitable for curbing, 
gills, door caps, etc. (Bowles) 

744010 O 47 16 

Edge water. In oil and gas wells, 
water that holds the oil and gas in 
the higher structural positions. 
Edge water usually encroaches on a 
field after much of the oil and gas 
has been recovered and the pressure 
has become greatly reduced. Com- 
pare Top water; Bottom water. (U. 
S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 658, p. 44) 

Edge wheel. See Edge mill. 

Edingtonite. A white, a grayish white 
or pink hydrous barium and alumi- 
num silicate mineral, perhaps BaAU- 
Si,Oxo+3H,O. (Dana) 

Edisonite. Titanic acid, rutile, occur- 
ring in golden-brown, orthorohmbic 
crystals, named in honor of Thos. A, 
Edison. (Chester) 

Eduction pipe. The exhaust pipe from 
the low pressure cylinder to the 
condenser. (Nat. Tube Go.) 

Ee^iie coal. (Scot). Coal slightly 
altered through nearness to whin, 
the broken edges of which show 
bright circular spots more or less 
distinct, like- eyes. (Barrowman) 

Effective rate. See Nominal rate. 

Effervesce, To bubble and hiss, as 
limestone on which acid is poured. 

Efficiency miner. A term frequently 
applied to a boss miner, or a con- 
tract miner. 

Effloresce. To change on the surface, 
or throughout to a whitish, mealy 
or crystalline powder from the loss 
of water of crystallization on ex- 
posure to the air. (Webster) 

Efflorescent. In mineralogy, forming 
an incrustation or deposit of grains 
or powder that resembles lichens or 
dried leaves; not uncommonly due 
to loss of water of crystallization. 
{La Forge) 

Effluent. Applied by Dana to those 
igneous magmas which discharge 
from a volcano by way of a lateral 
fissure. See Superflu^nt and Inter- 
fluent (Daly, p. 131) 

Effluent stream. 1. A stream whose 
upper surface stands lower than the 
water table in the locality through 
which it flows, and which Is not 
separated from the water table by 
any impervious bed.' (Meinzer) 
f . A stream that flows out of another 
stream or out of a lake. (Century) 

Effosion (L.). The digging out from 
the earth, as of fossils, etc. (Hum- 



Effusive. In peteatogy, poured out or 
erupted on the surface of the earth 
in a molten state, before solidifica- 
tion; .extrusive: said of a certain 
class of volcanic igneous rocks. (La 

Effusive period. The second and final 
stage of the solidification of por- 
phyritlc rocks from fusion, when at 
the outpouring on the earth's sur- 
face the " groundmass " is supposed 
to be formed. Compare Intra tel- 
luric period. (Standard) 

Eflorescencia (Peru). An outcrop. 
(D wight) 

Efydd (Wales). Copper. (C. and M. 
M. P.) 

Egg coaL In anthracite only known 
as No. 2 coal. Coal that is small 
enough to pass through a square 
mesh of 2$ or 2f inches, but too 
large to pass through a mesh of 2, 
inches. (Chance) 

Eggette. See Briquet. 

Egg-hole. (Derb.) A notch cut in 
the wall of a lode to hold the end 
of a stempel (Raymond). A hitch. 

stone. OOlite. (Webster) 

Eglestonite. A native mercury oxy- 
chloride, Hg 4 Cl a O. (U. S. Geol. 

Egyptian Jasper. A brown jasper, 
found in pebbles and small bowlders 
in Egypt. (Chester) 

Egyptian pebble. A synonym for 
Egyptian jasper. (Chester) 

Ehrhardt powder. Any of a series of 
explosive mixtures containing potas- 
sium chlorate, together with tannin, 
powdered nutgalls, or cream of tar- 
tar, and used for blasting, shells, 
etc./ (Webster) 

Eichhorn - Liebig furnace: A hand- 
worked muffle furnace. (Ingalls, p. 

Elsener hut, The German for iron 
hat, or gossan. (Weed) 

EJe (Sp.). 1. Axle of a wheel. 2. 
Axis of a fold. 3. Ejes de cotre 
(Chile), copper matte containing 40 
to 60 per cent copper. (Halse) 

Elaeolite; Eleolite. A name formerly 
current for the nephelite of Pre-Ter- 
tiary rocks. It is best known in the 
rock-name eleolite-syenite, a syn- 
onym of nephelite-syenite, but the 
latter is preferable. See Nephelite- 
syenite. (Kemp) 

Elastic bitumen. See Elaterite. 

Elastic limit. That point at which the 
deformation in the material ceases 
to be proportional to the stresses. 
(C. M. P.) 

Elastic mineral-pitch. Elaterite. 

Elaterite. A massive amorphous dark- 
brown hydrocarbon ranging from 
soft and elastic to hard and brittle. 
It melts in a candle flame without 
decrepitation, has a conchoidal frac- 
ture and gives a brown streak. See 
also Wurtzilite (U. S. Geol. Surv.). 
Elastic bitumen. 

Elbow. 1. A fitting that makes an 
angle between adjacent pipes. The 
angle is always 90 degrees, unless 
other angle is stated. Also called 
Ell. (Nat. Tube Co.) 
2. An acute bend in a lode. (Skin- 

Electric air-drill. A type of tripod 
drill operated by compressed air 
supplied by a portable motor-driven 
compressor that accompanies the 
drill. (Bowles) 

Electrical calamine. Zinc silicate or 
calamine, so called, on account of its 
strong pyro-efectric properties and 
to distinguish it from Smithsonite. 
See also Calamine. (Webster) 

Electrical precipitation. The removal 
of suspended particles from gases by 
the aid of electrical discharges. The 
electrical current used may be al- 
ternating or direct. The alternating 
current agglomerates the suspended 
particles into larger aggregates caus- 
ing rapid settling, especially if the 
gases are quiescent. The direct cur- 
rent is used when large volumes of 
rapidly moving gas, such as occur in 
smelter flues, are treated. The sus- 
pended particles within a strong 
electric field of constant polarity be- 
come charged and are then attracted 
to a plate (electrode) of opposite 
charge. (Fulton, p. 59, Bull. 84, 
Bur. Mines) 

Electric blasting. The firing of one or 
more charges electrically, whether 
electric blasting caps, electric squibs, 
or other electric igniting or explod- 
ing devices are used. (Du Pont) 

Electric blasting cap. A device for 
detonating charges of explosives 
electrically. It consists essentially 
of a blasting cap, into the charge 
of which a fine platinum wire is 
stretched across two protruding 
copper wires, the whole fastened in 



place by a composition sulphur plug. 
The heating of the platinum wire 
bridge by the electric current ig- 
nites the explosive charge in the 
cap, which in turn detonates the 
high explosive. (Du Pont) 

Electric detonator. An electric blast- 
Ing cap. (Du Pont) 

Electric drill. A mechanically oper- 
ated drill employing neither com- 
pressed air nor steam, but driven 
by electric motor. It is used chiefly 
in mining operations. (Bowles) 

Electric exploder. A former designa- 
tion for Electric blasting cap. (Du 

Electric locomotive. A locomotive 
driven by electricity and carrying 
no passengers (Standard). Called 
also a Motor and used in mine 

Electric squib. A device similar to an 
electric blasting cap, but containing 
a gunpowder composition which sim- 
ply ignites but does not detonate 
an explosive charge; used for elec- 
tric firing of blasting powder. (Du 

Electric system. All electric apparatus 
pertaining to the operation of the 
mine, and under the control of the 
mine officials, that is connected elec- 
trically to a common source of po- 
tential or that is installed so that 
it can be thus connected. (Clark) 

Electric welding. A process of weld- 
ing in which the parts to be joined 
are heated to fusion by an electric 
arc (arc welding) or by the passage 
of a large current through the junc- 
tion ; used in uniting steel rails, tub- 
ing, etc. See also Thermite. (Web- 

Electrobronze. Electroplated with 
bronze. ( Standard ) 

Electrochemistry. The branch of 
chemistry that treats of electricity 
as active in effecting chemical 
changes. (Standard) 

Electrocopper. To plate or cover with 
copper by means of electricity. 

Electrode. Either terminal of an elec- 
tric source ; either of the conductors 
by which the current enters and 
leaves an electrolyte. See Anode ; 
also Cathode. (Webster) 

Electrolysis. Act or process of chemi- 
cal decomposition by the action of 
an electric current; subjection to 
this process, as the electrolysis of 
salts of silica or nickel. (Webster) 

Electrolyte. 1. The solution in which 
electrolytic separation of metals is 
carried on. (Weed) 
2. A chemical compound which can 
be decomposed by an electric cur- 
rent (Standard) 

Electrolytic. Pertaining to electroly- 
sis or an electrolyte; deposited by 
electrolysis (Webster). As applied 
to copper, means copper made from 
impure metal by electrical decom- 
position and redeposition ; the bar 
of impure copper is gradually dis- 
solved and the pure metal rede- 
posited at the opposite pole of the 
battery, while other metals fall as, 
black slime to the bottom of the 
tank in which the solution (electro- 
lyte) is held. (Weed) 

Electrolytic copper. The purest grade 
of refined copper, produced by the 
electrolytic process, and possessing 
the highest electric conductivity, 

Electrolytic process. A process em- 
ploying the electric current, either 
for separating and depositing met- 
als from solution, or ,as a source of 
heat in smelting, refining, etc. 
(Standard). The process has many 
modifications and is used for re- 
covering metals, as tin from scrap, 
or refining as of copper for electro- 
plating, recovering metal from ore 
as by a combination of leaching, and 
electrolytic deposition. 

Electrolyze. To subject to electrolysis. 

Electrometallurgy. That department 
of metallurgy employing the elec- 
tric current, either for the electro- 
lytic separation and deposition of 
metals from solutions, or as a source 
of heat in smelting, refining, etc, 

Electromotive force. The force, which 
by reason of differences of potential, 
causes electricity to move along a 

Electron. One of those particles, hav- 
ing about one-thousandth the mass 
of a hydrogen atom, which are pro- 
jected from the cathode of a vacuum 
tube as the cathode rays, and from 
the radioactive substances as the 
beta rays; also called Corpuscle. 

Electroplate. To plate or cover with 
an adherent coating of metal, com- 
monly silver, nickel, or gold, by 
electrolysis. (Webster) 



Electrum. 1. A natural alloy of gold 
and silver containing approximately 
40 per cent of silver. (U. S, Geol. 

2. An alloy of copper, zinc, and 
nickel (Raymond). See also Ger- 
man silver. 

3. See Succinite ; also Amber. 

Element. One of a limited number of 
distinct varieties of matter which, 
singly or in combination, compose 
every material substance ; a sub- 
stance which can not be separated 
into substances different from . it- 
self, at least by ordinary chemical 
processes. (Webster) 

Elevante (Mex.). An overhand stope. 

Elevator. 1. A device for raising or 
lowering tubing, casing, or drive 
pipe, from or into well. See Cas- 
ing elevator. (Nat Tube Co.) 
B. A mechanical contrivance usually 
an endless belt or. chain with a 
series of scoops or buckets for 
transferring material, as grain, 
to an upper loft or bin for storage. 
S. A cage or platform and its hoist- 
ing machinery in a warehouse, mine, 
etc., for conveying persons or goods 
from one level or floor to another. 
Called a Lift in England. (Web- 

Elevator pump. An endless band with 
buckets attached, running over two 
drums for draining shallow ground. 
(C. and M. M. P.) 

Elevator rope. A rope used to operate 
an elevator. (C. M. P.) 

Elie ruby (Eng.). A variety of py- 
rope found in small garnet-like 
grains in the trap-tuff of Kincraig 
Point, near Elie, in Fifeshire. 

Elihu Thomson process. A. method of 
electric welding of iron* (Goesel, 
p. 110) 

^liquate. 1. To liquate; smelt. 2. 
Tp part by liquation. (Webster) 

Eliquation. See Liquation. 
Ellis vanner. A gyratory vanner. 

Elmore process. 1. (Old Process) A 
flotation process wherein the ore is 
mixed with several times its weight 
of water, and an equal, or greater 
weight of oil. The oil carries the 
sulphides to the surface, and the 
gangue and water are removed from 
the bottom. This process was in- 
vented in 1898. 2. (Vacuum Proc- 
ess) A flotation process invented 

by Francis E. Elmore in 1904 in 
which flotation is secured by the 
addition of a small quantity of oil, 
and by the liberation of air in the 
pulp in a finely divided condition, 
this being accomplished by subject- 
ing the freely flowing pulp to & 
vacuum and simultaneous heating. 

Elpasolite. A variety of cryolite, in 
which the sodium is partly re- 
placed by potassium. (Standard) 

Elutriate. To cleanse or Wash, or 
purify by washing and straining or 
decanting. (Webster) 

Elutriation. Purification by washing 
and pouring off the 'lighter matter 
suspended in water, leaving the 
heavier portions behind. (Ray- 

Ehivial. Formed by the rotting of 
rock in place to a greater or less 
depth. (tJ. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 263, 
P. 26) 

Eluvium. Atmospheric accumulations 
in situ, or at least only shifted by 
wind, in distinction to alluvium, 
which requires the action of wa- 
ter. (Power) 

Elvan. The Cornish name for a dike 
of quartz-porphyry or of granite- 
porphyry. (Kemp) 

Elvam course. A plutonic dike (Dur- 
yee). An Elvan dike. 

Elvanite (Corn.). A variety of rock 
of which elvans are made up, nearly 
equivalent to quartz-porphyry and 
granite-porphyry. (Century) 

Elve. The handle of a miner's, pick 
(Milford). A variation of Helve. 

Embanques "(Mex.). The wall accre- 
tions of a water-jacket furnace. 

Embarcarse la veta (Peru). To t>e lost 
(as a vein) by reason of a fault or 
intersecting dike. ( Dwight ) 

Embayment. A deep depression in a 
shore line forming a large open 
bay. m <Lowe) 

Embije (Mex.). Thinly laminated 
mineral structure. (Dwight) 

Embolite. A ehlorobromide silver 
mineral, Ag(Cl,Br). (U. S. Geol. 

Emborrascarse (Mex.). To become 
barren by pinching out, etc. 

Embouchure (Fr.). The mouta of a 
river. (Webster) 



Xmbozado (Mex.). Rich mineral en- 
tirely embedded and concealed in 
barren rock. (D wight) 

Embudo (Mex.). A funnel; hopper. 

Emerald. A bright, emerald-green, va- 
riety of beryl. Used as a gem. 
Called Canutillos in South America. 

Emerald copper. Same as Dioptase. 
Emerald nickel. See Zaratite. 

Emerged bog. In geology, a bog 
which grows high above the water- 
level, drawing up the water by its 
sppnginess, and becoming much 
thicker than an immersed bog 
(Standard). Compare Immersed 

Emery. An impure form of the min- 
eral corundum (A 1,0,) used as an 
abrasive. See Corundum. (U. S. 
Geol. Surv.) 

Emery stone. A mixture of gum 
shellac and emery, or emery and 
clay used for emery wheels. (Cen- 

Emery wheel. A wheel coated with 
emery or made of emery stone: for 
grinding or polishing. (Standard) 

Emmonite. A variety of strontlanite 
in which the strontium is partially 
replaced by calcium. (Standard) 

Emmoasite. Probably a hydrated 
ferric tellurite. In thin yellow 
green scales. (Dana) 

Empalado (Sp. Am.). Timbering; 
propping. (Lucas) 

Empalmar (Sp.). To splice; to join. 

Empalme (Sp.). 1. Splice in a rope. 
2. Timber joint. 3. Junction of 
roads. (Dwight) 

Emparejar (Sp.). To level or square 
up. (Halse) 

Empellar (Mex.). To add silver or 
copper amalgam in the patio process. 

Empirical. Pertaining to or derived 
from experience or experiments, as 
an empirical formula. 

Empleo (Sp.). The quantity of quick- 
silver mixed with the ore on any 
given occasion for effecting the 
amalgamation. (Min. Jour.) 

Emplomada (Sp.). Lead poisoning. 

Empties. Empty mine or railroad cars. 
Empty railroad cars are called 
"flats" in Arkansas. (Steel) 

Empty rope. Any winding or haul- 
ing rope from which the load upon 
it has been removed. (Gresley) 

Empty track. A track for storing 
empty mine cars. (Steel) 

Empty trip. Empty coal cars return- 
ing for another load. (Hargis) 

Empyrical. (Rare) 1. Of or pertain- 
ing to combustion. 2. Having a 
combustible principle, aS coal. 

Ems method. The condensation of 
dust and fumes from calcining fur- 
naces by use of large flues filled